US20030196511A1 - Forged article with prealloyed powder - Google Patents

Forged article with prealloyed powder Download PDF

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Publication number
US20030196511A1
US20030196511A1 US10/417,834 US41783403A US2003196511A1 US 20030196511 A1 US20030196511 A1 US 20030196511A1 US 41783403 A US41783403 A US 41783403A US 2003196511 A1 US2003196511 A1 US 2003196511A1
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United States
Prior art keywords
powder
prealloyed
copper
forged
ferrous
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Abandoned
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US10/417,834
Inventor
Edmond Ilia
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Edmond Ilia
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Publication date
Priority to US09/919,426 priority Critical patent/US20030033904A1/en
Application filed by Edmond Ilia filed Critical Edmond Ilia
Priority to US10/417,834 priority patent/US20030196511A1/en
Publication of US20030196511A1 publication Critical patent/US20030196511A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16CSHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
    • F16C7/00Connecting-rods or like links pivoted at both ends; Construction of connecting-rod heads
    • F16C7/02Constructions of connecting-rods with constant length
    • F16C7/023Constructions of connecting-rods with constant length for piston engines, pumps or the like
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C33/00Making ferrous alloys
    • C22C33/02Making ferrous alloys by powder metallurgy
    • C22C33/0207Using a mixture of prealloyed powders or a master alloy
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER; APPARATUS OR DEVICES SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F2998/00Supplementary information concerning processes or compositions relating to powder metallurgy

Abstract

These connecting rods are made from prealloyed manganese, sulfur, ferrous based powder. The prealloyed powder then is mixed with copper and carbon. The copper content is at higher than normal copper contents. The resulting forged connecting rods had an improvement in tensile strength and an improvement in fatigue strength.

Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • This invention relates to forged articles made from ferrous powder prealloyed with manganese and sulfur. More specifically, the forged articles are forged engine connecting rods. [0001]
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The connecting rod manufacturing process involves pressure molding metal particles in a closed mold under significant pressure to produce a green compact form of the rod. Next, the green compact is heated in a furnace sufficiently to form a sintered preform in which metal particles are bonded. Next, the sintered preform is hot forged to final rod shape which increases the rod's density and strength. [0002]
  • The automobile industry continues to challenge connecting rod manufacturers to increase the fatigue strength of these articles. As a result, higher performance materials are needed for forged connecting rods. The goal Is to engineer a powder metal blend to manufacture connecting rods with the following characteristics: high strength; good machinability; reasonable cost, good weight and dimensional control. Our research included materials considerations; metallurgical and microstructure evaluation; dimensional change measurements; tensile strength; fatigue strength and machinability tests. [0003]
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The forged articles or connecting rods of this invention are made from ferrous based powder prealloyed with manganese and sulfur. The prealloyed powder then is admixed with copper at higher than normal copper contents. Materials considered were as follows. In a first approach, I thought that increasing Cu content from 2% to 3% or even 4% would improve the strength of connecting rods for the following reasons: Cu strengthens the ferrite, Cu hardens the ferrite, and Cu hinders grain growth after forging. In a second approach I thought that using prealloyed MnS base powder, instead of admixed MnS base powder, would improve the strength of connecting rods for the following reasons: smaller inclusion (MnS) size, uniform inclusion (MnS) distribution, and higher Mn content. [0004]
  • As a result, I used a commercially available prealloyed manganese, sulfur, ferrous based powder for producing the forged article. The prealloyed powder then is mixed with copper and carbon to produce a mix comprising by weight percent: [0005]
    Component Weight Percent
    copper (Cu) <2.0 to 5.0
    carbon (C)   0.2 to 1.0
    prealloyed MnS powder balance
  • The resulting forged connecting rods had an improvement in tensile strength and an Improvement in fatigue strength.[0006]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a forged connecting rod.[0007]
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The methods for preparing the prealloyed powder may vary widely. Typically, the powder is prepared by atomization of a molten metal stream of iron, manganese and sulfur. The resulting particles usually have an irregular spherical shape. To facilitate compaction, the atomized particles can be collected after solidification and subjected to annealing at 1700° F. for about 1-½ hours, followed by grinding to break up particle cakes, and then passed through an 80 mesh sieve. [0008]
  • The prealloyed ferrous powder then is mixed with copper and graphite at room temperature. The copper powder generally has a purity of 99%. The copper powder and carbon (graphite flake powder), however, are commercial grade materials. The copper powder is mixed in a range of 2.0 to 5.0% by weight of the mixture. The graphite powder is added to yield a final carbon content in the product ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 weight percent. [0009]
  • FIG. 1 illustrates forged connecting rod [0010] 10. Rod 10 has an elongated configuration extending along longitudinal axis A-A. Rod 10 includes midportion 12; small end portion 14; and large end portion 16. Bore 18 is formed through small end portion 14 adapted to receive a wrist or piston pin (not shown) as Is well known in the engine art. Aperture 20 is formed through large diameter end 16 and is adapted to receive a journal of a crankshaft (not shown) as is well known in the engine art. Large end portion 16 has a side thrust face 22. Rod 10 includes large end portion 16 having a pair of oppositely facing edges or end surfaces 24. In the particular design of the connecting rod shown in FIG. 1, side thrust face 22 is in a raised plane with respect to the remaining side surface 26. Side thrust face 22 also includes a pair of radially outwardly extending portions 28, 30 located to either side of aperture 20. Portions 28, 30 extend radially outward from aperture 20 and terminate at end of edges 24.
  • FIG. 1 also shows a pair of slits or creases [0011] 32, 34 formed in the side thrust face including extensions 28, 30. Each crease 32,34 is arranged to one side of aperture 20 and they are substantially aligned across aperture 20. Creases 32, 34 extend inwardly from surfaces 28, 30 to a considerable depth as Is evident by examination of leftward end 24 and the cylindrical surface which forms the bore 20.
  • The manufacturing processes for making the connecting rod may vary widely. For example, a green compact is made in the form of the rod by molding powder metal particles in a closed mold under great pressure, typically about 80,000 psi. This pressure molding causes the particles to mechanically interlock and form a stable, relatively weak part but strong enough for handling. Next, the green compact is heated in a furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 degrees F. for a period of time sufficient to cause the metal particles to bond. After sintering, the preform has the same configuration as the green compact but is much stronger. [0012]
  • The preform then is hot forged to achieve the shape and increase density and strength as required for a connecting rod. Typically, it is hot forged in a press at a pressure of about 60,000 psi and at a temperature of about 1800 degrees F. [0013]
  • Preferably, the mixture of this invention comprises: [0014]
    Component Weight Percent
    Cu 2.5 to 4.5
    C 0.2 to 0.7
    prealloyed MnS powder balance
  • More preferably, the mixture is: [0015]
    Component Weight Percent
    Cu 3.0 to 4.0
    C 0.4 to 0.7
    prealloved MnS powder balance
  • The mixed powder of this invention may be used to forge articles other than connecting rods. Other automotive uses include piston rings and valve seats for internal combustion engines. Other parts Include clutch races, differential gears and similar parts. [0016]
  • The following Examples further Illustrates the composition of this Invention. [0017]
  • EXAMPLE I
  • (Prior Art) [0018]
  • The following shows average tensile results for standard production powders with varying amounts of copper. Results for a standard manganese sulfur admixture (rather than the prealloyed powder of this invention) also are shown. The average is based on 6 runs. [0019]
    TENSILE RESULTS
    Commercial Grade
    Prealloyed Mn S
    Standard Production Powder Powder
    2% Cu 3% Cu 4% Cu 2% Cu
    (psi) (psi) (psi) (psi)
    Avg. 124,534 144,788 145,046 120,268
    StDev 3,641 2,771 3,805 1,755
  • EXAMPLE II
  • (Prior Art) [0020]
  • The following shows fatigue results for standard production powders with varying amounts of copper. Results for a standard prealloyed manganese sulfur powder also are shown. [0021]
    FATIGUE RESULTS
    Commercial
    Grade
    Preallayed
    Standard production powder Mn S Powder
    2% Cu 3% Cu 4% Cu 2% Cu
    (ksi) (ksi) (ksi) (ksi)
    Endurance Limit @ 50% 45.21 52.63 52.64 50.77
    Scatter 1.07 2.18 2.10 1.88
    Standard deviation (s) 0.28 0.49 0.49 0.43
  • EXAMPLE III
  • Tensile Results for the prealloyed Mn S ferrous powder of this invention with 3% Cu show an improvement of approximately 5% in tensile strength compared to standard production. [0022]
  • EXAMPLE IV
  • Fatigue results for the prealloyed Mn S ferrous based powders of this invention with 3% Cu show an improvement of 19% in fatigue strength compared to standard production. [0023]
  • In addition to these embodiments, persons skilled in the art can see that numerous modifications and changes may be made to the above invention without departing from the Intended spirit and scope thereof. [0024]

Claims (6)

I claim:
1. A powder useful for producing forged articles comprising a mixture of a prealloyed manganese, sulfur, ferrous based powder, copper and carbon wherein the mixture has a copper content higher than 2% by weight.
2. A powder according to claim 1 comprising:
Component Weight Percent copper (Cu) 2.0 to 5.0 carbon (C) 0.2 to 1.0 prealloyed Mn S ferrous based powder balance.
3. A powder according to claim 1 comprising:
Component Weight Percent Cu 2.5 to 4.5 C 0.2 to 0.7 prealloyed Mn S ferrous based powder balance.
4. A powder according to claim 1 comprising:
Component Weight Percent Cu 3.0 to 4.0 C 0.4 to 0.7 Prealloyed Mn S ferrous based powder balance.
5. A forged article produced from the powder mixture of claim 1.
6. A forged connecting rod produced from the powder mixture of claim 1.
US10/417,834 2001-07-31 2003-04-17 Forged article with prealloyed powder Abandoned US20030196511A1 (en)

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US09/919,426 US20030033904A1 (en) 2001-07-31 2001-07-31 Forged article with prealloyed powder
US10/417,834 US20030196511A1 (en) 2001-07-31 2003-04-17 Forged article with prealloyed powder

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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20100278681A1 (en) * 2007-12-27 2010-11-04 Hoganas Ab Low alloyed steel powder
US20100316521A1 (en) * 2007-12-27 2010-12-16 Hoganas Ab (Publ) Low alloyed steel powder
CN105251983A (en) * 2015-10-21 2016-01-20 李学峰 High-compactness high-strength ferrum-based powder metallurgy forging automobile connecting rod and preparation method thereof
CN105251982A (en) * 2015-10-21 2016-01-20 马聪 Anti-corrosion ferrum-based powder metallurgy forging automobile connecting rod and preparation method thereof
CN105251981A (en) * 2015-10-21 2016-01-20 马聪 Anti-corrosion ferrum-based powder metallurgy forging automobile connecting rod and preparation method thereof
CN105251980A (en) * 2015-10-21 2016-01-20 李学峰 High-hardness automotive connection rod forged through ferrum-based powder in metallurgical manner and manufacturing method thereof
CN105328198A (en) * 2015-10-21 2016-02-17 李学峰 High-compactness ferrum-based powder metallurgy forging automobile connecting rod and manufacturing method thereof
CN105328194A (en) * 2015-10-21 2016-02-17 马聪 High-tensile-strength ferrum-based powder metallurgy forging automobile connecting rod and manufacturing method thereof
US9469890B2 (en) 2009-03-20 2016-10-18 Hoganas Ab (Publ) Iron vanadium powder alloy
CN106626501A (en) * 2016-12-23 2017-05-10 重庆龙悦食品有限公司 Dried bean curd extrusion device

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7160351B2 (en) * 2002-10-01 2007-01-09 Pmg Ohio Corp. Powder metal clutch races for one-way clutches and method of manufacture
US20060086204A1 (en) * 2004-10-18 2006-04-27 Edmond Ilia Impact of copper and carbon on mechanical properties of iron-carbon-copper alloys for powder metal forging applications
JP5588879B2 (en) * 2008-01-04 2014-09-10 ジーケーエヌ シンター メタルズ、エル・エル・シー Pre-alloyed copper alloy powder forged connecting rod
KR101388922B1 (en) * 2010-07-28 2014-04-24 자동차부품연구원 Aluminum alloys including Fe-Mn solid solution and method of manufacturing the same
RU2588979C1 (en) * 2015-03-16 2016-07-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Кубанский государственный технологический университет" (ФГБОУ ВПО "КубГТУ") Method of producing high-density powder chromium containing material based on iron

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US4069044A (en) * 1976-08-06 1978-01-17 Stanislaw Mocarski Method of producing a forged article from prealloyed-premixed water atomized ferrous alloy powder
US4452756A (en) * 1982-06-21 1984-06-05 Imperial Clevite Inc. Method for producing a machinable, high strength hot formed powdered ferrous base metal alloy
US5312475A (en) * 1990-10-06 1994-05-17 Brico Engineering Ltd. Sintered material
US5462573A (en) * 1987-10-10 1995-10-31 Brico Engineering Limited Valve seat inserts of sintered ferrous materials
US5613182A (en) * 1996-04-02 1997-03-18 Chrysler Corporation Method of manufacturing a powder metal connecting rod with stress riser crease formed in the side face
US5938814A (en) * 1997-02-25 1999-08-17 Kawasaki Steel Corporation Iron based powder mixture for powder metallurgy
US6076426A (en) * 1996-08-05 2000-06-20 Ascometal Internal combustion engine connecting rod
US6264718B1 (en) * 2000-05-26 2001-07-24 Kobelco Metal Powder Of America, Inc. Powder metallurgy product and method for manufacturing the same
US6296682B1 (en) * 1998-12-25 2001-10-02 Kawasaki Steel Corporation Iron-based powder blend for use in powder metallurgy
US6391083B1 (en) * 2000-11-09 2002-05-21 Kobeico Metal Powder Of America, Inc. Mixture for powder metallurgy product and method for producing the same

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4069044A (en) * 1976-08-06 1978-01-17 Stanislaw Mocarski Method of producing a forged article from prealloyed-premixed water atomized ferrous alloy powder
US4452756A (en) * 1982-06-21 1984-06-05 Imperial Clevite Inc. Method for producing a machinable, high strength hot formed powdered ferrous base metal alloy
US5462573A (en) * 1987-10-10 1995-10-31 Brico Engineering Limited Valve seat inserts of sintered ferrous materials
US5312475A (en) * 1990-10-06 1994-05-17 Brico Engineering Ltd. Sintered material
US5613182A (en) * 1996-04-02 1997-03-18 Chrysler Corporation Method of manufacturing a powder metal connecting rod with stress riser crease formed in the side face
US6076426A (en) * 1996-08-05 2000-06-20 Ascometal Internal combustion engine connecting rod
US5938814A (en) * 1997-02-25 1999-08-17 Kawasaki Steel Corporation Iron based powder mixture for powder metallurgy
US6296682B1 (en) * 1998-12-25 2001-10-02 Kawasaki Steel Corporation Iron-based powder blend for use in powder metallurgy
US6264718B1 (en) * 2000-05-26 2001-07-24 Kobelco Metal Powder Of America, Inc. Powder metallurgy product and method for manufacturing the same
US6391083B1 (en) * 2000-11-09 2002-05-21 Kobeico Metal Powder Of America, Inc. Mixture for powder metallurgy product and method for producing the same

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20100278681A1 (en) * 2007-12-27 2010-11-04 Hoganas Ab Low alloyed steel powder
US20100316521A1 (en) * 2007-12-27 2010-12-16 Hoganas Ab (Publ) Low alloyed steel powder
US8398739B2 (en) 2007-12-27 2013-03-19 Hoganas Ab (Publ) Iron-based steel powder composition, method for producing a sintered component and component
US9469890B2 (en) 2009-03-20 2016-10-18 Hoganas Ab (Publ) Iron vanadium powder alloy
CN105251982A (en) * 2015-10-21 2016-01-20 马聪 Anti-corrosion ferrum-based powder metallurgy forging automobile connecting rod and preparation method thereof
CN105251981A (en) * 2015-10-21 2016-01-20 马聪 Anti-corrosion ferrum-based powder metallurgy forging automobile connecting rod and preparation method thereof
CN105251980A (en) * 2015-10-21 2016-01-20 李学峰 High-hardness automotive connection rod forged through ferrum-based powder in metallurgical manner and manufacturing method thereof
CN105328198A (en) * 2015-10-21 2016-02-17 李学峰 High-compactness ferrum-based powder metallurgy forging automobile connecting rod and manufacturing method thereof
CN105328194A (en) * 2015-10-21 2016-02-17 马聪 High-tensile-strength ferrum-based powder metallurgy forging automobile connecting rod and manufacturing method thereof
CN105251983A (en) * 2015-10-21 2016-01-20 李学峰 High-compactness high-strength ferrum-based powder metallurgy forging automobile connecting rod and preparation method thereof
CN106626501A (en) * 2016-12-23 2017-05-10 重庆龙悦食品有限公司 Dried bean curd extrusion device

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US20030033904A1 (en) 2003-02-20

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