New! View global litigation for patent families

US20030128481A1 - Current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive head - Google Patents

Current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive head Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20030128481A1
US20030128481A1 US10326761 US32676102A US20030128481A1 US 20030128481 A1 US20030128481 A1 US 20030128481A1 US 10326761 US10326761 US 10326761 US 32676102 A US32676102 A US 32676102A US 20030128481 A1 US20030128481 A1 US 20030128481A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
layer
magnetic
mr
structure
layered
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10326761
Inventor
Yoshihiko Seyama
Keiichi Nagasaka
Hirotaka Oshima
Yutaka Shimizu
Atsushi Tanaka
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Fujitsu Ltd
Original Assignee
Fujitsu Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y25/00Nanomagnetism, e.g. magnetoimpedance, anisotropic magnetoresistance, giant magnetoresistance or tunneling magnetoresistance
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y10/00Nanotechnology for information processing, storage or transmission, e.g. quantum computing or single electron logic
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B5/00Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B5/127Structure or manufacture of heads, e.g. inductive
    • G11B5/33Structure or manufacture of flux-sensitive heads, i.e. for reproduction only; Combination of such heads with means for recording or erasing only
    • G11B5/39Structure or manufacture of flux-sensitive heads, i.e. for reproduction only; Combination of such heads with means for recording or erasing only using magneto-resistive devices or effects
    • G11B5/3903Structure or manufacture of flux-sensitive heads, i.e. for reproduction only; Combination of such heads with means for recording or erasing only using magneto-resistive devices or effects using magnetic thin film layers or their effects, the films being part of integrated structures
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B5/00Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B5/127Structure or manufacture of heads, e.g. inductive
    • G11B5/33Structure or manufacture of flux-sensitive heads, i.e. for reproduction only; Combination of such heads with means for recording or erasing only
    • G11B5/39Structure or manufacture of flux-sensitive heads, i.e. for reproduction only; Combination of such heads with means for recording or erasing only using magneto-resistive devices or effects
    • G11B5/3903Structure or manufacture of flux-sensitive heads, i.e. for reproduction only; Combination of such heads with means for recording or erasing only using magneto-resistive devices or effects using magnetic thin film layers or their effects, the films being part of integrated structures
    • G11B5/3906Details related to the use of magnetic thin film layers or to their effects
    • G11B5/3909Arrangements using a magnetic tunnel junction
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F10/00Thin magnetic films, e.g. of one-domain structure
    • H01F10/32Spin-exchange-coupled multilayers, e.g. nanostructured superlattices
    • H01F10/324Exchange coupling of magnetic film pairs via a very thin non-magnetic spacer, e.g. by exchange with conduction electrons of the spacer
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B5/00Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B5/127Structure or manufacture of heads, e.g. inductive
    • G11B5/33Structure or manufacture of flux-sensitive heads, i.e. for reproduction only; Combination of such heads with means for recording or erasing only
    • G11B5/39Structure or manufacture of flux-sensitive heads, i.e. for reproduction only; Combination of such heads with means for recording or erasing only using magneto-resistive devices or effects
    • G11B2005/3996Structure or manufacture of flux-sensitive heads, i.e. for reproduction only; Combination of such heads with means for recording or erasing only using magneto-resistive devices or effects large or giant magnetoresistive effects [GMR], e.g. as generated in spin-valve [SV] devices

Abstract

A current-perpendicular-to-the-plane (CPP) structure magnetoresistive element includes a spin valve film. A boundary is defined between electrically-conductive layers included in a non-magnetic intermediate layer in the spin valve film. A magnetic metallic material and an insulating material exist on the boundary. The insulating material serves to reduce the sectional area of the path for the sensing electric current. The CPP structure magnetoresistive element realizes a larger variation in the electric resistance in response to the rotation of the magnetization in the free magnetic layer. A sensing electric current of a smaller level is still employed to obtain a sufficient variation in the voltage. Accordingly, the CPP structure magnetoresistive element greatly contributes to a further improvement in the recording density and reduction in the electric consumption.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    1. Field of the Invention
  • [0002]
    The present invention relates to a magnetoresistive element utilized to read magnetic information out of a magnetic recording medium drive or device such as a hard disk drive (HDD), for example. In particular, the invention relates to a current-perpendicular-to-the-plane (CPP) structure magnetoresistive element comprising a free magnetic layer, a pinned magnetic layer and an electrically-conductive non-magnetic intermediate layer. A sensing current is designed to comprise a current component perpendicular to the surface of the magnetoresistive film in the CPP structure magnetoresistive element.
  • [0003]
    2. Description of the Prior Art
  • [0004]
    A CPP structure magnetoresistive element comprising a so-called multilayered giant magnetoresistive (GMR) film is well known. The CPP structure magnetoresistive element of this type is allowed to provide a larger variation in the electric resistance as the number of the magnetic layer increases. As conventionally known, a larger variation in the electric resistance leads to an accurate reading of binary magnetic information with a sensing electric current of a smaller current value. In particular, a larger variation in the electric resistance - can be maintained in the CPP structure magnetoresistive element of the type irrespective of a reduced size of the element, or the core width, for example. The CPP structure magnetoresistive element is expected to contribute to an increased recording density.
  • [0005]
    Although the increased number of the magnetic layer leads to reduction in the core width resulting in improvement in the track density, it inevitably hinders improvement in the linear density, namely, reduction in the bit length. Accordingly, the recording density cannot be improved as expected. In addition, it is difficult to appropriately control the magnetic domain of the free ferromagnetic layer as well as to suppress hysteresis.
  • [0006]
    A CPP structure magnetoresistive element comprising a so-called spin valve film is proposed. The spin valve film is in fact widely utilized in a current-in-the-plane (CIP) structure magnetoresistive element allowing a sensing current to flow in parallel with the surface of the magnetoresistive film. Specifically, the spin valve film is mostly prevented from suffering from the control of the magnetic domain in the free ferromagnetic layer as well as the suppression of the hysteresis. However, a dramatic improvement in the variation of the electric resistance cannot be expected in the CPP structure magnetoresistive element comprising the spin valve film.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0007]
    It is accordingly an object of the present invention to provide a CPP structure magnetoresistive element capable of establishing a larger variation in the electric resistance even with a decreased number of layers.
  • [0008]
    According to a first aspect of the present invention, there is provided a current-perpendicular-to-the-plane (CPP) structure magnetoresistive element comprising: a free magnetic layer; a pinned magnetic layer; a non-magnetic intermediate layer interposed between the free and pinned magnetic layers, said non-magnetic intermediate layer including a plurality of electrically-conductive layers; and an insulating material existing on a boundary defined between at least a pair of the electrically-conductive layers.
  • [0009]
    In addition, according to a second aspect of the present invention, there is provided a current-perpendicular-to-the-plane (CPP) structure magnetoresistive element comprising: a free magnetic layer; a pinned magnetic layer; a non-magnetic intermediate layer interposed between the free and pinned magnetic layers; and an insulating material existing on a boundary defined on the non-magnetic intermediate layer.
  • [0010]
    When the CPP structure magnetoresistive element is placed within a magnetic field leaked out of a magnetic recording medium, the magnetization of the free magnetic layer is allowed to rotate in response to the inversion of the magnetic polarity of the magnetic field. The rotation of the magnetization in the free layer induces a larger variation in the electric resistance of the CPP structure magnetoresistive element. The voltage of a sensing electric current penetrating through the free magnetic layer, the non-magnetic intermediate layer and the pinned magnetic layer varies in response to the variation in the electric resistance. The variation in the voltage can be utilized to detect binary magnetic data.
  • [0011]
    In this case, the insulating material is supposed to reduce the sectional area of the path for the sensing electric current. The CPP structure magnetoresistive element realizes a larger variation in the electric resistance in response to the rotation of the magnetization in the free magnetic layer. A sensing electric current of a smaller level is still employed to obtain a sufficient variation in the voltage. Accordingly, the CPP structure magnetoresistive element greatly contributes to a further improvement in the recording density and reduction in the electric consumption.
  • [0012]
    The aforementioned insulating material may be a metal oxide, a metal nitride, or the like. The metal oxide or nitride may include magnetic metal atoms. It has been observed that the insulating material including the magnetic metal atoms remarkably contributes to an increased variation in the resistance. The magnetic metal atoms may include at least one of Fe, Co and Ni. For example, the insulating material may be an oxide or a nitride of CoFe alloy. If CoFe alloy is exposed to oxygen gas, oxygen plasma, oxygen radical, and the like, on an electrically-conductive layer, the oxide of the CoFe alloy can easily be obtained. Likewise, if CoFe alloy is exposed to nitrogen gas on an electrically-conductive layer, the nitride of the CoFe alloy can easily be obtained.
  • [0013]
    The metal oxide or nitride may be mixed with a metallic material on the boundary. The metallic material may comprise a magnetic metallic material, for example. When the oxide or nitride of the CoFe alloy exists on the boundary, the metallic material may be CoFe alloy. The mixture of the insulating material and the metallic material is supposed to greatly contribute to an increased variation in the resistance.
  • [0014]
    Furthermore, according to a third aspect of the present invention, there is provided a current-perpendicular-to-the-plane (CPP) structure magnetoresistive element comprising: a free magnetic layer; a pinned magnetic layer; an electrically-conductive non-magnetic intermediate layer interposed between the free and pinned magnetic layers; and a magnetic metal existing on a boundary defined on the electrically-conductive non-magnetic intermediate layer. The CPP structure magnetoresistive element exhibits superior magnitude and variation in the resistance in the same manner as described above. The MR ration can be improved. Accordingly, a larger variation in the voltage can be taken out of the CPP structure magnetoresistive element.
  • [0015]
    In this case, the magnetic metal may include at least one of Fe, Co and Ni. The magnetic metal may be CoFe alloy, for example. In particular, the magnetic metal exists on the boundary along with any insulating material. The insulating material is expected to reduce the path for a sensing electric current penetrating through the free magnetic layer, the non-magnetic intermediate layer and the pinned magnetic layer.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0016]
    The above and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following description of the preferred embodiment in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
  • [0017]
    [0017]FIG. 1 is a plan view schematically illustrating the interior structure of a hard disk drive (HDD);
  • [0018]
    [0018]FIG. 2 is an enlarged perspective view schematically illustrating the structure of a flying head slider according to a specific example;
  • [0019]
    [0019]FIG. 3 is a front view schematically illustrating a read/write electromagnetic transducer observed at an air bearing surface;
  • [0020]
    [0020]FIG. 4 is an enlarged front view schematically illustrating the structure of a magnetoresistive (MR) layered piece according to a first embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0021]
    [0021]FIG. 5 is an imaginary view schematically illustrating a path of an electric current penetrating through the MR layered piece;
  • [0022]
    [0022]FIG. 6 is an enlarged partial vertical sectional view of a wafer schematically illustrating the MR layered piece formed on the wafer;
  • [0023]
    [0023]FIG. 7 is an enlarged partial vertical sectional view of the wafer schematically illustrating the process of forming domain control stripe layers;
  • [0024]
    [0024]FIG. 8 is an enlarged partial vertical sectional view of the wafer schematically illustrating the process of forming an overlaid insulation layer;
  • [0025]
    [0025]FIG. 9 is an enlarged partial vertical sectional view of the wafer schematically illustrating a photoresist film defining a void corresponding to the contour of a terminal bump of an upper electrode;
  • [0026]
    [0026]FIG. 10 is an enlarged partial vertical sectional view of the wafer schematically illustrating the process of forming a contact hole;
  • [0027]
    [0027]FIG. 11 is an enlarged partial vertical sectional view of the wafer schematically illustrating the process of forming the upper electrode;
  • [0028]
    [0028]FIG. 12 is an enlarged partial vertical sectional view of the wafer schematically illustrating the process of forming a layered material film scraped into the MR layered piece;
  • [0029]
    [0029]FIG. 13 is an enlarged partial vertical sectional view of the wafer schematically illustrating the process of forming the layered material film;
  • [0030]
    Fig. is a graph illustrating the relationship between the thickness of the CoFeB layer exposed to oxygen gas and the magnetoresistive (MR) ratio as well as the variation in the voltage of the applied electric current;
  • [0031]
    [0031]FIG. 15 is a graph illustrating the relationship between the thickness of the CoFeB layer exposed to oxygen gas and the magnetoresistive (MR) ratio as well as the variation in the voltage of the applied electric current;
  • [0032]
    [0032]FIG. 16 is a graph illustrating the relationship between the quantity of the Fe composition within the CoFeB layer exposed to oxygen gas and the MR ratio as well as the variation in the voltage of the applied electric current;
  • [0033]
    [0033]FIG. 17 is a graph illustrating the relationship between the quantity of the Fe composition within the CoFeB layer exposed to oxygen gas and the MR ratio as well as the variation in the voltage of the applied electric current;
  • [0034]
    [0034]FIG. 18 is an enlarged front view schematically illustrating the structure of a MR layered piece according to a second embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0035]
    [0035]FIG. 19 is an enlarged front view schematically illustrating the structure of a MR layered piece according to a third embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0036]
    [0036]FIG. 20 is a graph illustrating the relationship between the thickness of a CoFeB layer exposed to oxygen gas and the magnitude as well as the variation in the electric resistance; and
  • [0037]
    [0037]FIG. 21 is a graph illustrating the relationship between the thickness of the CoFeB layer exposed to oxygen gas and the MR ratio as well as the variation in the voltage of the applied electric current.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
  • [0038]
    [0038]FIG. 1 schematically illustrates the interior structure of a hard disk drive (HDD) 11 as an example of a magnetic recording medium drive or storage device. The HDD 11 includes a box-shaped primary enclosure 12 defining an inner space of a flat parallelepiped, for example. At least one recording medium or magnetic recording disk 13 is accommodated in the inner space within the primary enclosure 12. The magnetic recording disk 13 is mounted on a driving shaft of a spindle motor 14. The spindle motor 14 is allowed to drive the magnetic recording disk 13 for rotation at a higher revolution rate such as 7,200 rpm or 10,000 rpm, for example. A cover, not shown, is coupled to the primary enclosure 12 so as to define the closed inner space between the primary enclosure 12 and itself.
  • [0039]
    A carriage 16 is also accommodated in the inner space of the primary enclosure 12 for swinging movement about a vertical support shaft 15. The carriage 16 includes a rigid swinging arm 17 extending in the horizontal direction from the vertical support shaft 15, and an elastic head suspension 18 fixed to the tip end of the swinging arm 17 so as to extend forward from the swinging arm 17. As conventionally known, a flying head slider 19 is cantilevered at the tip end of the head suspension 18 through a gimbal spring, not shown. The head suspension 18 serves to urge the flying head slider 19 toward the surface of the magnetic recording disk 13. When the magnetic recording disk 13 rotates, the flying head slider 19 is allowed to receive an airflow generated along the rotating magnetic recording disk 13. The airflow serves to generate a lift on the flying head slider 19. The flying head slider 19 is thus allowed to keep flying above the surface of the magnetic recording disk 13 during rotation of the magnetic recording disk 13 at a higher stability established by the balance between the lift and the urging force of the head suspension 18.
  • [0040]
    When the carriage 16 is driven to swing about the support shaft 15 during flight of the flying head slider 19, the flying head slider 19 is allowed to cross the recording tracks defined on the magnetic recording disk 13 in the radial direction of the magnetic recording disk 13. This radial movement serves to position the flying head slider 19 right above a target recording track on the magnetic recording disk 13. In this case, an electromagnetic actuator 21 such as a voice coil motor (VCM) can be employed to realize the swinging movement of the carriage 16, for example. As conventionally known, in the case where two or more magnetic recording disks 13 are incorporated within the inner space of the primary enclosure 12, a pair of the elastic head suspensions 18 are mounted on a single common swinging arm 17 between the adjacent magnetic recording disks 13.
  • [0041]
    [0041]FIG. 2 illustrates a specific example of the flying head slider 19. The flying head slider 19 of this type includes a slider body 22 made of Al2O3—TiC in the form of a flat parallelepiped, and a head protection layer 24 formed to spread over the trailing or outflow end of the slider body 22. The head protection layer 24 may be made of Al2O3. A read/write electromagnetic transducer 23 is embedded in the head protection layer 24. A medium-opposed surface or bottom surface 25 is defined continuously over the slider body 22 and the head protection layer 24 so as to face the surface of the magnetic recording disk 13 at a distance. The bottom surface 25 is designed to receive an airflow 26 generated along the surface of the rotating magnetic recording disk 13.
  • [0042]
    A pair of rails 27 are formed to extend over the bottom surface 25 from the leading or upstream end toward the trailing or downstream end. The individual rail 27 is designed to define an air bearing surface (ABS) 28 at its top surface. In particular, the airflow 26 generates the aforementioned lift at the respective air bearing surfaces 28. The read/write electromagnetic transducer 23 embedded in the head protection layer 24 is exposed at the air bearing surface 28 as described later in detail. In this case, a diamond-like-carbon (DLC) protection layer may be formed over the air bearing surface 28 so as to cover over the exposed end of the read/write electromagnetic transducer 23. The flying head slider 19 may take any shape or form other than the above-described one.
  • [0043]
    [0043]FIG. 3 illustrates an enlarged detailed view of the read/write electromagnetic transducer 23 exposed at the bottom surface 25. The read/write electromagnetic transducer 23 comprises an inductive write element or a thin film magnetic head 31 and a current-perpendicular-to-the-plane (CPP) structure electromagnetic transducer element or CPP structure magnetoresistive (MR) read element 32. The thin film magnetic head 31 is designed to write a magnetic bit data onto the magnetic recording disk 13 by utilizing a magnetic field induced in a conductive swirly coil pattern, not shown, for example. The CPP structure MR read element 32 is designed to detect a magnetic bit data by utilizing variation in the electric resistance in response to the inversion of the magnetic polarity in a magnetic field acting from the magnetic recording disk 13. The thin film magnetic head 31 and the CPP structure MR read element 32 are interposed between an Al2O3 (alumina) layer 33 as an upper half layer or overcoat film and an Al2O3 (alumina) layer 34 as a lower half layer or undercoat film. The overcoat and undercoat films in combination establish the aforementioned head protection layer 24.
  • [0044]
    The thin film magnetic head 31 includes an upper magnetic pole layer 35 exposing the front end at the air bearing surface 28, and a lower magnetic pole layer 36 likewise exposing the front end at the air bearing surface 28. The upper and lower magnetic pole layers 35, 36 may be made of FeN, NiFe, or the like, for example. The combination of the upper and lower magnetic pole layers 35, 36 establishes the magnetic core of the thin film magnetic head 31.
  • [0045]
    A non-magnetic gap layer 37 is interposed between the upper and lower magnetic pole layers 35, 36. The non-magnetic gap layer 37 may be made of Al2O3 (alumina), for example. When a magnetic field is induced at the conductive swirly coil pattern, a magnetic flux is exchanged between the upper and lower magnetic pole layers 35, 36. The non-magnetic gap layer 37 allows the exchanged magnetic flux to leak out of the bottom surface 25. The thus leaked magnetic flux forms a magnetic field for recordation, namely, a write gap magnetic field.
  • [0046]
    The CPP structure MR read element 32 includes a lower electrode 38 spreading over the upper surface of the alumina layer 34 as a basement insulation layer. The lower electrode 38 is designed to comprise an electrically-conductive lead layer 38 a and an electrically-conductive terminal piece 38 b standing on the upper surface of the lead layer 38 a. The lower electrode 38 may have not only a property of electric conductors but also a soft magnetic property. If the lower electrode 38 is made of a soft magnetic electric conductor, such as NiFe, for example, the lower electrode 38 is also allowed to serve as a lower shield layer for the CPP structure MR read element 32.
  • [0047]
    The lower electrode 38 is embedded in an insulation layer 41 spreading over the surface of the alumina layer 34. The insulation layer 41 is designed to extend over the surface of the lead layer 38 a so as to contact the side surface of the terminal piece 38 b. Here, a flat surface 42 can be defined continuously over the top surface of the terminal piece 38 b and the upper surface of the insulation layer 41.
  • [0048]
    An electromagnetic transducer film or magnetoresistive (MR) layered piece 43 is located on the flat surface 42 so as to extend along the air bearing surface 28. The MR layered piece 43 is designed to extend at least across the top surface of the terminal piece 38 b. In this manner, an electric connection can be established between the MR layered piece 43 and the lower electrode 38. The structure of the MR layered piece 43 will be described later in detail.
  • [0049]
    Likewise, a pair of biasing hard magnetic stripe layers, namely, domain control stripe layers 44, are located on the flat surface 42 so as to extend along the air bearing surface 28. The domain control stripe layers 44 are designed to interpose the MR layered piece 43 along the air bearing surface 28 over the flat surface 42. The domain control stripe layers 44 may be made of a metallic material such as CoPt, CoCrPt, or the like. A specific magnetization is established in the domain control stripe layers 44 along a predetermined lateral direction across the MR layered piece 43. The magnetization in the domain control stripe layers 44 in this manner serves to form a biasing magnetic field between the domain control stripe layers 44. The biasing magnetic field is designed to realize the single domain property in a free ferromagnetic layer, for example, in the MR layered piece 43.
  • [0050]
    The flat surface 42 is covered with an overlaid insulation layer 45. The overlaid insulation layer 45 is designed to hold the MR layered piece 43 and the domain control stripe layers 44 against the insulation layer 41. An upper electrode 46 is allowed to spread over the upper surface of the overlaid insulation layer 45. In the same manner as the lower electrode 38, the upper electrode 46 may have not only a property of electric conductors but also a soft magnetic property. If the upper electrode 46 is made of a soft magnetic electric conductor, such as NiFe, for example, the upper electrode 46 is also allowed to serve as an upper shield layer for the CPP structure MR read element 32. The space defined between the aforementioned lower shield layer or the lower electrode 38 and the upper electrode 46 determines the linear resolution of the magnetic recordation or data along the recording tracks on the magnetic recording disk 13. The upper electrode 46 comprises a terminal bump 47 penetrating through the overlaid insulation layer 45 so as to contact the upper surface of the MR layered piece 43. In this manner, an electric connection can be established between the MR layered piece 43 and the upper electrode 46.
  • [0051]
    A sensing electric current can be supplied to the MR layered piece 43 through the upper and lower electrodes 46, 38 in the CPP structure MR read element 32. As is apparent from FIG. 3, the terminal piece 38 b as well as the terminal bump 47 serves to reduce the path for the supplied sensing electric current in the MR layered piece 43. Moreover, the CPP structure MR read element 32 of this type is allowed to establish the path of the sensing electric current at the central area of the MR layered piece 43 remote from the contact to the domain control stripe layers 44.
  • [0052]
    [0052]FIG. 4 illustrates the MR layered piece 43 according to a first embodiment of the present invention. The MR layered piece 43 is a so-called single spin valve film of the type including a free ferromagnetic layer located above a pinned ferromagnetic layer. Specifically, the MR layered piece 43 includes abasement layer 51 spreading over the flat surface 42. The basement layer 51 comprises a Ta layer 51 a extending over the flat surface 42, for example, and a NiFe layer 51 b extending over the upper surface of the Ta layer 51 a. A pinning layer 52 is superposed over the upper surface of the basement layer 51. The pinning layer 52 may be formed of an antiferromagnetic material such as PdPtMn.
  • [0053]
    A pinned ferromagnetic layer 53 is superposed over the upper surface of the pinning layer 52. A multilayered ferrimagnetic structure film may be employed as the pinned ferromagnetic layer 53. The pinned ferromagnetic layer 53 of the multilayered ferromagnetic structure film may include upper and lower ferromagnetic layers 53 a, 53 b and a Ru coupling layer 54 interposed between the upper and lower ferromagnetic layers 53 a, 53 b. The upper and lower ferromagnetic layers 53 a, 53 b may be formed of a soft magnetic alloy layer such as a CoFe layer, a CoFeB layer, or the like. The pinned ferromagnetic layer 53 may take any other structure.
  • [0054]
    A non-magnetic intermediate layer 55 is superposed over the upper surface of the pinned ferromagnetic layer 53. The non-magnetic intermediate layer 55 may be formed of upper and lower electrically-conductive layers 55 a, 55 b, for example. A boundary BR is defined between the electrically-conductive layers 55 a, 55 b. A magnetic metallic material 56 and an insulating material 57 are allowed to exist along the boundary BR. The magnetic metallic material 56 and the insulating material 57 may be mixed with each other over the boundary BR. The individual electrically-conductive layer 55 a, 55 b may be formed of a Cu layer, for example. The magnetic metallic material 56 may be formed of a soft magnetic alloy such as CoFe, CoFeB, or the like. The insulating material 57 may be formed of a metal oxide or a metal nitride generated based on the magnetic metallic material 56, for example. Otherwise, the non-magnetic intermediate layer 55 may include three or more electrically-conductive layers. In this case, the magnetic metallic material 56 and the insulating material 57 may exist over any boundaries BR defined between the adjacent electrically-conductive layers.
  • [0055]
    A free ferromagnetic layer 58 is superposed over the upper surface of the non-magnetic intermediate layer 55. The non-magnetic intermediate layer 55 is thus interposed between the free ferromagnetic layer 58 and the pinned ferromagnetic layer 53. The free ferromagnetic layer 58 may be formed of a soft magnetic alloy layer such as a CoFe layer, a CoFeB layer, or the like. A cap layer 59 is superposed over the upper surface of the free ferromagnetic layer 58. The cap layer 59 may comprise a Cu layer 59 a extending over the surface of the free ferromagnetic layer 58, and a Ru layer 59 b extending over the upper surface of the Cu layer 59 a, for example.
  • [0056]
    When the CPP structure MR read element 32 is opposed to the surface of the magnetic recording disk 13 for reading a magnetic information data, the magnetization of the free ferromagnetic layer 58 is allowed to rotate in the MR layered piece 43 or spin valve film in response to the inversion of the magnetic polarity applied from the magnetic recording disk 13. The rotation of the magnetization in the free ferromagnetic layer 58 induces variation in the electric resistance of the MR layered piece 43, namely, the spin valve film. When a sensing electric current is supplied to the MR layered piece 43 through the upper and lower electrodes 46, 38, a variation in the level of any parameter such as voltage appears, in response to the variation in the magnetoresistance, in the sensing electric current output from the upper and lower electrodes 46, 38. The variation in the level can be utilized to detect a magnetic bit data recorded on the magnetic recording disk 13.
  • [0057]
    The MR layered piece 43 allows a sensing electric current to flow in the direction normal to the boundary BR. As shown in FIG. 5, the sensing electric current is supposed to penetrate through the magnetic metallic material 56 at the gap of the insulating material 57. The MR layered piece 43 realizes a larger variation in the electric resistance in response to the rotation of the magnetization in the free ferromagnetic layer 58. A sensing electric current of a smaller value is still employed to obtain a sufficient variation in an electric parameter such as voltage. The CPP structure MR read element 32 of the above-described type greatly contributes to a further improvement in the recording density and reduction in the electric consumption. In addition, the electric resistance of the CPP structure MR read element 32 can be reduced to approximately one tenth of the electric resistance of the tunnel junction magnetoresistive (TMR) element. Generation of a so-called thermal noise can thus be prevented in the CPP structure MR read element 32. Furthermore, the CPP structure MR read element 32 allows the domain control stripe layers 44 to easily establish the single domain property in the free ferromagnetic layer 58 within the MR layered piece 43.
  • [0058]
    Next, description will be made on a method of making the CPP structure MR read element 32. A wafer 61 of Al2O3—TiC is first prepared. The overall surface of the wafer 61 is covered with the alumina layer 34. As is apparent from FIG. 6, the lower electrode 38 is formed over the surface of the alumina layer 34. The lower electrode 38 is then embedded within the insulation layer 41 spreading over the surface of the alumina layer 34. When the insulation layer 41 is subjected to a flattening polishing treatment, for example, the terminal piece 38 b of the lower electrode 38 is allowed to get exposed at the flat surface 42. In this manner, a substructure layer is formed to expose at least partly the lower electrode 38.
  • [0059]
    The MR layered piece 43 is thereafter formed on the upper surface of the substructure layer or flat surface 42. A layered material film is first formed all over the flat surface 42. The layered material film includes the layers identical to those of the MR layered piece 43. A method of forming the layered material film will be described later in detail. The MR layered piece 43 is scraped out of the layered material film. A photolithography technique may be employed to form the MR layered piece 43. The MR layered piece 43 can be formed to stand on the upper surface of the basement layer or the flat surface 42 in this manner.
  • [0060]
    Subsequently, the domain control stripe layers 44 are formed on the flat surface 42, as shown in FIG. 7. A sputtering process may be employed to form the domain control strip layers 44, for example. A photoresist film, not shown, is first formed over the flat surface 42 in the sputtering process. The photoresist film serves to define a space or void, corresponding to the shape of the domain control stripe layers 44, adjacent the MR layered piece 43. The domain control stripe layers 44 are formed within the void. The domain control stripe layers 44 are required to interpose at least the free ferromagnetic layer 58 of the MR layered piece 43. The upper surfaces of the domain control stripe layers 44 preferably stay below the cap layer 59.
  • [0061]
    As shown in FIG. 8, the overlaid insulation layer 45 is thereafter formed all over the flat surface 42. The MR layered piece 43 and the domain control stripe layers 44 are covered with the overlaid insulation layer 45. A sputtering process may be employed to form the overlaid insulation layer 45. A target of an insulation material such as SiO2, Al2O3, or the like, may be employed in the sputtering process. Thereafter, a photoresist film 62 is formed over the overlaid insulation layer 45, as shown in FIG. 9. A void 63 corresponding to the contour of the terminal bump 47 is defined in the photoresist film 62.
  • [0062]
    The overlaid insulation layer 45, covered with the photoresist film 62, is then subjected to a reactive ion etching (RIE) process. An etching gas of SF6 may be employed in the RIE process. As shown in FIG. 10, the etching gas serves to remove the overlaid insulation layer 45 within the void 63. In this manner, a so-called contact hole 64 is formed in the overlaid insulation layer 45. After the contact hole 64 has been formed, the photoresist film 62 may be removed.
  • [0063]
    As shown in FIG. 11, the upper electrode 46 is then formed to extend over the overlaid insulation layer 45. The upper electrode 46 is allowed to enter the contact hole 64. In this manner, the upper electrode 46 contacts the upper surface of the MR layered piece 43, namely, the cap layer 59. The CPP structure MR read element 32 has been established. As conventionally known, the thin film magnetic head 31 is formed over the established CPP structure MR read element 32.
  • [0064]
    As shown in FIG. 12, the flat surface 42 is designed to receive a Ta layer 65 and a NiFe layer 66 corresponding to the basement layer 51, a PdPtMn layer 67 corresponding to the pinning layer 52, a CoFeB layer 68 as well as a Ru layer 69 and a CoFeB layer 71 corresponding to the pinned ferromagnetic layer 53, and a Cu layer 72 corresponding to the lower electrically-conductive layer 55 b, in this sequence, for example, in forming the aforementioned layered material film. Sputtering may be effected within a vacuum chamber so as to form the layered material film.
  • [0065]
    After the Cu layer 72 has been formed, formation of the magnetic metallic material is conducted over the surface of the Cu layer 72 within the vacuum chamber. Sputtering may be employed, for example. A powder compact of a soft magnetic alloy, such as CoFe, CoFeB, or the like, is utilized as a target of the sputtering. The deposition or sputtering speed of the material is set at approximately 1.0 nm. A continuous “complete” film is not expected over the surface of the Cu layer 72. The magnetic metal atoms are supposed to exist in a dispersed manner at a predetermined density. The magnetic metal material 56 is thus formed to disperse over the surface of the Cu layer 72.
  • [0066]
    As is apparent from FIG. 12, oxygen gas is then introduced into the chamber, for example. Oxidation reaction of the magnetic metallic material 56 is induced on the surface of the Cu layer 72. The oxidation reaction allows generation of the metal oxide, namely, the insulating material 57 out of the magnetic metallic material 56. In this manner, the insulating material 57 is formed to disperse on the surface of the Cu layer 72. Unless the magnetic metallic material 56 completely gets oxidized, the mixture of the magnetic metallic material 56 and the insulating material 57 keeps existing on the surface of the Cu layer 72. A plasma oxidation or radical oxidation may be employed in place of the aforementioned natural oxidation. Alternatively, the oxidation may be replaced with nitriding. Nitriding can be effected by introducing nitrogen gas into the chamber, for example. Nitriding allows generation of a metal nitride, namely, the insulating material 57 out of the magnetic metallic material 56.
  • [0067]
    As shown in FIG. 13, another Cu layer 73 is formed to extend on the surface of the Cu layer 72. This Cu layer 73 is designed to correspond to the upper electrically-conductive layer 55 a. Sputtering may be effected within the vacuum chamber. The magnetic metallic material 56 and the insulating material 57 are interposed between the Cu layers 72, 73. The boundary BR can be defined between the Cu layers 72, 73. A CoFeB layer 74 corresponding to the free ferromagnetic layer 58 as well as a Cu layer 75 and a Ru layer 76 both corresponding to the cap layer 59 are then formed to extend over the Cu layer 73.
  • [0068]
    The present inventors have observed the magnetoresistive characteristics of the MR layered piece 43. The present inventors have prepared specific examples of the aforementioned MR layered piece 43 on wafers made of Al2O3—TiC for the observation. The wafers were designed to receive a Ta layer of 5.0 nm thickness, a NiFe layer of 2.0 nm thickness, a PdPtMn layer of 13.0 nm thickness, a CoFeB layer of 3.0 nm thickness, a Ru layer of 0.75 nm thickness, a CoFeB layer of 4.0 nm thickness, a first Cu layer of 2.0 nm thickness, a CoFeB layer, a second Cu layer of 2.0 nm thickness, a CoFeB layer of 3.0 nm thickness, a Cu layer of 4.0 nm thickness and a Ru layer of 5.0 nm thickness, in this sequence. The CoFeB layer on the first Cu layer was exposed to oxygen gas within the chamber before deposition of the second Cu layer. The oxygen gas was introduced into the chamber under the pressure of 3.5[Pa]. The duration of the introduction was set at 300[sec]. Oxidation of the CoFeB layer provided the aforementioned insulating material 57 between the first and second Cu layers.
  • [0069]
    The MR layered piece 43 was thereafter subjected to a heat treatment. The MR layered piece 43 was placed within a magnetic field of 2[T] for three (3) hours at the temperature of 280 degrees Celsius. The lattice structure of the PdPtMn layer has been regulated in this manner. The present inventors have prepared six types of the MR layered piece 43. The thickness of the CoFeB layer to be exposed to oxygen gas was set at different values in the individual MR layered pieces 43.
  • [0070]
    Likewise, the present inventors have prepared a comparative example of an MR layered piece. The comparative example was designed to include no CoFeB layer between the first and second Cu layers. Specifically, no metal oxide existed within the non-magnetic intermediate layer.
  • [0071]
    The magnitude RA and the variation ΔRA in the electric resistance were measured for the individual MR layered pieces 43. The ratio of the magnetoresistance (MR ratio) was calculated based on the measured magnitude RA and variation ΔRA. The current value Is was calculated based on the measured magnitude RA. The MR layered pieces 43 were shaped into the 0.1 [μm]×0.1 [μm] square. The electric power consumption was set at a constant value (=550 μW). The variation ΔV of the voltage was calculated based on the calculated current value Is and the variation ΔRA of the resistance. As shown in FIGS. 14 and 15, the magnitude RA of 0.085 Ωμm2 and the variation ΔRA of 0.85 mΩμm2 were obtained in the MR layered piece of the comparative example. The MR ratio was 1.0%. The examples of the MR layered piece 43 exhibited superior magnitude RA and variation ΔRA, as compared with the comparative example, over the thickness of the CoFeB layer, subjected to exposure to the oxygen gas, ranging between 0.69 nm and 1.04 nm. At the same time, the examples of the MR layered piece 43 exhibited superior MR ratio and variation ΔV of the voltage as compared with the comparative example. In this manner, the utility of the magnetic metallic material 56 and the insulating material 57 has been verified.
  • [0072]
    The present inventors have gotten along with the observation of the magnetoresistive characteristics of the MR layered piece 43. The present inventors have prepared another specific examples of the aforementioned MR layered piece 43 on wafers in the same manner as described above. Here, the present inventors have used a CoFe alloy as the magnetic metallic material 56, subjected to exposure to oxygen gas, in place of the aforementioned CoFeB layer. The thickness of the CoFe alloy was set at 1.0 nm. The CoFe alloy layer was subjected to oxygen gas within the chamber for sputtering process prior to deposition of the second Cu layer in the same manner as described above. The oxygen gas was introduced into the chamber under the pressure of 3.5[Pa]. The duration of the introduction was set at 300[sec]. Oxidation of the CoFe alloy layer provided the aforementioned insulating material 57 between the first and second Cu layers. The present inventors have prepared three types of the MR layered piece 43. The quantity of the Fe composition included in the CoFe alloy was set at different values in the individual MR layered pieces 43.
  • [0073]
    The magnitude RA and the variation ΔRA in the electric resistance were measured for the individual MR layered pieces 43. The MR ratio was calculated based on the measured magnitude RA and variation ΔRA. The variation ΔV of the voltage was calculated based on the calculated current value Is and the variation ΔRA of the resistance in the same manner as described above. As shown in FIGS. 16 and 17, remarkably superior magnitude RA and variation ΔRA were obtained as compared with the comparative example when the quantity of the Fe composition reached 50% within the CoFe alloy layer subjected to exposure to oxygen gas. And also, superior MR ratio and variation ΔV of the voltage could be obtained in the specific examples of the MR layered piece 43 as compared with the comparative example.
  • [0074]
    [0074]FIG. 18 illustrates a second embodiment of the MR layered piece 43 a. The MR layered piece 43 a is a so-called single spin valve film of the type including a free ferromagnetic layer located below a pinned ferromagnetic layer. Specifically, the MR layered piece 43 a includes a basement layer 101 spreading over the flat surface 42. The basement layer 101 may comprise a Ta layer, for example. A free ferromagnetic layer 102 is superposed over the upper surface of the basement layer 101. The free ferromagnetic layer 102 may be made of a soft magnetic alloy layer such as a CoFe layer, a CoFeB layer, or the like. The aforementioned non-magnetic intermediate layer 55 is superposed over the upper surface of the free ferromagnetic layer 102.
  • [0075]
    A pinned ferromagnetic layer 103 is superposed over the upper surface of the non-magnetic intermediate layer 55. A multilayered ferrimagnetic structure film may be employed as the pinned ferromagnetic layer 103 in the same manner as described above. The non-magnetic intermediate layer 55 is thus interposed between the pinned ferromagnetic layer 103 and the free ferromagnetic layer 102. A pinning layer 104 as well as a cap layer 105 are sequentially superposed over the upper surface of the pinned layer 103. The pinning layer 104 may be made of an antiferromagnetic material such as PdPtMn. The cap layer 105 may be formed of a Cu layer, a Ru layer, or the like.
  • [0076]
    [0076]FIG. 19 illustrates a third embodiment of the MR layered piece 43 b. The MR layered piece 43 b is a so-called dual spin valve film. Specifically, the MR layered piece 43 a includes the basement layer 51, the pinning layer 52, the pinned ferromagnetic layer 53, the non-magnetic intermediate layer 55 and the free ferromagnetic layer 58, superposed over the flat surface 42 in this sequence, in the same manner as described above. The non-magnetic intermediate layer 55 is again superposed over the upper surface of the free ferromagnetic layer 58.
  • [0077]
    A pinned ferromagnetic layer 111 is superposed over the upper surface of the non-magnetic intermediate layer 55. A multilayered ferrimagnetic structure film may be employed as the pinned ferromagnetic layer 111, for example. Specifically, the pinned ferromagnetic layer 111 may include upper and lower ferromagnetic layers 111 a, 111 b and a Ru coupling layer 112 interposed between the upper and lower ferromagnetic layers 111 a, 111 b. The upper and lower ferromagnetic layers 111 a, 111 b may be formed of a soft magnetic alloy layer such as a CoFe layer, a CoFeB layer, or the like. The pinned ferromagnetic layer 53 may take any other structure. The non-magnetic intermediate layer 55 is thus interposed between the pinned ferromagnetic layer 111 and the free ferromagnetic layer 58.
  • [0078]
    A pinning layer 113 as well as a cap layer 114 are sequentially superposed over the upper surface of the pinned layer 111. The pinning layer 113 may be made of an antiferromagnetic material such as PdPtMn. The cap layer 114 may comprise a Cu layer 114 a and a Ru layer 114 b, for example.
  • [0079]
    The present inventors have observed the magnetoresistive characteristics of the MR layered piece 43 b. The present inventors have prepared specific examples of the aforementioned MR layered piece 43 b on wafers made of Al2O3—TiC for the observation. The wafers were designed to receive a Ta layer of 5.0 nm thickness, a NiFe layer of 2.0 nm thickness, a PdPtMn layer of 13.0 nm thickness, a CoFeB layer of 3.0 nm thickness, a Ru layer of 0.75 nm thickness, a CoFeB layer of 4.0 nm thickness, a first Cu layer of 2.0 nm thickness, a CoFeB layer, a second Cu layer of 2.0 nm thickness, a CoFeB layer of 3.0 nm thickness, a third Cu layer of 2.0 nm thickness, a CoFeB layer, a fourth Cu layer of 2.0 nm thickness, a CoFeB layer of 4.0 nm thickness, a Ru layer of 0.75 nm thickness, a CoFeB layer of 5.0 nm thickness, a PdPtMn layer of 13.0 nm thickness, a Cu layer of 4.0 nm thickness and a Ru layer of 5.0 nm thickness, in this sequence. The CoFeB layers on the first and third Cu layers were exposed to oxygen gas within the chamber before deposition of the second and fourth Cu layers. The oxygen gas was introduced into the chamber under the pressure of 3.5[Pa]. The duration of the introduction was set at 100[sec] and 300[sec], respectively. Oxidation of the CoFeB layer provided the aforementioned insulating material 57 between the first and second Cu layers as well as the third and fourth Cu layers. The PdPtMn layer was thereafter regulated in the same manner as described above. The present inventors have prepared lots of specific examples of the MR layered piece 43 b. The thickness of the CoFeB layer to be exposed to oxygen gas was set at different values in the individual MR layered pieces 43 b.
  • [0080]
    Likewise, the present inventors have prepared a comparative example of an MR layered piece. The comparative example was designed to include no CoFeB layers between the first and second Cu layers as well as the third and fourth Cu layers. No metal oxide existed within the non-magnetic intermediate layer.
  • [0081]
    The magnitude RA and the variation ΔRA in the electric resistance were measured for the individual MR layered pieces 43 b. The MR ratio was calculated based on the measured magnitude RA and variation ΔRA. The variation ΔV of the voltage was calculated based on the calculated current value Is and the variation ΔRA of the resistance in the same manner as described above. As shown in FIGS. 20 and 21, the magnitude RA of 0.12 Ωμm2 and the variation ΔRA of 1.76 mΩμm2were obtained in the MR layered piece of the comparative example. The MR ratio was 1.4%. The examples of the MR layered piece 43 b exhibited superior magnitude RA and variation ΔRA, as compared with the comparative example, over the thickness of the CoFeB layers, subjected to exposure to the oxygen gas, ranging between 0.75 nm and 1.15 nm. At the same time, the examples of the MR layered piece 43 b exhibited superior MR ratio and variation ΔV of the voltage as compared with the comparative example. In this manner, the utility of the magnetic metallic material 56 and the insulating material 57 has been verified.
  • [0082]
    It should be noted that the aforementioned non-magnetic intermediate layer 55 of the MR layered piece 43, 43 a, 43 b may contact the pinned ferromagnetic layer 53, 103, 111 as well as the free ferromagnetic layer 58, 102 at the boundary BR. In other words, the aforementioned magnetic metallic material 56 and the insulating layer 57 may be interposed between the pinned ferromagnetic layer 53, 103, 111 and the non-magnetic intermediate layer 55 as well as between the free ferromagnetic layer 58, 102 and the non-magnetic intermediate layer 55.

Claims (28)

    What is claimed is:
  1. 1. A current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element comprising:
    a free magnetic layer;
    a pinned magnetic layer;
    a non-magnetic intermediate layer interposed between the free and pinned magnetic layers, said non-magnetic intermediate layer including a plurality of electrically-conductive layers; and
    an insulating material existing on a boundary defined between at least a pair of the electrically-conductive layers.
  2. 2. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 1, wherein said insulating material is a metal oxide.
  3. 3. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 2, wherein a metallic material exists on the boundary along with the metal oxide.
  4. 4. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 2, wherein said metal oxide includes magnetic metal atoms.
  5. 5. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 4, wherein a magnetic metallic material exists on the boundary along with the metal oxide.
  6. 6. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 4, wherein said magnetic metal atoms are any of Fe, Co and Ni.
  7. 7. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 6, wherein said metal oxide is an oxide of CoFe alloy.
  8. 8. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 7, wherein CoFe alloy exists on the boundary along with the oxide.
  9. 9. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 1, wherein said insulating material is a metal nitride.
  10. 10. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 9, wherein said metal nitride includes magnetic metal atoms.
  11. 11. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 10, wherein said magnetic metal atoms are any of Fe, Co and Ni.
  12. 12. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 11, wherein said metal nitride is a nitride of CoFe alloy.
  13. 13. A current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element comprising:
    a free magnetic layer;
    a pinned magnetic layer;
    a non-magnetic intermediate layer interposed between the free and pinned magnetic layers; and
    an insulating material existing on a boundary defined on the non-magnetic intermediate layer.
  14. 14. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 13, wherein said insulating material is a metal oxide.
  15. 15. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 14, wherein a metallic material exists on the boundary along with the metal oxide.
  16. 16. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 14, wherein said metal oxide includes magnetic metal atoms.
  17. 17. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 16, wherein a magnetic metallic material exists on the boundary along with the metal oxide.
  18. 18. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 16, wherein said magnetic metal atoms are any of Fe, Co and Ni.
  19. 19. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 18, wherein said metal oxide is an oxide of CoFe alloy.
  20. 20. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 19, wherein CoFe alloy exists on the boundary along with the oxide.
  21. 21. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 13, wherein said insulating material is a metal nitride.
  22. 22. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 21, wherein said metal nitride includes magnetic metal atoms.
  23. 23. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 22, wherein said magnetic metal atoms are any of Fe, Co and Ni.
  24. 24. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 23, wherein said metal nitride is a nitride of CoFe alloy.
  25. 25. A current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element comprising:
    a free magnetic layer;
    a pinned magnetic layer;
    an electrically-conductive non-magnetic intermediate layer interposed between the free and pinned magnetic layers; and
    a magnetic metal existing on a boundary defined on the electrically-conductive non-magnetic intermediate layer.
  26. 26. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 25, wherein an insulating material exists on the boundary along with the magnetic metal.
  27. 27. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 26, wherein said magnetic metal includes any of Fe, Co and Ni.
  28. 28. The current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive element according to claim 27, wherein said magnetic metal is CoFe alloy.
US10326761 2002-01-10 2002-12-19 Current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive head Abandoned US20030128481A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2002003460A JP4184668B2 (en) 2002-01-10 2002-01-10 Cpp structure magnetoresistive element
JP2002-003460 2002-01-10

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20030128481A1 true true US20030128481A1 (en) 2003-07-10

Family

ID=19190884

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10326761 Abandoned US20030128481A1 (en) 2002-01-10 2002-12-19 Current-perpendicular-to-the-plane structure magnetoresistive head

Country Status (6)

Country Link
US (1) US20030128481A1 (en)
EP (1) EP1328027B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4184668B2 (en)
KR (1) KR100821598B1 (en)
CN (1) CN1208757C (en)
DE (2) DE60312748D1 (en)

Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20030214761A1 (en) * 2002-05-16 2003-11-20 Freitag James Mac Protective cap in lead overlay magnetic sensors
US20050011308A1 (en) * 2003-04-30 2005-01-20 Hitachi Metals, Ltd. Fe-Co-B alloy target and its production method, and soft magnetic film produced by using such target, and magnetic recording medium and TMR device
US20050180057A1 (en) * 2004-02-12 2005-08-18 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands, B.V Capping layers with high compressive stress for spin valve sensors
US20060098353A1 (en) * 2004-11-09 2006-05-11 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetoresistive element, magnetoresistive head, magnetic recording apparatus, and magnetic memory
US20070091511A1 (en) * 2005-10-20 2007-04-26 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. CPP-GMR magnetic head having GMR-screen layer
US20070202249A1 (en) * 2006-02-09 2007-08-30 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Method for manufacturing magnetoresistance effect element
US20070223150A1 (en) * 2006-03-27 2007-09-27 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetoresistive effect element, magnetic head, and magnetic disk apparatus
US20080074803A1 (en) * 2006-09-11 2008-03-27 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. Magnetic head of magnetoresistance effect type with high resistance to external stress
US20080080098A1 (en) * 2006-09-28 2008-04-03 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magneto-resistance effect element, magnetic head, magnetic recording/reproducing device and magnetic memory
US20080112091A1 (en) * 2006-11-14 2008-05-15 Tdk Corporation Current-confined-path type magnetoresistive element and method of manufacturing same
US20080144231A1 (en) * 2006-12-15 2008-06-19 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B. V. Magnetoresistive head, magnetic storage apparatus and method of manufacturing a magnetic head
US7497007B2 (en) 2005-07-14 2009-03-03 Headway Technologies, Inc. Process of manufacturing a TMR device
US20100226048A1 (en) * 2005-09-29 2010-09-09 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magneto-resistance effect element, magneto-resistance effect head, magnetic storage and magnetic memory
US8031443B2 (en) 2007-03-27 2011-10-04 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magneto-resistance effect element, magnetic head, magnetic recording/reproducing device and method for manufacturing a magneto-resistance effect element
US20110242705A1 (en) * 2010-03-31 2011-10-06 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetic head, magnetic head assembly, and magnetic recording/reproducing apparatus
US8048492B2 (en) 2005-12-21 2011-11-01 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetoresistive effect element and manufacturing method thereof
US8111489B2 (en) 2006-07-07 2012-02-07 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magneto-resistance effect element
US8228643B2 (en) 2008-09-26 2012-07-24 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Method for manufacturing a magneto-resistance effect element and magnetic recording and reproducing apparatus
US8274766B2 (en) 2006-04-28 2012-09-25 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetic recording element including a thin film layer with changeable magnetization direction
US8274765B2 (en) 2008-09-29 2012-09-25 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Method of manufacturing magnetoresistive element, magnetoresistive element, magnetic head assembly and magnetic recording apparatus
US8315020B2 (en) 2008-09-26 2012-11-20 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Method for manufacturing a magneto-resistance effect element and magnetic recording and reproducing apparatus
US8351164B2 (en) 2006-09-28 2013-01-08 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetoresistive element having free and/or pinned layer magnetic compound expressed by M1M2O

Families Citing this family (35)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP3749873B2 (en) 2002-03-28 2006-03-01 株式会社東芝 The magnetoresistive element, a magnetic head and a magnetic reproducing apparatus
JP2004207366A (en) * 2002-12-24 2004-07-22 Fujitsu Ltd Cpp magnetoresistive element, method of manufacturing the same, and magnetic storage device provided therewith
US7428127B2 (en) * 2002-12-24 2008-09-23 Fujitsu Limited CPP magnetoresistive effect element and magnetic storage device having a CPP magnetoresistive effect element
JP2004289100A (en) * 2003-01-31 2004-10-14 Japan Science & Technology Agency Cpp type giant magnetoresistive element, and magnetic component and magnetic device using it
JP2005109263A (en) * 2003-09-30 2005-04-21 Toshiba Corp Magnetic element and magnetic memory
JP4776164B2 (en) 2003-12-25 2011-09-21 株式会社東芝 The magnetoresistive element, magnetic head, magnetic reproducing apparatus and a magnetic memory
JP4822680B2 (en) 2004-08-10 2011-11-24 株式会社東芝 Method for manufacturing a magneto-resistance effect element
JP2007329157A (en) 2006-06-06 2007-12-20 Tdk Corp Magnetroresistance effect element and manufacturing method thereof, thin-film magnetic head, substrate, wafer, head gimbal assembly, and hard disk device
JP4550778B2 (en) 2006-07-07 2010-09-22 株式会社東芝 Method for manufacturing a magneto-resistance effect element
JP4490950B2 (en) 2006-07-07 2010-06-30 株式会社東芝 The method of manufacturing the magnetoresistive element, and the magnetoresistive element
US20080016653A1 (en) 2006-07-19 2008-01-24 Amelia Baradzi Ergonomic handle for push tools
US7672085B2 (en) 2007-01-24 2010-03-02 Tdk Corporation CPP type magneto-resistive effect device having a semiconductor oxide spacer layer and magnetic disk system
JP2008311373A (en) 2007-06-13 2008-12-25 Toshiba Corp Magnetic multilayered film conducting element
US8274764B2 (en) 2009-03-10 2012-09-25 Tdk Corporation Magneto-resistive effect element provided with GaN spacer layer
US8427925B2 (en) 2010-02-23 2013-04-23 Seagate Technology Llc HAMR NFT materials with improved thermal stability
JP5135419B2 (en) 2010-12-03 2013-02-06 株式会社東芝 Spin torque oscillator, a method of manufacturing a magnetic recording head, a magnetic head assembly, a magnetic recording device
WO2013116595A1 (en) 2012-02-03 2013-08-08 Seagate Technology Llc Methods of forming layers
US9224416B2 (en) 2012-04-24 2015-12-29 Seagate Technology Llc Near field transducers including nitride materials
US9251837B2 (en) 2012-04-25 2016-02-02 Seagate Technology Llc HAMR NFT materials with improved thermal stability
KR101771185B1 (en) * 2012-10-18 2017-08-24 시게이트 테크놀로지 엘엘씨 Articles including intermediate layer and methods of forming
US8830800B1 (en) 2013-06-21 2014-09-09 Seagate Technology Llc Magnetic devices including film structures
US9280989B2 (en) 2013-06-21 2016-03-08 Seagate Technology Llc Magnetic devices including near field transducer
US9502070B2 (en) 2013-06-24 2016-11-22 Seagate Technology Llc Materials for near field transducers, near field tranducers containing same, and methods of forming
US9245573B2 (en) 2013-06-24 2016-01-26 Seagate Technology Llc Methods of forming materials for at least a portion of a NFT and NFTs formed using the same
KR101672245B1 (en) 2013-06-24 2016-11-03 시게이트 테크놀로지 엘엘씨 Devices including at least one intermixing layer
US9058824B2 (en) 2013-06-24 2015-06-16 Seagate Technology Llc Devices including a gas barrier layer
US9697856B2 (en) 2013-12-06 2017-07-04 Seagate Techology LLC Methods of forming near field transducers and near field transducers formed thereby
US9570098B2 (en) 2013-12-06 2017-02-14 Seagate Technology Llc Methods of forming near field transducers and near field transducers formed thereby
US9305572B2 (en) 2014-05-01 2016-04-05 Seagate Technology Llc Methods of forming portions of near field transducers (NFTS) and articles formed thereby
US9822444B2 (en) 2014-11-11 2017-11-21 Seagate Technology Llc Near-field transducer having secondary atom higher concentration at bottom of the peg
US9620150B2 (en) 2014-11-11 2017-04-11 Seagate Technology Llc Devices including an amorphous gas barrier layer
US9552833B2 (en) 2014-11-11 2017-01-24 Seagate Technology Llc Devices including a multilayer gas barrier layer
WO2016191707A1 (en) 2015-05-28 2016-12-01 Seagate Technology Llc Multipiece near field transducers (nfts)
WO2016191666A1 (en) 2015-05-28 2016-12-01 Seagate Technology Llc Near field transducers (nfts) including barrier layer and methods of forming
US9852748B1 (en) 2015-12-08 2017-12-26 Seagate Technology Llc Devices including a NFT having at least one amorphous alloy layer

Citations (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5986858A (en) * 1997-03-26 1999-11-16 Fujitsu Limited Ferromagnetic tunnel-junction magnetic sensor utilizing a barrier layer having a metal layer carrying an oxide film
US6110751A (en) * 1997-01-10 2000-08-29 Fujitsu Limited Tunnel junction structure and its manufacture and magnetic sensor
US6178074B1 (en) * 1998-11-19 2001-01-23 International Business Machines Corporation Double tunnel junction with magnetoresistance enhancement layer
US6275363B1 (en) * 1999-07-23 2001-08-14 International Business Machines Corporation Read head with dual tunnel junction sensor
US6347049B1 (en) * 2001-07-25 2002-02-12 International Business Machines Corporation Low resistance magnetic tunnel junction device with bilayer or multilayer tunnel barrier
US6452761B1 (en) * 2000-01-14 2002-09-17 International Business Machines Corporation Magneto-resistive and spin-valve sensor gap with reduced thickness and high thermal conductivity
US6580589B1 (en) * 2000-10-06 2003-06-17 International Business Machines Corporation Pinned layer structure for a spin valve sensor having cobalt iron (CoFe) and cobalt iron oxide (CoFeO) laminated layers
US6603643B2 (en) * 2000-10-06 2003-08-05 Hitachi, Ltd. Magnetoresistive head containing oxide layer
US6624986B2 (en) * 2001-03-08 2003-09-23 International Business Machines Corporation Free layer structure for a spin valve sensor with a specular reflecting layer composed of ferromagnetic oxide
US6680830B2 (en) * 2001-05-31 2004-01-20 International Business Machines Corporation Tunnel valve sensor and flux guide with improved flux transfer therebetween
US6693776B2 (en) * 2001-03-08 2004-02-17 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. Spin valve sensor with a spin filter and specular reflector layer
US6700754B2 (en) * 2001-04-30 2004-03-02 International Business Machines Corporation Oxidized copper (Cu) spacer between free and pinned layer for high performance spin valve applications
US6728083B2 (en) * 2001-06-26 2004-04-27 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. Method of making a spin valve sensor with a controlled ferromagnetic coupling field
US6937446B2 (en) * 2000-10-20 2005-08-30 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetoresistance effect element, magnetic head and magnetic recording and/or reproducing system

Family Cites Families (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH09106514A (en) * 1995-10-06 1997-04-22 Fujitsu Ltd Ferromagnetic tunnel element and its production
US6111784A (en) * 1997-09-18 2000-08-29 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Magnetic thin film memory element utilizing GMR effect, and recording/reproduction method using such memory element
FR2774774B1 (en) * 1998-02-11 2000-03-03 Commissariat Energie Atomique And tunnel magnetoresistance magnetic sensor using such a magnetoresistance
JP3330891B2 (en) 1999-01-25 2002-09-30 アルプス電気株式会社 Magnetoresistive element
WO2001024289A1 (en) * 1999-09-27 2001-04-05 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Magnetoresistance effect memory device and method for producing the same

Patent Citations (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6110751A (en) * 1997-01-10 2000-08-29 Fujitsu Limited Tunnel junction structure and its manufacture and magnetic sensor
US5986858A (en) * 1997-03-26 1999-11-16 Fujitsu Limited Ferromagnetic tunnel-junction magnetic sensor utilizing a barrier layer having a metal layer carrying an oxide film
US6178074B1 (en) * 1998-11-19 2001-01-23 International Business Machines Corporation Double tunnel junction with magnetoresistance enhancement layer
US6275363B1 (en) * 1999-07-23 2001-08-14 International Business Machines Corporation Read head with dual tunnel junction sensor
US6452761B1 (en) * 2000-01-14 2002-09-17 International Business Machines Corporation Magneto-resistive and spin-valve sensor gap with reduced thickness and high thermal conductivity
US6580589B1 (en) * 2000-10-06 2003-06-17 International Business Machines Corporation Pinned layer structure for a spin valve sensor having cobalt iron (CoFe) and cobalt iron oxide (CoFeO) laminated layers
US6603643B2 (en) * 2000-10-06 2003-08-05 Hitachi, Ltd. Magnetoresistive head containing oxide layer
US6937446B2 (en) * 2000-10-20 2005-08-30 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetoresistance effect element, magnetic head and magnetic recording and/or reproducing system
US6624986B2 (en) * 2001-03-08 2003-09-23 International Business Machines Corporation Free layer structure for a spin valve sensor with a specular reflecting layer composed of ferromagnetic oxide
US6693776B2 (en) * 2001-03-08 2004-02-17 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. Spin valve sensor with a spin filter and specular reflector layer
US6700754B2 (en) * 2001-04-30 2004-03-02 International Business Machines Corporation Oxidized copper (Cu) spacer between free and pinned layer for high performance spin valve applications
US6680830B2 (en) * 2001-05-31 2004-01-20 International Business Machines Corporation Tunnel valve sensor and flux guide with improved flux transfer therebetween
US6728083B2 (en) * 2001-06-26 2004-04-27 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. Method of making a spin valve sensor with a controlled ferromagnetic coupling field
US6347049B1 (en) * 2001-07-25 2002-02-12 International Business Machines Corporation Low resistance magnetic tunnel junction device with bilayer or multilayer tunnel barrier

Cited By (38)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20030214761A1 (en) * 2002-05-16 2003-11-20 Freitag James Mac Protective cap in lead overlay magnetic sensors
US7061729B2 (en) * 2002-05-16 2006-06-13 International Business Machines Corporation Protective cap in lead overlay magnetic sensors
US20050011308A1 (en) * 2003-04-30 2005-01-20 Hitachi Metals, Ltd. Fe-Co-B alloy target and its production method, and soft magnetic film produced by using such target, and magnetic recording medium and TMR device
US7141208B2 (en) * 2003-04-30 2006-11-28 Hitachi Metals, Ltd. Fe-Co-B alloy target and its production method, and soft magnetic film produced by using such target, and magnetic recording medium and TMR device
US20050180057A1 (en) * 2004-02-12 2005-08-18 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands, B.V Capping layers with high compressive stress for spin valve sensors
US7268977B2 (en) 2004-02-12 2007-09-11 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. Capping layers with high compressive stress for spin valve sensors
US20060098353A1 (en) * 2004-11-09 2006-05-11 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetoresistive element, magnetoresistive head, magnetic recording apparatus, and magnetic memory
US7525776B2 (en) 2004-11-09 2009-04-28 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetoresistive element, magnetoresistive head, magnetic recording apparatus, and magnetic memory
US7497007B2 (en) 2005-07-14 2009-03-03 Headway Technologies, Inc. Process of manufacturing a TMR device
US7986498B2 (en) 2005-07-14 2011-07-26 Headway Technologies, Inc. TMR device with surfactant layer on top of CoFexBy/CoFez inner pinned layer
US7861401B2 (en) 2005-07-14 2011-01-04 Headway Technologies, Inc. Method of forming a high performance tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) element
US20090165288A1 (en) * 2005-07-14 2009-07-02 Headway Technologies, Inc. TMR device with surfactant layer on top of CoFexBy/CoFez inner pinned layer
US20100226048A1 (en) * 2005-09-29 2010-09-09 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magneto-resistance effect element, magneto-resistance effect head, magnetic storage and magnetic memory
US8305716B2 (en) 2005-09-29 2012-11-06 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magneto-resistance effect element including diffusive electron scattering layer, magneto-resistance effect head, magnetic storage and magnetic memory
US8130477B2 (en) 2005-09-29 2012-03-06 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magneto-resistance effect element having a diffusive electron scattering layer, magneto-resistance effect head, magnetic storage and magnetic memory
US7821748B2 (en) 2005-09-29 2010-10-26 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magneto-resistance effect element including a damping factor adjustment layer, magneto-resistance effect head, magnetic storage and magnetic memory
US20070091511A1 (en) * 2005-10-20 2007-04-26 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. CPP-GMR magnetic head having GMR-screen layer
US7697245B2 (en) 2005-10-20 2010-04-13 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. CPP-GMR magnetic head having GMR-screen layer
US8048492B2 (en) 2005-12-21 2011-11-01 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetoresistive effect element and manufacturing method thereof
US20070202249A1 (en) * 2006-02-09 2007-08-30 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Method for manufacturing magnetoresistance effect element
US7897201B2 (en) 2006-02-09 2011-03-01 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Method for manufacturing magnetoresistance effect element
US8917485B2 (en) 2006-03-27 2014-12-23 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetoresistive effect element, magnetic head, and magnetic disk apparatus
US20070223150A1 (en) * 2006-03-27 2007-09-27 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetoresistive effect element, magnetic head, and magnetic disk apparatus
US8274766B2 (en) 2006-04-28 2012-09-25 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetic recording element including a thin film layer with changeable magnetization direction
US8111489B2 (en) 2006-07-07 2012-02-07 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magneto-resistance effect element
US7957109B2 (en) * 2006-09-11 2011-06-07 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. Magnetic head of magnetoresistance effect type with high resistance to external stress
US20080074803A1 (en) * 2006-09-11 2008-03-27 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. Magnetic head of magnetoresistance effect type with high resistance to external stress
US8331062B2 (en) 2006-09-28 2012-12-11 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magneto-resistance effect element, magnetic head, magnetic recording/reproducing device and magnetic memory
US20080080098A1 (en) * 2006-09-28 2008-04-03 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magneto-resistance effect element, magnetic head, magnetic recording/reproducing device and magnetic memory
US8351164B2 (en) 2006-09-28 2013-01-08 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetoresistive element having free and/or pinned layer magnetic compound expressed by M1M2O
US20080112091A1 (en) * 2006-11-14 2008-05-15 Tdk Corporation Current-confined-path type magnetoresistive element and method of manufacturing same
US8081402B2 (en) * 2006-12-15 2011-12-20 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. Magnetoresistive head having a current screen layer for confining current therein and method of manufacture thereof
US20080144231A1 (en) * 2006-12-15 2008-06-19 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B. V. Magnetoresistive head, magnetic storage apparatus and method of manufacturing a magnetic head
US8031443B2 (en) 2007-03-27 2011-10-04 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magneto-resistance effect element, magnetic head, magnetic recording/reproducing device and method for manufacturing a magneto-resistance effect element
US8228643B2 (en) 2008-09-26 2012-07-24 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Method for manufacturing a magneto-resistance effect element and magnetic recording and reproducing apparatus
US8315020B2 (en) 2008-09-26 2012-11-20 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Method for manufacturing a magneto-resistance effect element and magnetic recording and reproducing apparatus
US8274765B2 (en) 2008-09-29 2012-09-25 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Method of manufacturing magnetoresistive element, magnetoresistive element, magnetic head assembly and magnetic recording apparatus
US20110242705A1 (en) * 2010-03-31 2011-10-06 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetic head, magnetic head assembly, and magnetic recording/reproducing apparatus

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
JP4184668B2 (en) 2008-11-19 grant
KR20030061307A (en) 2003-07-18 application
KR100821598B1 (en) 2008-04-15 grant
CN1208757C (en) 2005-06-29 grant
DE60312748D1 (en) 2007-05-10 grant
DE60312748T2 (en) 2007-07-12 grant
JP2003204094A (en) 2003-07-18 application
EP1328027A3 (en) 2003-10-29 application
EP1328027B1 (en) 2007-03-28 grant
EP1328027A2 (en) 2003-07-16 application
CN1431651A (en) 2003-07-23 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US7093347B2 (en) Method of making a current-perpendicular to the plane (CPP) magnetoresistive (MR) sensor
US5898548A (en) Shielded magnetic tunnel junction magnetoresistive read head
US6277505B1 (en) Read sensor with improved thermal stability and manufacturing method therefor
US6327107B1 (en) Spin tunnel magneto-resistance effect type magnetic sensor and production method thereof
US6108177A (en) Tunnel junction structure with FeX ferromagnetic layers
US7280325B1 (en) Ferromagnetic structure including a first section separated from a ferromagnetic layer by an electrically conductive nonmagnetic spacer and a second section elongated relative to the first section in at least one dimension
US6258470B1 (en) Exchange coupling film, magnetoresistance effect device, magnetoresistance effective head and method for producing exchange coupling film
US6469878B1 (en) Data head and method using a single antiferromagnetic material to pin multiple magnetic layers with differing orientation
US6747852B2 (en) Magnetoresistance sensors with Pt-Mn transverse and longitudinal pinning layers and a decoupling insulation layer
US6624987B1 (en) Magnetic head with a tunnel junction including metallic material sandwiched between one of an oxide and a nitride of the metallic material
US6724585B2 (en) Magnetoresistive element and device utilizing magnetoresistance effect
US6452763B1 (en) GMR design with nano oxide layer in the second anti-parallel pinned layer
US20020054461A1 (en) Cpp spin-valve device
US6313973B1 (en) Laminated magnetorestrictive element of an exchange coupling film, an antiferromagnetic film and a ferromagnetic film and a magnetic disk drive using same
US7522392B2 (en) Magnetoresistive sensor based on spin accumulation effect with terminal connection at back end of sensor
US20030123198A1 (en) Magnetic sensor using magneto-resistive effect, a magnetic head using magneto-resistive effect, a magnetic reproducing apparatus, a method of manufacturing a magnetic sensor using magneto-resistive effect and a method of manufacturing a magnetic head using magneto-resistive effect
US20030235016A1 (en) Stabilization structures for CPP sensor
US20070253116A1 (en) Magnetic reading head
US20030184918A1 (en) Dual spin valve sensor with a longitudinal bias stack
US6709767B2 (en) In-situ oxidized films for use as cap and gap layers in a spin-valve sensor and methods of manufacture
US6717780B2 (en) Magnetoresistive device and/or multi-magnetoresistive device
US6282069B1 (en) Magnetoresistive element having a first antiferromagnetic layer contacting a pinned magnetic layer and a second antiferromagnetic layer contacting a free magnetic layer
US20030184919A1 (en) Dual magnetic tunnel junction sensor with a longitudinal bias stack
US6023395A (en) Magnetic tunnel junction magnetoresistive sensor with in-stack biasing
US7280322B2 (en) Magnetic sensor and magnetic head with the magnetic sensor

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: FUJITSU LIMITED, JAPAN

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SEYAMA, YOSHIHIKO;NAGASAKA, KEIICHI;OSHIMA, HIROTAKA;ANDOTHERS;REEL/FRAME:013619/0177;SIGNING DATES FROM 20021016 TO 20021104