US20020112724A1 - Pernasal application of aerosol medication - Google Patents

Pernasal application of aerosol medication Download PDF

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Publication number
US20020112724A1
US20020112724A1 US10/028,572 US2857201A US2002112724A1 US 20020112724 A1 US20020112724 A1 US 20020112724A1 US 2857201 A US2857201 A US 2857201A US 2002112724 A1 US2002112724 A1 US 2002112724A1
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Prior art keywords
mask
medication
baby
set forth
apparatus
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Abandoned
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US10/028,572
Inventor
Michael Newhouse
Israel Amirav
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Newhouse Michael T.
Israel Amirav
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Priority to US08/939,283 priority Critical patent/US6470882B1/en
Application filed by Newhouse Michael T., Israel Amirav filed Critical Newhouse Michael T.
Priority to US10/028,572 priority patent/US20020112724A1/en
Publication of US20020112724A1 publication Critical patent/US20020112724A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61JCONTAINERS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR MEDICAL OR PHARMACEUTICAL PURPOSES; DEVICES OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR BRINGING PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS INTO PARTICULAR PHYSICAL OR ADMINISTERING FORMS; DEVICES FOR ADMINISTERING FOOD OR MEDICINES ORALLY; BABY COMFORTERS; DEVICES FOR RECEIVING SPITTLE
    • A61J9/00Feeding-bottles in general
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61JCONTAINERS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR MEDICAL OR PHARMACEUTICAL PURPOSES; DEVICES OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR BRINGING PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS INTO PARTICULAR PHYSICAL OR ADMINISTERING FORMS; DEVICES FOR ADMINISTERING FOOD OR MEDICINES ORALLY; BABY COMFORTERS; DEVICES FOR RECEIVING SPITTLE
    • A61J17/00Baby-comforters; Teething rings
    • A61J17/001Baby-comforters
    • A61J17/006Baby-comforters releasing medication
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61JCONTAINERS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR MEDICAL OR PHARMACEUTICAL PURPOSES; DEVICES OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR BRINGING PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS INTO PARTICULAR PHYSICAL OR ADMINISTERING FORMS; DEVICES FOR ADMINISTERING FOOD OR MEDICINES ORALLY; BABY COMFORTERS; DEVICES FOR RECEIVING SPITTLE
    • A61J7/00Devices for administering medicines orally, e.g. spoons; Pill counting devices; Arrangements for time indication or reminder for taking medicine
    • A61J7/0015Devices specially adapted for taking medicines
    • A61J7/0053Syringes, pipettes or oral dispensers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M15/00Inhalators
    • A61M15/0086Inhalation chambers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61JCONTAINERS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR MEDICAL OR PHARMACEUTICAL PURPOSES; DEVICES OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR BRINGING PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS INTO PARTICULAR PHYSICAL OR ADMINISTERING FORMS; DEVICES FOR ADMINISTERING FOOD OR MEDICINES ORALLY; BABY COMFORTERS; DEVICES FOR RECEIVING SPITTLE
    • A61J17/00Baby-comforters; Teething rings
    • A61J17/001Baby-comforters
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M2205/00General characteristics of the apparatus
    • A61M2205/59Aesthetic features, e.g. distraction means to prevent fears of child patients

Abstract

Methods for delivering medication to an infant using a nasal mask and infant soother device, e.g., a pacifier. The nasal mask is drawn into sealing contact with the infant's face as the baby sucks on the soother device. The medication is delivered to a small dead space created by the mask for inhalation by the infant.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Aerosol medications of all kinds are used to treat lung diseases or use the lung as a portal of entry to treat systemic disease. One of the most important conditions for which aerosols are used commonly is asthma, a condition for which first line therapy is inhaled beta[0001] 2-agonist bronchodilators and inhaled steroids. Asthma is a very common condition in babies and infants, more common than in older children or adults. However, most devices for administering aerosol medication to babies are derived from those developed initially for delivery of asthma medication to adults and older children. Most, if not all, such devices, whether liquid nebulizers or designed for use with metered dose inhalers (MDIs) include the use of masks covering the mouth and the nose for the delivery of the medication. However, recent studies have shown by means of radiolabelled medication of aerosol delivery to the lungs, that the use of current masks is inefficient with newborns and other very young infants, most of the medication being deposited on the infant's face. Furthermore, babies tend to object to having a face mask firmly applied to their face and often begin to cry. These factors greatly decrease the efficiency of aerosol medication delivery to their lungs.
  • If a nebulizer and face mask are used to provide inhaled aerosols to a spontaneously breathing infant, it is vital that the mask be snugly attached to the face to insure adequate delivery. Studies have shown that with liquid nebulization even a 1 centimeter distance from the face decreases the dose delivered by 50 percent or more. Furthermore, nebulizers in infants tend to have the same disadvantages as in older children, namely, high cost, need for a power supply, lack of portability, complexities of assembly, loading and duration of administration. Infants are not very patient and do not like to sit still for prolonged periods of 10 to 20 minutes usually required for nebulization of liquid solutions. This makes the MDI with a valved holding chamber and mask the delivery system of choice in this age group. [0002]
  • The addition of a face mask to conventional valved holding chambers has gained considerable acceptance from practitioners for the treatment of infants. However, it is recognized that the presently available devices are less than ideal because infants do not readily accept the face mask (at least initially). For infants up to the age of about two years the mask must remain on the face tightly for at least three to six breaths, approximately 20 to 30 seconds, which may be difficult to achieve with a squirming and often crying infant at least until he gets used to it. [0003]
  • Infants prefer to breathe through the nose until at least 18 months of age and are easily capable of sucking from the breast or bottle while breathing normally. Sucking is a very soothing activity for most babies. Sucking is performed during feeding or as a pacifier. We have designed devices that will allow a combination of sucking activity of the baby while at the same time ensuring that medication is delivered to the respiratory tract of the infant while the infant is relatively content. The devices are comprised of a 145 milliliter widely used valved holding chamber attached to a nasal mask (aerochamber). [0004]
  • Alternatively the holding chamber may not have an integral valve, but both its inhalation and exhalation valves could be contained within the masks. When the baby sucks on the bottle or soother, the mask is pulled tightly onto the nose, and surrounds the nostrils of the baby, ensures that the aerosol that has been sprayed into the holding chamber will be drawn into the baby's lungs with each breath through the nose during approximately 20 seconds (five to six breaths). A mask and holding chamber would have an attachment that would extend downwards around the baby bottle or come onto the nipple so that any feeding bottle or nipple could be used. A set screw would allow the bottle to be adjusted in such a manner that the nasal mask would fit snugly, but without undo pressure around the infant's nostrils when the nipple of the bottle or soother is being sucked on vigorously. The resulting self-administered (but caregiver facilitated) seal between the mask and the face around the nostrils would provide an excellent opportunity for actuation of the metered dose inhaler into the aerosol holding chamber, and delivery of the mediation when the baby inhales during approximately five or six breaths. [0005]
  • Most babies and infants are obligatory nose breathers most of the time (with the exception of infants with nasal obstruction due to the common cold, etc., or while crying) and it is therefore more logical to emphasize the nasal route for inhalation when devising an MDI accessory aerosol delivery system. Indeed, even when a face mask is used, the aerosol is actually inhaled most of the time through the nose. The face mask thus has a much larger dead space than necessary which in situations of low tidal volume, such as in neonates or infants can considerably reduce the efficiency of delivery of aerosol medication. A small mask that preferentially directs the aerosol towards the infant's nose is thus superior to a face mask. Furthermore, aerosol delivered by means of a face mask must pass across the lower half of the face to get to the nostrils. Much of the steroid is thus actually delivered to the skin of the face, and there have been case reports of steroid side effects such as acne under these conditions. By using a nasal mask or a system that directs the aerosol towards the nose, this problem would be minimized or eliminated since the aerosol would pass directly into the nares and from there into the lungs. [0006]
  • By way of background, inhaled therapy is the mainstay of asthma management. Traditionally, most inhaled medication has been delivered by small volume wet nebulizers which are relatively bulky, expensive and not always available when needed because of their limited portability. Metered dose inhalers are much more efficient, convenient and less expensive. The main problem with “press and inhale” metered dose inhalers is a need to coordinate aerosol discharge and inhalation. This problem has been solved in recent years by valved holding chambers that can be filled with aerosol from which the patient inhales, and thus receives a medication. These devices disassociate aerosol delivery into the aerosol holding chamber from inhalation, and so improve the reliability of aerosol administration. The use of a one-way valve system provides for inhalation from the aerosol holding chamber during normal breathing followed by exhalation via another valve in the mask. This permits aerosol to be delivered to infants and children during tidal breathing provided that an appropriate mask is used to seal the innerface between the aerosol delivery system and the infant's face around the mouth and nose. This system works very well with older children and adults who can be taught to inhale by mouth. However, it is less effective with neonatals and newborns who preferentially breathe through the nose. [0007]
  • SUMMARY OF THE PRESENT INVENTION
  • It is the principal object of the present invention to utilize a nasal mask with an existing aerochamber. The nasal mask directs the aerosol of medication droplets or dry particles to the nose and thus does not deposit medication on parts of the face remote from the nose. It also has the smallest total mask volume and thus smallest dead space of any inhaler system used for delivering medication to infants. [0008]
  • Furthermore, it is an object of the present invention to provide an adapter for holding a nasal applicator, and for also holding a bottle of milk or water or infant soother (rubber or plastic nipple) to ensure that the nasal mask is applied by the sucking activity of the infant (a soothing activity for a young child). [0009]
  • The nasal mask which we use is attached to an aerosol holding chamber having a volume of 25 milliliters to 250 milliliters. There is an inspiratory and expiratory valve integral to the mask or to the device, or there may be an inspiratory valve on the holding chamber and an expiratory valve as an integral part of the nasal mask to insure that the aerosol is delivered to the infant on inspiration only. The nasal mask would have an important advantage of greatly reducing the volume of the mask dead space, compared to the usual face mask (from about 15 to 50 milliliters, to about 5 to 10 milliliters) and so would improve aerosol delivery efficiency. This is very important for improving aerosol therapy in infant patients. An additional advantage that would be extremely important to the patient is the combination of the nasal mask for aerosol delivery with an infant bottle and rubber nipple, or soother, so that when the infant sucks the nasal mask is applied firmly to the face around the nose. Infants up to the age of about 18 months are virtually obligatory nose breathers, so the aerosol would be delivered efficiently to a relatively contented child. It has been shown that if the infant is presented with aerosolized medication while it is crying, virtually none of the drug gets to the lungs. By contrast, if the child is breathing quietly and is comfortable the aerosol delivery to the lungs is relatively efficient. [0010]
  • To these ends, the principle of exclusively nasal administration of aerosolized medication is combined with a technique for the child to suck while breathing the medication. All of the possible permutations and combinations such as the use of a bottle with liquid in it and a rubber nipple, or even the possibility of breast feeding while the nasal mask is applied to the nose, are to be considered. Alternatively, a soother could be clamped to the nasal mask. [0011]
  • Furthermore, the invention is applicable to the use of either wet medication, or dry, powdered medication.[0012]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIGURES
  • The present invention will best be understood with reference to the following drawings when taken in connection with the ensuing specification, wherein: [0013]
  • FIG. 1 is a side elevation view, partially in section, showing the use of the mask with a holding chamber and also a bottle of milk or water; [0014]
  • FIG. 2 is an end elevation view taken along the lines [0015] 2-2 in FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 3 is a view in perspective of the holding device for the mask and a bottle; [0016]
  • FIG. 4 is a side elevation view similar to FIG. 1 showing the nasal mask being used with breast feeding; [0017]
  • FIG. 5 is an end elevation view taken from the left side of FIG. 4, showing how the device would be oriented with breast feeding; [0018]
  • FIG. 6 is a side elevation view of an alternative embodiment of the invention; [0019]
  • FIG. 7 is an end elevation view of the embodiment of FIG. 6 viewed along lines [0020] 7-7 in FIG. 6; and
  • FIG. 8 is a side elevation view of a self-contained nipple.[0021]
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • Reference first should be had to FIG. 1-[0022] 3, wherein there is shown a typical embodiment of the present invention. The device shown includes a holder 10 for two vessels. The holder 10 includes devices for securing a holding chamber 12 and a bottle 14. The holding chamber 12 may be built along the lines taught by Nowacki, et al., in U.S. Pat. No. 4,470,412 and includes an inhalation valve at the exit end of the structure. The devices are all applied to a baby or infant 16 having a nose 18 and a mouth 20.
  • The bottle [0023] 14 may be uniform diameter and cylindrical, and has at the exit end a nipple 22 intended to be held in the mouth of the child. Aligned holes 24 and 26 are provided in the exit and entrance walls of the holder 10 which is shown as being of rectangular construction. O-rings 28 and 30 fit in these holes to receive the bottle 14. These O-rings provide a loose fit for the bottle 14, and a set screw 36 bears against the side of the bottle to clamp it in place, taking up the loose fit of the O-rings 28 and 30.
  • Above the openings for the bottle there are openings [0024] 38 and 40 in the end walls of the rectangular holder 10. O-rings 42 and 44 are received in the holes 38 and 40 to provide a loose fit for the chamber 12, which is adapted to receive the medication. The O-rings 42, 44 receive the body of the chamber 12, which is cylindrical in shape, and a setscrew 46 bears against the side of the chamber 12 to hold it in the O-rings.
  • At the inlet of the chamber [0025] 12 there is a universal back 48 made of rubber and adapted to receive an L-shaped fitting 50, as shown in FIG. 1. The fitting 50 is configured to carry a replaceable MDI 52 (Metered Dose Inhaler). The Metered Dose Inhaler contains a certain amount of asthma medication, and when one pushes down on the MDI a metered dose of aerosolized medication is discharged into the interior of the chamber 12. The MDI may be of the type that holds a liquid droplet aerosol, or it may be designed to contain a dry powder. The chamber 12 is large enough that the medication is thoroughly dispersed with the air within the chamber before it is inhaled.
  • At the exit end of the chamber [0026] 12 there is a nasal mask in the form of a cup-shaped housing 54 which fits over the nose 18 of the infant, preferably leaving little room around the nose to minimize the dead space of the mask, as discussed above. This results in efficient aerosol delivery, yet there is very little exposed skin which can be contacted by the medication dispensed by the chamber 12. Most of the medication thus enters the infant's nose directly and much more of it is deposited in the infant's or baby's lungs, thereby greatly improving the efficiency of the device. Also, there is much less chance of steroid effect on the skin as so little skin is exposed to the drug particles.
  • Referring to FIGS. 4 and 5, the holder [0027] 10 may be used without change even while the baby is nursing at the mother's breast 98 with a nipple 58 inserted in the baby's mouth. It is only necessary to pivot the device a few degrees about the chamber 12 to retain a good fit of the mask 54 on the baby's nose, with the bottle 14 pivoted somewhat away from the mother's breast. The bottle 14 may either remain in place in its holder, as shown, or it may be removed from the holder 10 prior to use of the device with breastfeeding. Whether the baby is receiving milk from the mother's breast, or milk or water from a bottle, or even sucking on a rubber or plastic nipple, such as from a pacifier, she will be soothed. She will not be frightened or in an anxious state from the mask 54 (which receives medication from the chamber 12 placed over her nose. As such, in contrast to current devices, the invention will allow the baby to almost certainly tolerate the 20 seconds of drug administration (5-6 breaths) and, therefore, is more likely to improve asthma control or provide relief from an asthma attack.
  • It will be understood that the mask [0028] 54 may be supplied in different sizes and possibly shapes to accommodate the nose of any baby imaginable, and said nipples may also occur in different sizes for different size children.
  • Another embodiment of the invention makes use of a nipple actually built into the mask. In an alternative construction of the invention, the mask is still applied to the face (as with current nose/mouth masks) but an inner mask configured to fit around the nose is located within the outer mask. The soother can be molded into the rim of the mask, becoming a permanent part of it. Alternatively, an opening in the mask rim would allow the nipple of the baby bottle to be inserted to provide milk (or water) while sucking. This would pull the mask towards the infant's face and form a seal against the skin (aided if necessary by the mother or other caregiver). [0029]
  • With reference to FIGS. 6 and 7, one possible construction according to such alternative embodiments includes an aerochamber [0030] 82 in communication with a source of medication 84 and a face mask 60. An outer molded part of the face mask 60 is provided with an integral socket 80 designed to hold the aerochamber 82, the latter having an L-shaped fitting to receive an MDI (metered dose inhaler) 84. The face mask 60 supports a nasal mask 78 which is adapted to be placed over a baby's nose without surrounding the baby's mouth. The face mask 60 is molded rubber or plastic and is shaped as an oval funnel (i.e., it is higher than it is wide) designed to fit over both the nose and mouth of a baby or infant.
  • The nasal mask [0031] 78 will flex up and down to a limited degree to ensure that it is a proper fit on the nose due to the rubber or plastic nature of the material of the molding 68, while the rim of the molding seals out the ambient air. The nasal mask 78 operates the same as the nasal masks 12, 54 described above.
  • At a lower part of the face mask [0032] 60 is a portion 64 configured and shaped to hold a nipple 66 with the tip 68 of the nipple in the baby's mouth. The nipple 66 will act as a pacifier and has a flange 74 (FIG. 7) coupled to the mask portion 64. The nipple 66 also has a bulbous part 72 disposed opposite the tip 68 and received in the mask. In an alternative arrangement (not shown), the nipple 66 may be attached to a baby bottle by the bulbous part 72 of the nipple (FIG. 7) and the flange 72. A double (or split) wall 74 extends against the bottom of the nipple to insure resistance to sucking on the nipple.
  • In use, the small mask [0033] 78 is designed to just fit over the baby's or infant's nose and will be pulled in to form a very close fit with the nose upon inhalation. The outer molded part of the face mask is provided with an integral socket 80 designed to hold an aerochamber 82, having an L-shaped fitting to receive an MDI (metered dose inhaler) 84. The nasal mask 78 will flex up and down to a limited degree to ensure that it is a proper fit on the nose due to the rubber or plastic nature of the material of the molding, while the rim of the molding seals out the ambient air. The face mask 78 operates the same as the face mask 54 to deliver medication to the baby's nose during inhalation.
  • FIG. 8 illustrates a design for a self-contained nipple [0034] 86 which can serve either of two purposes in the invention. The nipple 86 can be used independently of the mask, or it can be positioned anywhere on the mask and used without a bottle attached to it.
  • For example, in the embodiment of FIG. 6, the nipple and the bottle may be considered to be a bit crowded. The mask may be partly cut away to leave room for positioning the nipple, or the mask may be omitted by mothers who have skilled hands. The nipple [0035] 86 in FIG. 8, which is not attached to a bottle and is completely self-contained, has its base closed off by a flange or wall 88 having a hole 90 into which a cork 92 (either real or synthetic) is inserted to close off the milk-holding portion 92 of the nipple. A few ccs of milk can be stored in the portion 92 of the nipple, which is a sufficient amount to allow a baby to nurse while taking medication. Either mask 54 or 80 is applied to the infant's face or nose independently of the nipple 86 to allow such nursing, or the nipple 86 can be coupled to any area of the mask, as described above.
  • It will be noted that, as used in the claims, the term aerosolized medication encompasses both wet and dry medications. The particular forms and embodiments of the invention shown herein are for illustrative purposes only. Various changes will doubtless occur to those skilled in the art and will be understood as forming a part of the present invention insofar as they fall within the spirit and scope of the appended claims. [0036]

Claims (18)

What is claimed is:
1. The method of treating with aerosol medication babies and infants which comprises treating the baby or infant to produce a state of contentment in the body of said baby or infant, placing a mask over the nose of the baby or infant, and introducing air and aerosol medication into said mask.
2. The method of treating with aerosol medication babies and infants as set forth in claim 1 wherein the step of inducing a state of relaxation in the baby comprises placing a nipple in the mouth of the baby or infant.
3. The method of treating with aerosol medication babies and infants as set forth in claim 1 wherein the step of placing a mask over the baby's nose comprises a mask which is about the size and only slightly larger than the baby's nose.
4. Apparatus for treating with aerosol medication babies and infants which comprises a device which gives a state of contentment in the body of a baby or infant, a mask to be placed over the nose of a baby or infant, and means for introducing a mixture of air and aerosolized medication into said mask.
5. Apparatus as set forth in claim 3 and further including a holder for a baby bottle.
6. Apparatus as set forth in claim 3 and further including a holder for air and medication on which the mask is mounted.
7. Apparatus as set forth in claim 7 which includes an integral medical holder and spaced nipple holder molded as a unit from rubber or plastic.
8. Apparatus as set forth in claim 7 which includes an integral nose mask surrounding from the medical holder and extending therefrom, and an outer face mask surrounding said nose mask.
9. Apparatus as set forth in claim 3 and further including a mediation container on which the mask is mounted.
10. Apparatus as set forth in claim 5 and further including a cylindrical holder for air and medication on which the mask is mounted.
11. Apparatus as set forth in claim 4 and further including a holder for a medication container on which the mask is mounted, said holder including a body having aligned holes for receiving said container, and a set screw bearing against the side of said container.
12. Apparatus for inhaling aerosolized medication as set forth in claim 4 which includes a baby bottle with a nipple, and a holder for said baby bottle and nipple including a device with a pair of spaced holes in it and a set screw arranged transversely of said holes.
13. Apparatus as set forth in claim 4 wherein the device which gives a state of contentment in the body comprises a baby bottle with a nipple and said mask comprises an aerosolized chamber with air and medication which comprises a chamber for holding said medication chamber and a baby bottle comprising a front wall and a back wall, means for maintaining said front wall and said back wall substantially parallel, a pair of substantially aligned holes in said front wall and said back wall to hold said medication chamber, a second pair of substantially aligned holes in said front wall and said back wall to hold said medication chamber, a second pair of substantially aligned holes in said front wall and said back wall for holding a baby bottle, and means for insuring said baby bottle and said medication chamber stay in said pairs of substantially aligned holes.
14. Apparatus as set forth in claim 13 including a pair of set screws respectively arranged transversely of said pairs of holes.
15. Apparatus as set forth in claim 13 and further including rubber-like rings about said holes to maintain said medication chamber and said baby bottle and the permit them to be pushed somewhat aside.
16. Apparatus for treating with aerosol medication babies and infants which includes a nursing nipple having a chamber for holding milk, a back wall for holding milk in said chamber, a hold in said wall for admitting milk to said chamber, and a closure member for said hole for retaining milk in chamber.
17. Apparatus for treating with an aerosol medication as set forth in claim 16 including a member on said chamber for passing milk from said chamber upon sucking on said member by said baby or infant.
18. Apparatus for treating with an aerosol medication as set forth in claim 16 and including means for holding said nipple and an aeorchamber for medicine to be inhaled.
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