US1968426A - Shingle unit and roof built therefrom - Google Patents

Shingle unit and roof built therefrom Download PDF

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Publication number
US1968426A
US1968426A US522817A US52281731A US1968426A US 1968426 A US1968426 A US 1968426A US 522817 A US522817 A US 522817A US 52281731 A US52281731 A US 52281731A US 1968426 A US1968426 A US 1968426A
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shingle
unit
edges
units
edge
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US522817A
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William L Rowe
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Johns Manville Corp
Johns Manville
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Johns Manville
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04DROOF COVERINGS; SKY-LIGHTS; GUTTERS; ROOF-WORKING TOOLS
    • E04D1/00Roof covering by making use of tiles, slates, shingles, or other small roofing elements
    • E04D1/12Roofing elements shaped as plain tiles or shingles, i.e. with flat outer surface
    • E04D1/22Roofing elements shaped as plain tiles or shingles, i.e. with flat outer surface of specified materials not covered by any one of groups E04D1/14 - E04D1/205, or of combinations of materials, where at least one is not covered by any one of groups E04D1/14 - E04D1/205

Description

'Jfily 31, 1934. .w. ROWE SHINGLE UNIT AND ROOF BUILT THEREFROM Filed March 16, 1951 SSheets-Sheet 1 W. L. "ROWE SHINGLE UNIT AND ROOF BUILT THEREFROM July '31, 1934.

Filed March 16, 1931 .5 Sheets-Sheet 2 July 31, 1934. w ROWE SHINGLE UNIT AND ROOF BUILT THEREFROM 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed March 16, 1931 Patented July 31, 1934 u UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE SHINGLE UNIT AND ROOF BUILT THEREFBOM William L. Rowe, New York, N. 1., assignor to Johns-Manville Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application March 16, 1931, Serial No. 522,817 Claims. (01. 108-9) This invention relates to a shingle unit and Fig. 8 is a plan of one of the modified units;

a roof or side wall structure built therefrom. Fig. 9 is a plan showing a preferred form of One object of the invention is to provide a starter strip; and

shingle unit which can be laid in the exposed Fig. 10 shows a detail of a roof laid in an over- 5 side-lap or Dutch lap mode. A further object lap of one-third of the unit width of the shingle is to provide units for this purpose which will unit of Fig. 2.

be self-spacing in respect to the vertical overlap Referring now to Figs. 2 and 3, shingle units and the horizontal overlap. Another object is A for the desired purpose may be constructed of to provide a shingle unit of this nature in which square slabs or sheets, indicated in Fig. 3 by the 10 the exposed edges may be the rough, moulded rectangle 1, having if desired the natural edges, or natural edge of a tile, sheet, or part of a slab, by which I refer to irregular or rough edges 2, 3, natural or artific for example, a sheet of a resulting from transverse pressure during manuplastic composite, s ch as a bituminous or cefacture. Such a slab, plate or tile is a structure ment-integrated asbestos or other fibrous sheet. having an axis of symmetry on the line H, and

It) A further object isto provide, in these relations according to this invention this axis of symmetry and for these purposes, a shingle unit which can remains the axis of symmetry in the completed be laid without loss of any useful function either structure. For purposes to be explained the from left to right or from right to left, and which edges 1, 1, and the corner between them are recan be preformed to space a lateral overlap of moved from the plate by severing by a shearing,

20 two or more different fractional parts of each die-cutting or sawing operation, so as to provide shingle unit; for example, which will provide an edge 6 accurately perpendicular to an edge 7, for an exposure of two-thirds of the lateral diwhich edges in turn are respectively equidistant mension of each unit, or for three-fourths of from the mean position of the edge 2 and the the lateral dimension of each unit when laid, mean position of the edge 3; the angle between 25 or of any fraction between said values. A furthe edges '7 and 6 is truncated (if desired, by die ther object is to provide a shingle unit, tile, slab cutting. in one operation with the formation of or sheet with preformed edges and perforations edges 6 and 7) to form an edge 8 perpendicular in relatively exact relation to each other, so that to the axis H and at a suitable distance from full reliance may be placed upon the dimensional the intersection of the sides 6 and '7 prolonged.

30 accuracy'of relationship of one unit to another The accurate cut edges 6, 7 and 8 are now reindicated and measured thereby. lied upon (or formed by punching in the same The invention will be explained, for illustration operation, thereby) to pre-position the places of only, with the aid of the accompanying drawings, certain preformed perforations, which. perforain which: tions are arranged in symmetry to the axis H.

35' Fig. l is a detail in perspective of a part of a Of these perforations a hole for the anchorage roof laid with shingle units in one mode accordclip 10, Fig. 4 may be central on the axis aa ing to this invention; and therefore equidistant from the edges 6, Z

Fig. 2 is a plan view of one of the units turned and 2, 3, as shown at b, Fig. 3. The remaining for laying in progression from the left to the perforations comprise a pair of nail holes in the 40 right; corner between the edge '7 and the edge 2, as

' Fig. 3 is a plan view of one of the shingle units shown atl2 and 13, and a similar pair of nail turned into position for laying in progression holes in the corner between the side 6 and the side from right to left; 3, as shown at 14, 15. The respective holes 12, 13 Fig. 4 is a section on the line 4-4 of Fig. 1, d 14, 15 a e accu a y Spaced with respect to 45 showing a preferred form of storm anchor or distance from the respective sides'landtand digclip relied upon in connection with the construcfiance flm the truncated edge 8.

m 1 a roof; Referring to Figs. 1, 5 and 6, let us suppose one Fig. 5 is a diagram in plan showing a detail of of the shingle units to be placed as shown in Fig. the construction of a roof from left to right with w s d 2 wa d a d t e edge 3 to the 50 one proportion of overlap; left. If, then, another shingle unit in the same Fig. 6 is a corresponding diagram in plan mowposition be placed with the nail hole 15 just over ing a detail of the construction of a roof from the edge of the truncated edge 8, as shown inFig. right to left with another proportion of overlap; 1, the bottom edges O t Shingle units b ng co- Fig. 7 is a similar diagram showing a roof of a incident, the position of the hole 15 is such as to s5 med unit laid from right to left; predetermine an overlapof a predetermined fraction, for example, one-fourth of the lateral dimension of the shingle unit. But if the hole 14 were placed so that the nail through it would be in contact with the edge 8, the overlap might be of another predetermined fraction of the width, for example, more than one-third of the lateral dimension of the shingle unit. It now the shingle units are turned to the position of Fig. 3 with the edge 3 down and the cut edge 6 to the left, another similarly placed shingle unit might be laid upon it to the left and registered so as to laterally overlap the truncated edge 8 when a nail through one of the holes 12 or 13 is in contact with the edge 8 of the first shingle unit with the same accuracy, to predetermine one or the other of the different proportional overlaps for which the nail holes 12 and 13 provide fastening holes clear of the underlying shingle.

Referring now to Figs. 7 and 8, the improved units do not necessarily include adjacent rough edges. For example, a unit B may be cut from one of the slabs 1 on lines 2 and 3 removing the rough edges, the sides 6, '7 and 8 being formed as above described, and the nail and anchorage holes 13, 15 and b formed as above described. Whether or not the rough edges are retained, I may space the holes 12- and 14 further from the adjacent edges than in the case of units A, so that, as shown in Fig. '7, these holes may gauge an overlap by a nail in them registering with the truncated edge 8 or 8 when the overlap is at a predetermined fraction of the unit width; for example, one-third of that width, as shown in Fig. 7.

Likewise, referring now to Figs. 5 and 6, whether the shingle units are laid from left to right or from right to left, and whether they are rotated to the position of Fig. 2 or to the position of Fig. 3, that pair of nail holes not utilized for gauging and fastening down the upper end of the shingle presents by its upper member a hole for a nail clear of the top edge of the previously laid course which may if desired gauge the vertical overlap between courses of the shingle units. For example, the nails shown at n, Fig. 1, are placed in holes 12 and against the top edges 6 of shingle units of the previous course to gauge and fix the vertical overlap; whereas the nails 12 in the nail holes 15 driven in contact with the truncated edges 8 of the next previous shingle to the left in the same course laterally gauge the position of the last-placed shingle unit. In the instance shown in Fig. 1 the overlap is one-fourth of the lateral dimension of the shingle units; whereas if the nails 71. had been placed in the holes 14 and the nails driven clear of the edges 8, the overlap might have been one-third of the width of a unit. Thus the side lap may well be independent of the gauging permitted by the nail holes, being the 'function of a starter shingle of predetermined width mentioned below, shingles of a following course abutting against the corners of shingles of a preceding course to determine the lap, as ap pears at g, Fig. 1. See, for example, Fig. 10,

. where the overlap is one-third. But in this case the shingle units have been laid from right to left, and the nails are in the holes 12.

In either lay of the shingles, that is, from left to right or from right to left, or with one-fourth overlap to one-third or greater overlap, the bottom edges of the shingle units are in alignment. This may be produced and aided by the applica= tion of a storm clip entering the hole b, preferably of a kind having an element to predetermine'the alignment between an exterior shingle unit con= taining the hole b and the next shingle under it, as will be clear from Fig. 1, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, or Fig. 6. The lateral overlap of the shingle units provides the two outer plies of the structure shown in Fig.

4, whereas the vertical overlap over a shingle of 8' the previous course provides the inner ply. A typical vertical section of this structure, as shown in Fig. 4, comprises the roof deck W may comprise a paper or felt layer 1, and comprises an inner ply of the shingle units at p an intermediate ply at 9 and an outer ply at 31 The preferred form of anchorage connection, as shown at 10, has a top 11 with a hook 12 to enter the hole b, the clip 10 extending to and downward past the coincident edges 2 or 3 of the shingle unit of the top ply and past the edges 2 or 3 of the shingle unit of ply p under it, ending in a base portion 14 entering under the shingle unit of ply p and over the shingle unit of ply 11 I do not herein claim the clip 10 which is the subject of my application Serial No. 522,814, filed of even date herewith, except in combination with the present devices.

A roof laid in the Dutch or side and top lap with the shingle units of this application may contain contributing constructions, for example, a cant strip or the eaves-starter strips 20, Figs. 1 and 9, and fractional shingle units of suitable width for use at the beginning edge of each course, as shown at 21 and 22, Fig. 5., The strips 20 may have a slant 24 of which the lateral width from the adjacent end is x, a suitable fraction of the width of one of the units, such as one-fourth; and a notch at 25, the distance 1/ of which from the end is another fraction, such as one-third, of the unit width. Thus the starter strips 20 can be overlapped with the aid of the slant end or of the notch in accaurate position to gauge the overlap of subsequent courses of units A, as shown at 9, Fig. 1.

It will be observed that when laying in sequence shingle units on any course, the position of the shingle is fixed by abutment against a lateral edge of the shingle laid on the next lower course, as well as by the position of the nail n in its appropriate hole for the desired overlap. It will 1% also be observed that by use of the clips 10 firm anchorage of the shingles is secured without perforation of the underlying shingle of the threeply overlap or of the intermediate shingle of this overlap, and that insertion of the clip does not 1.

imply lifting the free end or corner of a shingle attached by nailing.

The provision for building a roof by side overlap shingles with the overlaps going in either direction is of architectural importance. shingles may be laid so as to avoid having their butt ends or free sides turned toward the direction from which the prevailing winds blow; or, where winds are not expected, the side overlaps may be exposed in the best direction to secure 1 edges or the shadows of edges contributing to the appearance of the house from the usual point of view.

I claim:

1. Shingle unit adapted to be laid in horizontal The 11 q oil 2. Shingle unit adapted to be laid in sidelapped relation comprising a slab having aportion to be exposed having edges at right angles to each other equiangularly disposed to opposite straight edges at an angle to each other, a truncated edge between said straight edges, and preformed nail holes near said straight edges and at predetermined equal distances respectively from said straight edges and from said truncated edge, whereby said shingle unit may be laid in underlapped relation with its truncated corner to the right or left in gauging registry with a similarly positioned overlapped unit.

3. Shingle unit adapted to be laid in sidelapped relation comprising a slab having a' portion to be exposed having edges at right angles to each other equiangularly disposed to opposite straight edges at an angle to each other, a truncated edge between said straight edges, and preformed pairs of equally spaced nail holes near said straight edges and at predetermined equal distances respectively from said straight edges and from said truncated edge, whereby said shingle unit may be laid in a laterally greater or less underlapped relation with its truncated corner to the right or left in gauging registry with one or the other of a pair of the holes in a similarly positioned overlapped unit.

4. Roof made up-of-a deck and slab shingle units in side and end overlapping relation, said units having truncated corners between adjacent cut edges in gauging proximity to a nail driven into the deck through a hole near one of the cut edges of an overlapping shingle, said overlapping shingle having a nail in a hole near its other out edge in gauging proximity to the top edge of a shingle unit of a previous course.

5. Roof made up of a deck and slab shingle units in side and end overlapping relation, said units having truncated corners between adjacent cut edges in proximity to a nail driven into the deck through a hole near one of the cut edges of an overlapping shingle, said overlapping shingle having a nail in a hole near its other out edge in proximity to the top edge of a shingle unit of a previous course, in combination with means uniting the otherwise free corner of one or more of the shingle units to the next unit of the same course.

6. Roof made up of a deck and slab shingle units in side and end overlapping relation, said units having truncated corners between adjacent cut edges and nail holes symmetrically placed in relation to said truncated corners, said corners being in'proximity to a' nail driven into the deck through a hole near one of the cut edges of an overlapping shingle, said overlapping shingle having a nail in the hole near its other out edge in proximity to the top edge of a shingle unit of a previous course.

7. Roof made up of a deck and slab shingle units in side and end overlapping relation, said units having truncated corners between adjacent cut edges and nail holes symmetrically placed in relation to said truncated corners, said comers being in gauging proximity to a nail driven into the deck through a hole near one of the cut edges of an overlapping shingle, said overlapping shingle having 'a nail in the hole near its other out edge in gauging proximity to the .top edge of a shingle unit of a previous course, in combination with a clip passing over the edges of and uniting the otherwise free corner of one or more of the shingle units to the next unit of the same course.

8. Shingle unit adapted to be laid in side-lapped relation with similar units to provide either a right-handed or left-handed overlap, comprising a slab having a substantially rectangular shape with the major portions of its edges lying parallel and at right angles to each other, the material of the slab being removed adjoining one corner to provide a gauging portion for an adjoining unit in overlapping relation therewith, the slab having a pair of openings disposed adjoining said corner but at respectively different distances from said corner, the opening nearer the corner being adapted to receive a fastening element located in relation to an adjoining unit when a smaller lateral overlap is desired and the other opening of the pair being similarly adapted to receive such an element when a larger overlap is desired, said slab having other openings arranged at other corners to receive fastening means to cooperate in securing the unit to a roof, whereby the lateral overlap of the units may be varied.

I, 9. Shingle unit adapted to be laid in sidelapped relation comprising a slab of substantially rectangular form, said slab having openings for fastening elements adjoining three of its corners, the material ,of' the slab being removed adjoining the fourth corner to provide a gauging portion, so that portion may underlap the edge of a similar unit and may register with an opening therein to permit application of the shingles to a deck with one of a plurality of preselected overlaps.

10. Shingle unit adapted to be laid in a sidelapped relationship withv similar units either from left to right or right to left, comprising a slab of substantially rectangular outline, the material of the slab being removed adjoining one corner to provide agauging portion within its rectangular outline, said slab also having adjacent its side edges which extend to said corner nail holes which are located symmetrically with relation to a diagonal line extending from said corner to the opposite corner, said gauging portion and nail holes being so constructed and arranged that the gauging portion may underlap the edge of a similar unit and may register with a hole therein to permit application of the shingles to a deck with either of two preselected overlaps when laying either from left to right or right to left.

11. Shingle unit adapted to be laid in sidelapped relation, comprising a slab of substantially rectangular form, the slab having at least two sides affording straight edge portions extendng between the main planar faces of the'slab, said slab having openings for fastening elements adjoining three of its corners, said openings having.

walls providing edges of the material extending between the main planar surfaces, the openings adjoining diagonally opposite corners being disposed symmetrically in relation to a diagonal line extending between the other pair of diagonally opposite corners, the fourth corner at one end of said line having material removed therefrom to afford gauging means extending between the main planar surfaces, said gauging means being symmetrically disposed in relation to said diagonal line and shaped to register with edges of the material of similar units to permit the units to be laid in self-gauging relationship with either one of two selected degrees of overlap when laid either from left to right or right to left.

12. Single units of the type comprising substantially rectangular slabs adapted to be laid in side overlapping relationship, the slabs having in opposite comers openings which are disposed 'stantially rectangular slabs adapted to be laid in side overlapping relationship, the slabs having in opposite corners openings which are disposed symmetrically to each other in relation to diagonal lines extending between the other opposite corners, the edges of the openings being adapted to cooperate with fastening elements to hold the slabs in position, the units having material removed at and near corresponding ends of said lines to form gaugingedges, said edges serving to locate and maintain the units with either of two preselected degrees of overlap when overlapping either from left to right or from right to left.

14. Shingle units of the type comprising substantially rectangular slabs adapted to be laid in side overlapping relationship, the slabs having in opposite corners openings which are disposed symmetrically to each other in relation to diagonal lines extending between the other opposite corners, the units having material removed at and near corresponding ends of said lines to form gauging edges which determine either of two preselected degrees of overlap when laying the units from right to left or from left to right with fastening elements extending through said openings.

15. A shingle of substantially rectangular form symmetrical in respect to one diagonal, said shingle having a nail hole adjacent one corner and intersected by said diagonal, and a cut-away corner portion at the opposite end of said diagonal, the shingle also having nail holes adjacent the other two corners symmetrically disposed in relation to said diagonal.

WILLIAM L. ROWE.

US522817A 1931-03-16 1931-03-16 Shingle unit and roof built therefrom Expired - Lifetime US1968426A (en)

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US9410323B1 (en) * 2015-03-13 2016-08-09 Building Materials Investment Corporation Roofing shingle system and shingles for use therein
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US9399870B2 (en) 2014-11-21 2016-07-26 Building Materials Investment Corporation Roofing shingle system and shingles for use therein
US9399871B2 (en) 2014-11-21 2016-07-26 Building Materials Investment Corporation Roofing shingle system and shingles for use therein
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