US1957193A - Printing device - Google Patents

Printing device Download PDF


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US1957193A US55658431A US1957193A US 1957193 A US1957193 A US 1957193A US 55658431 A US55658431 A US 55658431A US 1957193 A US1957193 A US 1957193A
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Armbruster John William
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International Business Machines Corp
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International Business Machines Corp
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Priority to US425966A priority Critical patent/US2116653A/en
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    • G06K15/00Arrangements for producing a permanent visual presentation of the output data, e.g. computer output printers
    • G06K15/02Arrangements for producing a permanent visual presentation of the output data, e.g. computer output printers using printers
    • G06K15/04Arrangements for producing a permanent visual presentation of the output data, e.g. computer output printers using printers by rack-type printers


May 1, 1934. J. w. ARMBRUSTER PRINTING DEVICE 11 Sheets-Sheet l Original Filed Feb. 5, 1950 Nb R J O T I.N E w Y mw Wmv wf.; o M s o Il mi wm. l1 FMHLrE d\/ V,.... 1: 5:: "H I r: .E f@ s \O A i .am a w ww\ /\.1 .Q w O Nw ww f o o, lf wam O @(m www un WHHI lik mWW WM o nl |v .Q` L O O "v A 9 O MN b A|n$ i ,\J` 1\.| Wb V MQ WO x www" l Wh* .h\ w O l1, 11, m\\ mw www 2v vm May 1, 1934. J. w. ARMBRUSTER PRINTING DEVICE l1 Sheets-Sheet 2 Original Filed Feb. 5, 1930 May l, 1934- J. w; ARMFBRUSTER 1,957,193
PRINTING DEVICE Original Filed Feb. 5, 1930 1l Sheets-Sheet 5 FIG. 2.
l- 1- i- -I- 4- 4- FIGB.
P//YS m q n u u TYPE Z34-` 789/0 /2/3/4/5/6 /7/8A9202/232324-2526272525303/ FIGA.
.MM BY ATzNEY May 1, 1934. .1. w. ARMBRUSTER PRINTING DEVICE 11 Sheets-Sheet 4 Original Filed Feb. 5, 1930 May 1, 1934. J. w. ARMBRUSTER PRINTING DEVICE 11 Sheets-Sheet 5 Original Filed Feb. 5, 1930 ATTQRNEY @LENTOR May l, 1934- J. w. ARMBRUSTER 1,957,193
PRINTING DEVICE Original Filed Feb. 5, 1950 l1 Sheets-Sheet 7 ATTORNEY M2M/n J. w. ARMBRusTER 1,957,193
11 Sheets-Sheet 8 Original Filed Feb. 5, 1930 INVENTOR BY ATTORNEY May 1, 1934. J. w. ARMBRUSTER PRINTING DEVICE Original Filed Feb. 5, 1930 l1 Sheets-Sheet 9 May 1, 1934. J. w. ARMBRUSTER PRINTING D EVICE Original Filed Feb. 5, 1930 FIGJa VENTOR yam BY ATTORNEY May l, 1934 J. w. RMBRUSTER 1,957,193
PRINTING DEVICE Original Filed Feb. 5, 1930 l1 Sheets-Sheet ll L. whim W zaag m2 operation of the machine.
Patented May 1, 1934 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE assigner, by mesne assignments, to International Business Machines Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Original application February 5, 1930, Serial No. 425,966. Divided and this application August 12, 1931, Serial No. 556,584
19 Claims.
The primary object of this invention is to pro- 425,966, lled February 5, 1930, for accounting and tabulating machines.
The primary object of this invention is to provide an improved form of printing mechanism. The printing mechanism in this case is shown to be under control of record cards perforated in code. However, it is apparent that the novel printing features disclosed may be applied to various other types of printing machines.
Another object of the invention is to provide devices for printing duplicate records in an improved way.
A feature of the invention is the printing of a plurality of lines of data on a record sheet in one operation. rThe printing mechanism includes interspersed type members for printing more than one line of data from one group of type members in a single operation.
Another feature of the invention is the printing of bills,receipts, etc. in the regular mailing form as an incident to the performance of other accounting operations.
Another object of the invention is to provide meansfor controlling printing according to the magnitude of the data presented for printing. The data presented is compared with predetermined names, numbers, and/or dates set up in the machine by the operator.
Another object of the invention is to control printing oi" totals according to the comparison of the data presented for printing with other predetermined data decided upon by the operator of the machine.
it is also an object of the present invention to provide printing devices which are adapted to print more data simultaneously than was before possible in machines of the tabulating or accounting class. The mechanism disclosed is adapted to print from one record card in one operation the sante amount of data that before required three record cards and three operations of a machine.
By means of the present printing device a name,
`- address, amount, etc. can now be printed in one operation and in the proper position on the record media. A feature of the printing devices is that an address may be printed directly under a name, in the standard mailing form, during a single The position of the name and address on the record' paper (it may be a bill, receipt, statement, etc.) is important, especially when used in the mails with a window envelope. To secure the novel results described above, related type bars are arranged alternately between other type bars, and they are impressed against a platen by eccentrics. The use of these operating eccentrics results in a simple positive noiseless type of printing that does not require printing hammers and the space usually required 00 for such devices. An additional feature of the printing devices is that they are constructed to print a duplicate record of all matter printed.
A more complete control of the functioning of an accounting machine is also an object of this invention. Heretofore, when a control of the functioning of a machine, such as no-print, was set, that control would prevail and would not be varied no matter what data was printed, added or totalled. The present machine provides control for many of the functions of the machine that is so devised that when the data presented by the record card does not satisfy predetermined requirements, which are decided upon and set up on the machine before its operation, the said controls will separate such data from the other data that does satisfy the requirements. Because of its complexity, this object will have to be explained in detail.
In this specication, it is assumed that the date scale starts at January and progresses along to December so that July would be higher than June in the chronological scale. In the alphabetic scale, a may be taken as the rst letter and all other letters in order up to z may be mentioned hereinafter as being higher in the alphabetic scale.
An object is to make the control devices so that not .only can one denomination of a number, or period of a date, or letter of a name, be the determining factor for control of printing, but, that a full number, date or name, may be the determining factor. The highest order of the number, etc. set up will not be the only order capable of manifesting that the data presented by the card 05 is of a lower or higher place on the scale used, but every order of the setup has this power. If, for instance, 76.82 be set up for a control and 76.92 be presented by the record card, then the dimes order control devices will have the ability of manifesting that the number tendered is larger; if 77.62 be presented then the dollars order control will have this power of discrimination. The same is true of the controls in the date and alphabetic scales. When handling a number, a plurality of denominations in the control device are coupled so that control will not be exercised by a dimes, dollars or cents bank alone, although it is possible, but a full number consisting of the units, tens, hundreds, etc. denominations may be set up on the controls and then said control will be affected by the full number of units, tens, etc. denominations presented by the punched card. In a like manner, when a date is consid- ,ered, not alone can a certain year, month or day be made the controlling factor, but the full date of all three periods combined may control at the same time.
Control data comprising a date consisting of a certain year, month and day may be set up to simultaneously act as a unit in controlling according to the place in the date scale of a date on the punched card of a certain year, month, and day, which also acts as a unit. During narne control in the present machine, the first letter or any letter of a name is not alone the sole determining factor of control, although it may be so used. In a novel fashion all the letters or a few of the letters of a name may at the same time be controlling factors in selective control, according to the place a name of a man, city, state, etc. presented on a punched card, occupies in the alphabetic scale. For example, the letters OMTIN may be decided upon as the control wished exercised over certain names about to be presented in the machine by punched cards. As the cards run through the machine and the control mechanism functions not only will names such as Prota or Winte, which are higher in the alphabetic scale than the first letter, influence the controls to make manifest that these names are higher in the alphabetic scale, but names such as Omtip or Omwal will have the same influence, even though the change in the alphabetic magnitude occurs in the center or at the end of a name. To exercise this novel control the devices are arranged so that the setting of manipulative elements to a certain place in the numerical, date, or alphabetic scales, plus the setting of an element to indicate whether control is desired above, below, or exactly at that certain place in the scale used, will, upon operation of the machine control devices, vary the regular printing of the data within the control of the two elements, from that data outside of the control of the range predetermined by the two elements.
The above mentioned manipulative elements are so situated and constructed that when they are set in a particular position above the related type bar or actuator, the movement of the actuator to an extent corresponding to the particular position held by the manipulative element presents a'notch in the actuator and allows a controlling movement of the manipulative element to take place. On each side of the notch the actuator is cut to present a `different level to the said element, thus affording an indication whether the actuator has moved more or less than the number set up.
The requirements which the operator of the machine may desire are made ready to exercise control by first setting up a certain amount, number, agent, age, policy number, date, operator, occupation, name or address, by the manipulative knobs provided for the purpose; then next he can require, by moving a lever, that the above data will control in one of five different ways. The first position PRINT of the lever denotes that the machine is to function in its usual fashion, which means it will print any data presented by the punched cards. The second position of the lever is the above index position. With the lever in this position, the machine will print only the data which includes a name, number or date which is higher in the numerical, dating or alphabetic scales than that set up by the manipulative knobs. Thus, if $15.00 is set up by the knobs and a punched card presents data including the amount, $15.00, or less, that data will not be printed. However, if the data included an amount of $15.01 or more, the data would be printed.
In a like manner, if Dec 29, 21 is set up by the knobs and data is presented dated Dec 29, 21 or before, that date will not be printed, but if the data is dated Dec 30, 21 or later, printing will take place in the usual manner; so also if EN is set up by the name knobs and data is presented including a name such as ENRIGHT or EMSILL or a name lower in the alphabetic scale, that data will not be printed, however, if the data includes a name such as EODISE or EPSTEIN or a name higher in the alphabetic scale, then the data will be printed. Other data such. as policy number, kind of occupation, address, et'c. may be used to control in a similar fashion. By progressive setups of the name knobs, an alphabetical listing and sorting of a group of cards is possible. The third position of the lever is the exact position. With the lever in this position the machine will print only the data which includes a name, number, or date that is exactly the same as that requirement which is set up on the manipulative knobs by the operator of the machine. The fourth position of the lever is the below index position. Under this control the machine will print only the data including a name, number, or date which is smaller or lower in its scale than that set up on the adjustably set knobs. With this control, the action of the lever in the above index position is reversed. Taking the same examplesI of the setting of the manipulative knobs given above, then given data presenting $14.99 or less, a date of Dec 28, 21 or earlier, a name of lower than Emsill in the alphabetic scale, such data will be printed, and any data higher in the respective scale will be rejected. The fifth position of the lever is the no print position. In this position a control is effected so that printing will not occur no matter what the data on the card or the setup of the adjustable knobs.
The above general discussion gives an outline of the control exercised by the manipulative control lever and adjustable knobs during the normal operation of the machine. Aside from the above, however, other special controls are provided for use during totalling operations to vary the control in accordance with conditions existing at such times. These novel features will next be described as additional objects of this invention.
The machine includes many novel methods of totalizer engaging during total taking. An accumulator control key is part of this mechanism.
During regular adding operations this key determines whether adding will always take place or whether the adding will take place under control of the control section described above. When under such control, data not printed will also not be added. During totalling, however, depression of this key will result in novel control of the totalizer meshing with the actuator. The usualtotal, sub-total, and non-add keys are provided and they will normally cause the machine to time totalizer engagement with actuators in the usual v f:-
fashion as is their action in most accounting machines. Under such normal conditions, the total key will, when depressed, cause clearing of the totalizer and printing of the amount standing thereon. The sub-total key will cause printing of the amount standing on a totalizer, at the same time retaining the amount in the totalizer. The non-add key will, as its name implies, prevent adding. Now, however, depression of the accumulator control key in addition to one of the above mentioned keys will cause functioning not heretofore possible in any accounting machine and of decided utility in many uses of such machines. Depression of both the total and control keys will result in a control of totalling by the amount standing on the totalizer.
The control level will be put in one of the ve positions and the adjustable knobs mentioned above will be set to a particular amount. Then, upon operation of the machine any amount not meeting the requirements set by the controls will change the totalizer meshing so that the amount taken out by the restoring of the totalizer to zero will again be put in the totalizer, thus changing the totalling function to sub-totalling without printing. Therefore, the amount that does not satisfy requirements, or that for some other reason is wished retained, will be kept in the totalizer for all future operations such as additional adding operations, reference to in checking up delinquents in payment, or accounts overdrawn, etc. It is clear that the retaining of certain data in the totalizers at times, even though they are set for Zeroizing, is a useful method of operating the machine. Withwthis type of use of the machine, it could be arranged so that printing on the detail strip will always occur. This may be done by an alternative method of construction as suggested above in connection with printing.
If the sub-total and accumulator control keys are both depressed there will result a control of changing this function by the amount standing on the totalizer. The controls being set and the machine being operated, then movement of the actuators to an amount satisfying the requirements set by the controls, will change the totalizer meshing so that the amount rolled o ut of the totalizer wheels as they are brought to Zero will not be rolled back in again, thus the subtotalling function will be changed to totalling. ln this way any amount that satisfies set requirements, or for some other reason such as closing an account that is paid up, or clearing after a last installment is paid, is cleared out of the totalizer. y
The usefulness of clearing out a totalizer, when set for a sub-total isbelieved apparent. The ability of the machine to choose either a total or sub-total function and no print the data, depending upon the amount in the totalizer is believed a very useful function. It is also contemplated that additional wheels could be put on the totalizer so that all the data now presented by the punched card could be held in a storage totalizer and represented by positioned wheels. With this done, the totaling function could be varied and controlled not only by the amount standing on a totalizer but also by the date, name or some other designation presented by the totalizer when a total is being taken therefrom.
Another method of control has been devised and is thought admirably fitted for use in the present machine. It departs only slightly from theI construction of the controls mentioned above, but effects an altogether different mode of control. The controls described in outline above, control when data is below, above or exactly at a certain point in alphabetic, dating or numerical scales. This other control would be exercised between two points in a scale. One example is control between two dates such as between December and April, representing a quarter year in which it is often convenient to have the data falling within that period tabulated and recorded aside from all other data. Another example is that of amounts or numbers. At times, it is well to print data having numbers say between 500 and 800, or having amounts between 60.00 and 90.00, while no' printing other data. outside this range of numbers. So also in alphabetic control, it may be well at times to separate data including names beginning with K, L and M from all other data.
To secure between index control over a range of names between two selected names comprising a plurality of letters, the machine may contain two banks devoted to name set-up knobs. The paired knobs of one bank may be set between the lowest letters in the scale and the letters spelling the one selected name lowest in the alphabet as, for example,-AAAAA and BROWN. The knobs in the other bank may be set to the highest letters in the scale and the other selected name highest in the alphabet as,- ZZZZZ and SMITH. The name data presented to the machine would then be compared with the name set-ups in both banks, and the sorting, printing, accumulating, etc., control would be effected or disabled according to whether or not the name data fell within the range of control selected.
It is an object that this control between two points should exercise all the same controls that have been explained above in connection with the control that was exerted on data below, above and on a certain index. Such controls include printing during normal operations, while during total taking the functions of totalling and sub-totalling may be changed without printing under influence of the control devices.
An important object is to secure a selecting device that will separate out of a mass of data, a certain group of data, not alone of one characteristic but of a group of characteristics be-l tween variable limits set by the machine. Heretofore, in the knowledge cf the applicant, selection depended upon a single characteristic of the data and only by later combining the results of single selection was group selection secured.
While the above outline of objects presents the general purpose of the present invention many other worthy and novel purposes will be apparent as this specification continues.
The illustrative machine To aid in describing this invention it has been thought advisable to apply it to a specific case. A certain class of machine has been illustrated in the drawings, a general outline of which ma.- chine will be given now to help the understanding of the detail description given hereinafter. Even though this machine serves admirably to illustrate the important features of the invention it is to be understood that the specific application of these features is not intended to restrict theii` im use but that many variations and adaptations of the machine for use in other elds of business are contemplated.
A class of business has been chosen that it is thought will best illustrate the practical use of the novel features of the invention. The ma.- chine illustrated is adapted for use by a large insurance company. It is thought that such a concern may have different districts each having a group of agents who solicit the disposal .and
of the various policies of the company to the public. Each district would have a machine such as that disclosed and also have a punch card system cooperating with the machine. This punched card system would require a key punch machine and operator for transferring the incoming data from the policies, etc. onto the punched cards. These cards would then be led in accordance with a certain system. It will be assumed here that they are lecl according to the kind of policy, each group of cards say of the same color being of the same type of a policy. These policies may demand different terms of payment, some annually, some quarterly, some monthly. 'Ihe present machine will print bills or statements ready to mail calling for such payments.
The data recorded on the punched card is intended to cover most statistical requirements. There is plenty of room left on the card, after the following data is on, for other records. The data on the card includes the following items:
A number given to the policy holder that distinguishes him from any other having the same name, etc. This number is a convenient means for sorting a particular record card out of a group of other record cards. A region punched to represent an amount is also on the card. This amount is the premium of the policy and requires payment at intervals to keep the policy in force. If the amounts increase or decrease, a slight change in the layout of this machine would provide different spaces one for each amount which could be progressively printed as the policy matures.
The age of the policy holder at the date of the taking out of the policy is recorded on the card mainly for statistical use. The agents are assigned numbers and these numbers are also recorded on the record card. The agent who is responsible for the taking of the policy-is recorded by having a punching corresponding to his number inserted in a section reserved for it on the punched card. The occupation of the policy holder is given one of a number of code numbers and punching corresponding to this number is cut in an appropriate portion of the record card. The code number of the key punch operator who transfers the data to the record card is represented by a combination of holes in the card. This designation is provided merely for placing the responsibility for mistakes made in making the record cards. The date of the issue of the policy is also represented by a combination of holes on the card. This portion of the record is useful in governing the time of sending annual or periodical statements and for statistical purposes. 'I'he kind of policy is also represented on the card and may be used in sorting, aside from the card color difierentiation. The full name and address of the policy holder are also presented by code punchings on the card. These punchings provide the means for addressing the statements, besides furnishing means whereby an alphabetic listing of records according to name may be made or a listing according to location in a certain city or state is possible. The convenience of having all this data on one card instead of on three or more cards is believed apparent. Thus, it is seen that a complete record of all information concerning a policy is contained in a single record card.
Full printing facilities are incorporated in the machine for recording all the data mentioned above, as it is required. The group of punched cards upon which operation is desired is placed into a feeding rack on the machine. From this rack they are fed down into cooperation with a jacquard device which utilizes all combinations of holes on the card to move type bars or actuators to an extent necessary to place a pair of type on the bar, corresponding to said combination, opposite, two platens. Printing may then be performed on two record sheets. The one sheet is of the form of a. bill andis cut ot the supply roll and issued out of the machine after printing. This sheet is suited for mailing and may be sent out in a windowed envelope to the policy holder reminding him that a payment is due. The other sheet is in the form of a record strip and is kept in the machine, being Wound ona storage roll after each printing operation. This strip is well suited for bookkeeping or statistical department use and may be removed from the machine for such use at any period, most likely at the end of every day. Means for no-printing, total printing, and other controls will be explained hereinafter.
There is a. group of totalizers provided in the machine. The group comprises a separate totalizer for each of the 15 agents, and a grand totalizer. During regular operations the correct agents totalizer is automatically selected by a train of connections controlled by the movement of the agent typebar under control of the related combination of holes on the card. At the same time the grand totalizer is meshed simultaneously with any one of the agents totalizers. 'I'hese totalizers are operated by rack teeth cut in the amount typebars which are also under control of a section of the punched card.
Thus, it is clear that during regular operations the totalizer operation and selection is wholly automatic and under control of the punched card. However, during totalling other conditions prevail. Only one totalizer at a time is engaged, and a blank card could be placed in the jacquard device so that no selections are made by automatic means. A selection lever is provided for this purpose, and movement of it to one of the notched positions out of normal will select one of the 15 agent totalizers or the grand totalizer for totalling.
During regular operations as the cards pass through the machine, an agents totalizer will have accumulated on it the amounts standing on every card which contains the combination of holes denoting that that particular agent wrote out the policy. Thus, as the bills are issued for the policies for which a certain agent is responsible, the amounts of those bills are accumulated in the related totalizer.
Number, totalizer, and sub-totalizer keys are provided to condition the mechanism meshing the totalizers with the actuators so that a total or sub-total operation of one of the totalizers can be secured. Upon depression of the total key, movement of the selection lever to one of 16 positions, and subsequent operation of the machine, the total of the selected totalizer is printed and the totalizer is cleared. Movement of the selection lever also places a designation type in position to print upon the record material, adjacent the item, the agents number and a total sign showing that a. total was taken. At the time of taking a total it would be well to place a blank card in the jacquard frame to prevent actuation of all the feeler pins and movement of all urinecessary type bars.
In a similar manner, operation of the machine in combination with depression of the sub-totalizer key will produce a printed total of the amount standing on a certain totalizer leaving the amount in the totalizer.
A non-add key is suited for use during regular operations of the machine. At such times as this key is depressed, printing may take place but accumulation ofy the amounts in the totalizer will be prevented. One use of this feature would be when follow up or duplicate bills are needed. The amount does not want to be added at this time for then it would be presented twice inthe totalizer.
The uses to which the totalizers could be put are many. As shown in connection with the agent, they could be used to nd the commission due the agent for his efforts in placing the policies. The amount on the totalizer, of course, is the amount billed the various policy holders secured by the agent, and his commission is only a percentage of the amount. As these commissions may diminish in percentage as the policy ages, only then-:ilicies secured by him over a certain period, usually say a year, may be selected at one time. These cards as they are selected (by devices about to be described) from others of their group (printing bills and a record meanwhile) will accumulate the amount over the certain period. This amount may be printed, and in crediting the agent, it may later be multiplied by the percentage of commission that the period calls for. So also, in a like manneigcards of another period may be selected and accumulated and later totalled from the agents totalizer. This process may continue until up-to-date.
The operation may be carried on to determine the commission of 15 agents simultaneously and meanwhile the grand totalizer will record the sum amounts upon which the commissions for all agents are based. The agents commission may also vary with the kind of policy. This condition could be taken care of exactly as the one above explained only selection of accumulation would depend on kind of policy rather than on date. When the commission is aiected by two of the characteristics of a policy there can be two selections by two operations of the machine. The first operation could be non-add and merely selects required cards according to one characteristic. The next operation could select and add according to the other characteristic.
The above example of letting the totalizer represent an agent was chosen for its simplicity. There are many other uses to which they may be put in the machine perhaps to better advantage, but it is believed that the essence of the invention is fairly well illustrated when used as described. The totalizers may represent a kind of policy, a certain period of time, or even the policy holder. Many novelv conditions would be brought about if the machine were provided with a large number of totalizers, each one representing a policy holder and being selected by the policy holder number. Then the amount accumulated on a totalizer would represent the amount paid on. a policy, providing that all Jthe bills issued by the machine were paid. If they were not paid, any follow-up system as now used would detect delinquents. Dividends, etc. could be figured -from the amount held by the various totalizers.
At the front of the machine is located a control section. It consists of a control lever on one side and a control plate extending across the machine and having a plurality of notched slots along which knurled knobs may be shifted. The control lever is shiftable in a notched slot to one of ve controlling positions. Each position determines in what way the control knobs are to effect control of the accounting operations of the machine. Each control knob cooperates with a related type bar or actuator and has as many controlling positions as the type bar has printing positions, for example, the months control knob has 12 controlling positions. These control knobs are arranged in groups, each group being a separate characteristic of the data handled by the machine. For example, there are 5 amount control knobs, 3 date control knobs (year, month, day), 2 policy holders name control knobs, etc. It is contemplated that only one group of knobs be used for controlling at a time, although there is no reason why two or more groups should not be used as a simultaneous control. To aid in placing the control knobs in position, the slots in the control plate are notched and on the side of each notch are indicia identifying the position. So that 'once a certain number, name, or date is decided upon as a desired control, all that is necessary is to lift the related group of control knobs out of their inoperative position at the front of the control plate and move them to, and place them in, the notches corresponding to the number, name, or date selected. The knobs will remain in this position until moved by the machine operator for other control. In this position they are adapted to change the' functioning of the machine in many ways, the one way in which they are to control at one time being determined by the control lever already mentioned. This control lever in one position (PRINT) disables the controlling action of the knobs so that printing accumulating, etc. will occur no matter what position the control knobs occupy.
In the next position "above index of the lever the control is exerted on data whose magnitude in their respective scale is below that to which the control knobs have been set. For example, if the amount control knobs are set to $3.69, and a card with an amount of $3.75 is tendered to the machine, this data will be acceptable,'a.nd printing will occur in the normal manner. If the amount had been $3.65, however, the controlswould have functioned to prevent the printing of the data. In the same manner any other group of controls, say in the name or date scales, would have exerted their control on any data presented that was lower in their scale. The exact index position of the lever is one of decided utility. When the lever is in this position and the control knobs of a group are placed to represent an amount, name, date, etc. only the data including that certain amount, name, or date will be printed. For example, if Jan. 10, 1920 is set on the date control knobs, only data including that date will be printed. In the next position below index of the lever, the conditions described above in relation to the above index position are just reversed. For example, if SM be set on the name control knobs at this time, data including a name such as SLOSS will be printed but if a name such as SNOVER is presented, the data associated therewith will not be printed. The next position NO PRINT of the lever controls for preventing printing no matter what data is presented by the punched cards or in what position the control knobs rest. Another position, a control mechanism for which is shown in the drawings, could be added on the lever. It would control between two points set by two control knobs in a slot of any scale. For example, two knobs in the date scale could be set at Mar and July, then operation of the machine would print only that data of a date between Mar and July. All others would be rejected.
These various controls above mentioned are very useful for statistical work in a large insurance business. A few of the examples of how the machine may be'employed in such a business will now be given. The amount control knobs may be set to a certain amount and then with the control levers in exact index" position only policies having that certain premium will be listed, sorted, and accumulated, out of all others. 'I'he record furnished by using this control and setting up different amounts until all cards are recorded would show which is the popular premium and which is second in demand, etc. Or, with the lever in above index" position and the amount control knobs set to a certain amount, only policies having premiums larger than that certain amount will be printed. All others will be merely fed through the machine. So also with below index" control, only policies of smaller premiums than set up will be recorded. And with a "between index" control only policies having premiums ranging between the amounts set up will be recorded.
With the age control knobs set to a certain age and the control lever in "exact index position, only those policies having, in the data on them, that certain age will be printed. All others will be discarded. If this control is used in conjunction with the date control the statistics can always be kept up to date regarding the age of policy holders, the age on the record card being that of the policy holder when taking out the policy. The method to use would be, rst, sort the cards according to date, giving a batch of cards for each year, say 1916, 1917, 1918, etc. Then, if the present date is 1920 and the 1917 batch of cards is being tabulated under an age control of 25, the real age of the people holding those 1917 policies is 28 years, and this fact could be considered in compiling the statistics.
With the above index or below index control being exercised, only policies in which the holders are above or below respectively the age set up by knobs will be recorded. This control would be well employed in finding how many policies are outstanding to people in a dangerous age, say above 85 years and below 9 years. The between index control would eifect such a control also if the age control knobs are set to include a certain range of ages, say between 5 and 9 years. All policies allotted to children of 'that age would be recorded and all other policies would not be recorded.
If lthe agents control knob be set in a certain position and the machine operated under exact index control, only the policies secured by the certain agent will be recorded. If either the above index, below index or "between index be used only policies secured by agents in the group respectively above, below, or between the setup will be recorded. This control will be especially useful if the agents are divided into groups for competitive purposes, one group being matched with another in soliciting business.
The number assigned to each policy holder and represented on the punched card may also be made useful in conjunction with the control mechanism. The data on the cards may be selected according to such a number or group of numbers. The policies may be numbered in the order of their issuance. Then, in commotion with the date selection, there can be found and tabulated the number of policies issued between certain dates, or in another case requiring thc data of a certain group of policies between two policy numbers, after setting of the number control knobs, operation of the machine will record this information.
I1' the cards upon which mistakes have been made in transferring the data from the policy to the card are separated out of the main bunch of cards, means is provided for flxing the responsi bility of such errors. A section on the card is allotted to record the key punch operators'number. The control section is provided with an operator control knob and means of selecting the cards of one or a group of operators for tabulation. So that out of the bunch of cards, the ones made by a certain operator may be selected and recorded, or the cards made by a certain group of operators may be separately recorded.
An occupation control knob is provided on the control plate and the punched cards are adapted to receive a combination of punched holes representing the policy holders occupation. By means of these provisions the data on some of the cards because of having common occupational requirements may be selected out of the-other data presented to the machine. Also, a group'of occupations representing a common class of labor may be the determining factor in the selection of data.
'I'he date control may exercise very useful functioning in the machine. By this means the expired policies may be selected from the others. Periodical payment of the premiums may be insured by the control of the dating data over the issuance of the bills. The annual paying policies could be selected according to the month of their issue. Say a policy was taken out on May 14, 1916, then a bill should be issued May l, 1917, May 1, 1918, etc. That could be done in the machine by settng the date control knobs to control between May and June. Then, all policies dated in that class would be selected and tabulated and have bills printed. In a like manner, policies payable quarterly would be picked from a group four times a year.
Say the quarterly policy is dated June 10, 1917 then on the date of Sept. 1, 1917, Dec. 1, 1917, and Mar. 1, 1918, etc. the date control knob will be placed at June position and the data on all the June policies including the one above will be printed on a bill and a record strip, the amount will be accumulated in a totalizer and grand totalizer and the card will be sorted. To sort out and print a record of expired policies, the control lever is set to below index and the date (20 or 30 years prior to the present date, according to kind of policy) is set up on the date control knobs. Then, out of the cards run through the machine, those below the set date, in other words expired, will be tabulated, accumulated, and sorted from the rest. As shown, one control bank is provided for the year designation, giving control extending over 32 years. However, two banks may be assigned to this designation if a longer range of time control is desired.
The kind of policy control may be utilized to sort the cards for placement in their proper office files; .Two banks of controls are provided j vforthis characteristic so that more than 900 different'kinds of policies could be selectively controlled., 'j
The name control is one that may have a multitude of uses. Only two banks of con- .ncityn trois are shown devoted to this designation, as the iirst two letters of a name will generally place it in a group of names that is not too large. Where a large number of names are handled and many names differ only in the third or fourth letter, then additional controls should be provided as shown in connection with the city" name. In the present machine, by setting the control lever to exact position and the name control knobs to AB, AC, AD, etc. successively, and running a bunch of cards through between each set up, an alphabetic listing of the names, plus the data associated therewith on those cards may be had. In the'same manner a card containing a particular name may be picked out of a bunch of cards.
An address of a policy holder may determine selective control. The record card has provisions for street and street number printing, also space for city and state designation. The control section has city and state control knobs so that selection may be determined by geographical location of policy holders. With the control knobs set in a formation of Boston and the control lever in exact position ony the policies for holders residing in Boston will be tabulated. So also by means of the STATE control knobs a larger district, say, PENN., may be taken under control for recording.
From the above examples as applied to the insurance business only a few adaptations of this flexibly controlled machine may be observed. At any time during its operation and regardless of the position of the control knobs, printing or no printing may be had by setting of the control lever to either of those positions. The controls may also be used in combination where a plurality of characteristics of the data, any one of which is a desired controlling factor are wished to exercise control at the same time. An example of this would exist when there are set in controlling positions the control knobs for a certain agent and a certain date. Then not only would control be governed by the one characteristic, the agent, but the date of the data presented would also exercise control.
The ordinary total taking functions of this machine have been discussed above, but the machine is capable of other novel usefulness when totalling is done under control of the control section. This is accomplished by depressing an accumulator control key at the same time a total key is depressed.
When totalling is done under control it is possible to change, during operation of the machine, the function of totalling to a sub-total, or a subtotal to a total without printing a record, the change being made when the amount standing in the totalizer selected does not satisfy the control amount that is set up by the amount control knobs and the control lever. To take an example, let us say that the agents commission is figured every month from the receipts of the month for which the agent is responsible, and that another condition is that no agent shall receive commissions on receipts of less than $200, but that the amount of receipts, even though they are less than $200, will be retained in the account of the agent for the next month when commissions will again be figured. To do this in the machine all that is necessary after shifting the selection lever to the position of the desired agent and depressing the total key is to depress the accumulator control key set up $200 on the amount control knobs,
position the control lever in below index position and operate the machine. Then, if that certain agents totalizer contains less than 200 the item will not be printed but instead of a total being taken a sub-total will take place and the amount will be retained in the totalizer.
The control may also be exercised by the control of amounts above the set` up amount. The agents may be rewarded by a bonus if receipts fora month are larger than $3000. Also' the size of the bonus will depend on the amount of the receipts over 3000. To retain all amounts over 3000 in the totalizers for later reference all that is required when totalling besides selecting the desired totalizer, depressing the total key, is to depress the accumulator control key, set up 3000 on the amount control knobs, put the control lever in above index position and operate the machine. If the amount in the totalizer is more than 3000 a sub-total will take place and the amount will remain standing on the totaliz-er Wheels instead of being cleared out.
The way of changing the totalling functions as outlined above may also be used with the control lever in either exact or between index positions when a problem is presented for such a condition.
A control may also be had during sub-totalling for changing this function to totalling and clearing out whatever amount is in the totalizer. This control may also be of the forms above, below, exact or between index. An incident of such a use follows:
We will assume that throughout the year the monthly receipts of the agents are recorded and punched cards made so that a tabulation may be made at the close of the year. At that time, after clearing the totalizers of the last months receipts, all the receipts of the year are accumulated into the totalizer. It is assumed that any agent not doing business throughout the year of at least $2,500 will have his agency taken away from him. With that purpose in View, the`subtotal key is depressed, the selection lever is positioned and then the amount control knobs are set to 2,500, the control lever is put at below index, the accumulation control kcy is depressed and the machine is operated. Upon operation, if the amount in the totalizer is less than 2,500 instead of a sub-total being taken as intended, the totalizer will be cleared to zero and so will be in condition to receive a new account. A record of agents to be retained for having their quota will be printed at the same time. With all the same conditions above in force, but the control lever in above index position, upon operation of the machine, a printed record of the agents to be discharged as not having over 2,500 will -be secured the sub-total changing to a total in order to clear the totalizers containing more than 2500.
The machine may be employed in other classes or fields of business, for example, banking. Minor changes in construction may be necessary bi't nothing involving skill. We will take for a concrete example that 500 checking accounts are to be taken care of The minimum amount allowed to stand in an account is to be $200. If the account falls below this figure during the month a charge is to be made at the end of the month. Also, daily slips are to be printed indicating accounts overdrawn. Amounts will, of course, be added and subtracted at different times from the amounts in the accounts. At the end of every business day the amount standing in each account is to be noted to detect overdrafts or accounts lower than $200.
To meet these requirements, the machine would have 500 totalizers, one for each account, of a form as shown, connections being made from each totalizer to the amount racks. The means for controlling the totalizers may be punched cards as shown, or a keyboard may be provided for setting up the data. The printing and controlling sections may be used just as they are. During the day the amounts on checks drawn on a certain account are'substracted (by complements) from the related totalizer, while deposits made in the same account are added to the totalizer. At the end of a day or any period, all the overdrawn accounts will have an abnormally large amount standing on the totalizer, a ligure such as 99,947 showing that the account has been overdrawn $53. This defaultication can be noticed immediately when the check causing the overdraft is tabulated in the machine if the items printed on the record strip are noted through a window in the case. But if desired, at the end of the day a printed list and printed sheets of all overdrawn accounts may be had at once.
To do this, the amount control knobs are set at 90,000, the control lever is set at above index, the accumulator control key and sub-total key are depressed and the machine is operated between successive selections of the totalizers. Then, as sub-totals are taken of the different totalizers, if one comes along upon which more than $90,000 is present, the control will be exercised and will print an extra slip and change the sub-total to a total, clearing that totalizer. If desired, the sub-total may be taken and the amount left in the totalizer (even though control is exercised) by not depressing the ,accumulator control key. After all 500 accounts have been selected, the overdraft slips may be gathered and noted and used as notices to the account holder, of the state of his account.
Now, we also wish to detect any account having less than $200 registered in a related totalizer at the end of a day. To do this the amount control knobs are set to $200, the control lever is put in below index position, the sub-total key is depressed, and the machine is operated between successive selections of the different totalizers Any account that has less than $200 will then Veffect the printing of a slip. 'I'he slip will, of
course, have imprinted upon it not only the amount standing in the totalizer but also a designation (by number or name) of the totalzer selected.
In the making of monthly statements the machine may also be useful. We will assume that the old balance is recorded at the head of a new statement sheet with the designation of the account. rlhis can be done at the end of a month by the machine set to take an ordinary sub-total. At the end of the first day in the month the old balance is noted and the amount set up on the control knobs, the control lever is moved to exact position, the related totalizer is selected, sub-total key depressed, and the machine operated.
Every totalizer containing an amount similar to its old `Jalance will print a slip showing that no transactions in the related account have been made during the day. If no slip is printed, however, the control lever should be moved to either above index" or below index until a slip is printed. This slip will show a difference of the account over the old balance and this difference may thus be noted on the statement sheet. With few changes the machine disclosed could be made to no-print the amount if it is exactly the same as the old balance and print the amount when it is diierent. Another change would allow the use of the statement sheet as an inserted slip so that printing of change in account would be done directly on the statement. These 'two changes would increase the speed of making a statement record.
In government work also there are many conditions where use may be made of the novel features herein disclosed. This may include payroll, census and statistical work. The statistical work would involve examples somewhat like those given above in adapting this invention to an insurance business. The census tabulations would be expedited in no small measure by the ability of this device to simultaneously pick out any one of a select group of characteristics for tabulation. For example, recording of data concerning people between ages of l0 to 20 or 20 to 30, etc. or data relating to manufacturing establishments having a capital between $50,000 to $60,000, etc. the data can be selected,printed and sorted simultaneously and does not necessitate separate selection for each characteristic. Tabulation according to each individual characteristic can be had, of course, when desired.
In large stores having merchandise that is sold on the installment plan many uses of the present machine may be developed. For example, a totalizer may be assigned to each opening installment account. 'I'he totalizers may be grouped according to the amount, all the totalizers in a group being supposed to receive the same amount every month. As installments are paid they are added in the totalizer. 'Ihe bills requesting the installment payments may be made in a manner similar to the insurance bills noted above. When the amount-in the account falls below the required standing of the group, the control mechanism in below index position will control printing to issue the bill.
The above portion of the description is a general outline of some of the objects of the invention and uses of the machine. The several sections of the machine will now e described in detail with reference to the drawings which accompany and form part of the specification.
Fig. 1A is a side elevation view of the forward portion of the machine showing the operating connections for the printing, controlling and paper feeding mechanisms.
Fig. 1B is a continuation of Fig. 1A and is a side elevation view of the rear portion of the machine showing the card feeding, sensing and sorting mechanisms, also the motor and connections to the operating mechanism for totalizer engagement.
Fig. 2 is a view of a perforated record card. It is perforated as a card would have to be in order to actuate the machine and print a record as shown in Fig. 13.
Fig. 3 shows the different combinations of holes possible with ve holes in combination. It also shows the number of steps of movement given the actuators of the machine, and the corresponding alphabetic and date printing positions of the actuators for each combination of holes.
Fig. 4 shows the different combinations of holes possible with four holes in combination. It also shows the number of steps of movement given the actuators of the machine for each combination of holes.
Fig. 5 is a side elevation view of the mechanisrn for converting the depression of four rods, in a jacquard mechanism sensed by four holes in a card in different combinations, into 16 different extents of movement of a type bar and totalizer actuator.
Fig. 6 is a side elevation view of the mechanism for converting the depression of five rods in different combinations into 32 different extents of movement of a typebar containing letters, dates, or numbers.
Fig. 7 is a side elevation view showing the arrangement of three of the mechanisms shown in Fig. 5 so as to be able to operate all three from a single bank of 12 rods in the connection box of the jacquard mechanism.
Fig. 8 is a side elevation view showing the arrangement of two of the mechanisms shown in Fig. 6 so as to be able to operate both from a single bank of 10 rods in the connection box of the jacquard mech Fig. 9 is a side elevation view of the control and printing mechanisms.
Fig. 10 is a detail view of a form of control construction for setting up two control characteristics.
Fig. 10a is a detail view of another form of manipulative control setting devices.
Fig.,11 is a sectional detail view taken along line 11-11 in Fig. 9 and showing the type bars and platens in printing position.
Fig. 12 is a sectional view of the platens and the platen raising and lowering mechanism.
Fig. 13 is a sample of a statistical record sheet printed by the machine.
Fig. 14 is a sample of the detail strip retained in the machine.
Fig. 15 is a sample bill issued by the machine.
Fig. 16 is a front sectional elevation view of the type bars and manipulative control knobs.
Fig. 17 is a plan view of the control plate and manipulative knobs showing the controlling positions of the knobs.
Casing and framework In Figs. 1A and 1B there is shown oneside of the main frame ofthe machine which serves to support most of the various mechanisms to be described. This frame is composed of right side frame 50 and a left side frame 51, each near its respective side of the machine. The space between the frames may be provided with intermediate bracing frames if additional support for the cross shafts and bars is desired. Many of the cross shaftsuse the two side frames for bearings while other shafts and bars are fixed in the frames and act as tie rods. The two vertical frames are secured to and supported by a base plate 52.
The machine is constructed so that the bulk of the operating parts are located between the two side frames 50 and 5l, although at each side there is an overhang of certain portions of the mechanisms including a number of the main through shafts. It will be apparent as the description progresses that wherever possible the various distinct features of the machine have been constructed as individual units having their cwn supporting frames which are separably mounted and secured in place on an appropriate portion of the main supporting structure.
The frames 50 and 51 extend at the rear (Fig. 1B) to support the card feeding, sensing, and sorting'inechanisms mounted on the rear of the machine.
A casing 53 covers most of the machine leaving an open space for the insertion of the record cards. The case also has apertures through which the controlling keys are depressed and the levers are rocked. A hinged cover plate 54 in the case when lifted gives access to the record material which may then be removed and replenished.
Main operating mechanism In the following description the operating connections will be traced from the power source up to the point of application. The application of the driving parts will be described further on in connection with the mechanism with which they are used. Mounted on the base 52 is an electric motor 55 (Fig. 1B) the shaft 56 of which extends into a gear reduction unit 57. This gear reduction device may consist of the usual worm on the motor shaft with a cooperating worm wheel. Connected to the worm wheel is one side of a clutch, the other portion of the clutch being attached to a drive shaft 58. The clutch is housed in a portion 59 of the frame 57.
Although not shown, it is assumed that all the usual adjuncts of the above mentioned operating devices will be furnished, such as a switch for the motor, an operating bar for the clutch which may be held down for continuous operation of the machine or touched for single operations of the machine, and an interlock preventing operation of the clutch during operation of a controlling key or vice versa. Also attached to the drive shaft 58 is a gear 60 and a chain sprocket 61. The gear 60 is in mesh with a gear 62 and actuates this gear through a single revolution on each operation of the machine. The gear 62 then transmits its motion to similar sized gears 63, 64, and 65, that contain operating cams and projections for actuating the various devices shown in Fig. 1B. For the purpose of transmitting the motion of the operating shaft to the front of the machine a chain 66 is secured around sprocket 61 from which it runs forward to a sprocket 67 (Fig. 1A), loosely mounted on a stud 68 in side frame 50. Attached to the sprocket 67 is a gear 69 having a cam groove for operating the control mechanism. This gear 69 is in mesh with another gear 70 which is loosely pivoted on a stud 71 in the right side frame. Gear 70 has attached thereto a cam 72 for operating a preliminary control device; also attached are two mutilated gears, the gear 73 has a single group of teeth 74 for operating the printing mechanism, the other gear '75 has two groups of teeth 76 for actuating the paper feeding devices.
Card handling devices The following section of this specification deals with the means for holding, feeding, sensing and sorting the record cards employed in the machine.
A box 77 (Fig. 1B) is secured to the rear extensions of the side frames 50 and 51. Fastened in the box is a shelf 78 upon which resets the record cards 79 and a follow up weight 80. The weight 80, by means such as a spring or weighted pulley, keeps the record cards before its face frictionally held against a plate 81. Between the plate 81 and the shelf 78 is an open space through which only one card may pass at a time. When fed through this space the card falls into the sensing mechanism between plate 81 and a pin pawl 88.
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Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2627805A (en) * 1949-06-04 1953-02-10 Ibm Device for printing and nonprinting as controlled by comparison of dates
US2647460A (en) * 1949-02-26 1953-08-04 Ibm Record controlled duplicate printing machine
US2661684A (en) * 1949-04-06 1953-12-08 Ibm Check writing interpreter
US2824513A (en) * 1955-09-08 1958-02-25 Ibm Positioning mechanism in selective type printing machine
US2829593A (en) * 1954-12-30 1958-04-08 Ibm Wire printer
US2873669A (en) * 1954-08-24 1959-02-17 Sperry Rand Corp Tabulating machine for billing
US3122996A (en) * 1959-12-09 1964-03-03 heatwole
US3146702A (en) * 1961-11-20 1964-09-01 Teleregister Corp Printer for data processing apparatus
US3146700A (en) * 1961-11-20 1964-09-01 Teleregister Corp Printer for data processing apparatus
US3146701A (en) * 1961-11-20 1964-09-01 Teleregister Corp Printer for data processing apparatus
US3275806A (en) * 1958-10-20 1966-09-27 Cummins Chicago Corp Business record bearing coded indicia
US3458692A (en) * 1965-04-07 1969-07-29 Toledo Scale Corp Computing and printing weighing scale with multiplexing circuitry for double use of system components

Families Citing this family (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2230129A (en) * 1936-05-06 1941-01-28 Ibm Accounting machine
US2434487A (en) * 1941-09-13 1948-01-13 Ibm Record controlled adding and comparing machine
US2738874A (en) * 1949-01-31 1956-03-20 Ibm Record controlled machine
US2687250A (en) * 1951-03-23 1954-08-24 Ibm Combined record sorting and accounting machine
US2690297A (en) * 1951-05-07 1954-09-28 Ibm Combined record sorting and accounting machine
US3040977A (en) * 1959-09-14 1962-06-26 Olivetti & Co Spa Function control mechanism for manual adding machines

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2647460A (en) * 1949-02-26 1953-08-04 Ibm Record controlled duplicate printing machine
US2661684A (en) * 1949-04-06 1953-12-08 Ibm Check writing interpreter
US2627805A (en) * 1949-06-04 1953-02-10 Ibm Device for printing and nonprinting as controlled by comparison of dates
US2873669A (en) * 1954-08-24 1959-02-17 Sperry Rand Corp Tabulating machine for billing
US2829593A (en) * 1954-12-30 1958-04-08 Ibm Wire printer
US2824513A (en) * 1955-09-08 1958-02-25 Ibm Positioning mechanism in selective type printing machine
US3275806A (en) * 1958-10-20 1966-09-27 Cummins Chicago Corp Business record bearing coded indicia
US3122996A (en) * 1959-12-09 1964-03-03 heatwole
US3146702A (en) * 1961-11-20 1964-09-01 Teleregister Corp Printer for data processing apparatus
US3146700A (en) * 1961-11-20 1964-09-01 Teleregister Corp Printer for data processing apparatus
US3146701A (en) * 1961-11-20 1964-09-01 Teleregister Corp Printer for data processing apparatus
US3458692A (en) * 1965-04-07 1969-07-29 Toledo Scale Corp Computing and printing weighing scale with multiplexing circuitry for double use of system components

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US1989840A (en) 1935-02-05

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