US1835018A - Turbine having its rotating shaft transverse to the flow of the current - Google Patents

Turbine having its rotating shaft transverse to the flow of the current Download PDF

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Publication number
US1835018A
US1835018A US13884426A US1835018A US 1835018 A US1835018 A US 1835018A US 13884426 A US13884426 A US 13884426A US 1835018 A US1835018 A US 1835018A
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Prior art keywords
shaft
turbine
blades
fluid
section
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Darrieus Georges Jean Marie
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LEBLANC VICKERS MAURICE SA
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LEBLANC VICKERS MAURICE SA
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03BMACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS
    • F03B17/00Other machines or engines
    • F03B17/06Other machines or engines using liquid flow with predominantly kinetic energy conversion, e.g. of swinging-flap type, "run-of-river", "ultra-low head"
    • F03B17/062Other machines or engines using liquid flow with predominantly kinetic energy conversion, e.g. of swinging-flap type, "run-of-river", "ultra-low head" with rotation axis substantially at right angle to flow direction
    • F03B17/063Other machines or engines using liquid flow with predominantly kinetic energy conversion, e.g. of swinging-flap type, "run-of-river", "ultra-low head" with rotation axis substantially at right angle to flow direction the flow engaging parts having no movement relative to the rotor during its rotation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D1/00Non-positive-displacement machines or engines, e.g. steam turbines
    • F01D1/02Non-positive-displacement machines or engines, e.g. steam turbines with stationary working-fluid guiding means and bladed or like rotor, e.g. multi-bladed impulse steam turbines
    • F01D1/12Non-positive-displacement machines or engines, e.g. steam turbines with stationary working-fluid guiding means and bladed or like rotor, e.g. multi-bladed impulse steam turbines with repeated action on same blade ring
    • F01D1/14Non-positive-displacement machines or engines, e.g. steam turbines with stationary working-fluid guiding means and bladed or like rotor, e.g. multi-bladed impulse steam turbines with repeated action on same blade ring traversed by the working-fluid substantially radially
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D3/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially perpendicular to the air flow entering the rotor 
    • F03D3/04Wind motors with rotation axis substantially perpendicular to the air flow entering the rotor  having stationary wind-guiding means, e.g. with shrouds or channels
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D3/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially perpendicular to the air flow entering the rotor 
    • F03D3/04Wind motors with rotation axis substantially perpendicular to the air flow entering the rotor  having stationary wind-guiding means, e.g. with shrouds or channels
    • F03D3/0427Wind motors with rotation axis substantially perpendicular to the air flow entering the rotor  having stationary wind-guiding means, e.g. with shrouds or channels with augmenting action, i.e. the guiding means intercepting an area greater than the effective rotor area
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D3/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially perpendicular to the air flow entering the rotor 
    • F03D3/06Rotors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D3/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially perpendicular to the air flow entering the rotor 
    • F03D3/06Rotors
    • F03D3/062Construction
    • F03D3/065Construction the wind engaging parts having no movement relative to the rotor during its rotation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2210/00Working fluid
    • F05B2210/16Air or water being indistinctly used as working fluid, i.e. the machine can work equally with air or water without any modification
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2240/00Components
    • F05B2240/20Rotors
    • F05B2240/21Rotors for wind turbines
    • F05B2240/211Rotors for wind turbines with vertical axis
    • F05B2240/212Rotors for wind turbines with vertical axis of the Darrieus type
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/20Hydro energy
    • Y02E10/28Tidal stream or damless hydropower, e.g. sea flood and ebb, river, stream
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/74Wind turbines with rotation axis perpendicular to the wind direction

Description

1931- G. .1. M. DARRIEUS TURBINE HAVING ITS ROTATING SHAFT TRANSVERSE TO THE FLOW OF THE CURRENT Filed on 1 1926 INVENTOR 25 The present invention this section undergoes.

Patented Dec. 8,1931

UNITED STATES.

PATENT OFFICE GEORGES JEAN HABIE DLBBIIEUB, 01' PARIS, IBiANCE. ASSIGNOB'TO LIO- mu POUR LEXPLOITLTION YABIS, FRANCE nus rnocnnns mimics LEBLANG-VICKEBS, or

TUBBHWE HAVING I'IS BOTATIN G SHAFT TRANSVEBSE TO THE FLOW THE CU Application filed October 1,.1926, Serial No. 138,;4, andln l'ranoe Qctober 9, 1m.

' for even when the blades comprising them are not subjected to an adverse eifect by the fluid over a part of its course which counteracts the movement, their system of o eration in the active part of --this course is efective inasmuch as it is inseparable from the formation, down stream of eddies and discontinuities from which the kinetic energy given up to the fluid which has passed through the apparatus, represents an appreciable loss.

2. Their eripheral speed, in almost every case, is at t e most equal to that of the wind which entails the provision of large active-surfaces and a heavy and costl transmission.

as for its object a turbine in which the blades which receive the action of the wind always'present the same surface to the direction of the relative wind, and furthermore rotate at such a speed that this relative wind only undergoes a limited angular displacement with regard go she tangent of the trajectory of these '18. es. s

It is thus possible to give these blades stream line section analogous to that of the wings of birds, that is to say, offering the minimum resistance to forward movement and capable of converting into mechanical energy the maximum available amount of 40 energy of the fluid by means of the useful component of the transverse thrust which In the particular embodiment illustrated in Fig. 1, theblades a, whereof each is piv- Figure 6 is a diminished view in elevation of the perferred embodiment of my invention shown in Figure 2. 1

My turbine is so constructed as to offer a speed which much exceeds the speed of the current and in this event theratio is very great and'since the angle between the relative speed w and the ri heral. s d u will in no case exceed t e limiting eadin angle after which there would be produce a separation of the lines of the current along the profile, I may dis ense with the oscillation of the blades an hold them ri dly in position between two supporting 'scs or plates e. The blades a may be secured to their supporting disc e b any suitable means or method, such as weldin or the like.

The blades a may be eit er rectilinear and parallel to the shaft so as to form, when assembled, a cylindrical drum or squirrel cag:

as shown in Figures 2 and 6, or they may shown in the drawings.

In the examples described above the utili- 45 otally mounted on an axle b, are connected j with a kinematic device which may consist of the links 0 attached to a common eccentric zation of a fluid current of indefinite dimensions and constant direction, or on the other hand, variable in every direction, has been ring (1 which rotates, with the turbine; so that when in rotation,'the said blades will 5 .oscillate to a moderate degree on-either side considered, such as the wind, a river or torrent which is not canalized, rolling or choppy sea, etc.

It is possible, without departing from the scope of the invention, to arrange the above described wheels in channels it or tanks of a form suitable for directing the fluid on to direction for each of the half circles which separate the points 6, the utilization of all the stream lines of the fluid is'complete with the exception of course of the friction losses due in particular to the resistance of the blade section and the losses due to leakage through the gaps.

A turbine of this ln'nd, in consequence of its high specific velocity and its slmplicity is particularly adapted for utilizing the tides or rivers with a low fall, especially the exceptional quantities available at high water. What I claim is: M 7 i 1., The combinationin afluid turbine having a vertically-extending axle shaft, of'a plurality: of blades of substantially semicircular. form, the ends of each blade being rigidly secured to opposite longitudinallyspaced points on said shaft each of said blades having a substantially stream line section. v

' 2. The combination with a fluid turbine having a verticallyrextending axle shaft, of

a plurality of spaced blades rigidly secured thereto,.each of said blades having a substantially semicircular form, each of said blades having a substantially stream line section.

3. The combination with a fluid turbine having a vertically-extending axle shaft, of a plurality of equally spaced blades of substantially semicircular form,-theends of each blade being rigidly secured to opposite longitudinally-spaced points on said shaft, each of said blades having a substantially stream line section.

4. The combination with, a "fluid turbine having a vertically-extending axle shaft, of a plurality ofblades of substantially semiclrcular form rigidly secured thereto, each of said blades having a substantially streamline section, said-section having a width of a value which is but a small percentage of the diameter of. the largest circle described in the rotation of said turbine.

5. The combination with a fluid turbine having a vertically-extending axle shaft, of a plurality of blades, the extreme ends of each blade being rigidly secured to opposite longitudinally spaced points on said shaft, sai blades having a fine-stream-line outline.

6. The combination as set forth in claim 5 I provided with means for directing the actuating fluid upon the turbine in such manner that substantially all of the actuating fluid engages said blades.

7. The combination with a fluid turbine having an extending axle shaft, of a plurality of blades, the extreme ends of each blade being rigidly secured to longitudinallythe extreme ends of each blade beingrigidly secured to longitudinally-spaced polnts on said shaft. I

9.- The combination in a fluid turbine having a vertically extending axle shaft, of a plurality of blades of stream-line outline and substantially semi-circular form, the ends of each blade being rigidly secured to opposite longitudinally spaced points on said shaft.

10. The combination with a fluid turbine having a vertically extending axle shaft of a plurality of spaced blades rigidly secured thereto, each of said blades having a streamline section. i

11. The combination with a fluid turbine having a shaft at right angles to the direction of the flow, of a plurality of blades having a substantiallysemicircular form rigidly secured thereto, each of said'blades having a substantially stream-line section, said section having a width of a value which is but a small percentage of the diameter of the largest circle described in the rotation of said turbine. I

12. The combination with a'fluid turbine having a shaft at right angles to the direction of the fluid,'of a plurality of blades, the extreme ends of each blade being rigidly secured to opposite longitudinally-spaced oints on said shaft, said blades having a e stream-line outline. 13. The combination with a fluid turbine having a shaft at ri ht angles to the directionv of the fluid, of having a stream-line section, said section having a width of a value which is but a small percentage of the diameter of the largest circle described ,in the rotation'of said turbine, the longitudinal axis of each section being substantially tangent to the circle described by one of its points. .5

14. The combination with" a fluid turbine having a shaft arranged in a vertical direction, of a plurality of blades having a streamline section, said section having a width of a value which is but a small percentage of the diameter of the largest circle described in the rotation of said turbine, the longitudinal axis of each section being substantially tangent to the circle described by one of its points.

15. The combination with a fluid turbine a plurality of blades having a shaft at right angles to the direction of the fluid, of a plurality of blades parallel to this shaft having a stream-line section, said section having width of a value which is but a small percentage of thediameter of the largest circle described in the rotation of the turbine, the longitudinal axis of each section being substantlally tangent to the circle described by one of its points.

16. The combination with a fluid turbine 9 having a vertically extending shaft of a plurality of blades parallel to this shaft having a stream-line section, said section having a Width of a value which is but a small percentage of the diameter of the largest circle described inthe rotation of the turbine, the longitudinal axis of each section being substantially tangent to the circle described by one of its points.

17. The combination with a fluid turbine having a shaft at right angles to the direction of the fluid, of a plurality of blades parallel to said shaft having stream-line sections, the longitudinal axes of all these sections being all tangent to a common circle concentric with said shaft, said sections having a width of a value which is but a small percentage of the diameter of said circle.

18. The combination with a fluid turbine having a vertically extending shaft, of a plurality of blades parallel to said shaft having stream-line sections, the longitudinal axes of these stream-line sections being all tangent to a common circle concentric with said shaft, said sections having a width of a value which is but a small percentage of the diameter of said circle.

19. The combination with a fluid turbine having a shaft at right angles to the direction of the fluid, of two discs mounted on said a shaft at right angles thereto, a plurality of blades parallel to said shaft having streamline sections rigidly mounted on said discs, the longitudinal axes of these stream-line sections being all tangent to a common circle concentric with said shaft, said section having a width of a value which is but a small percentage of the diameter of said circle.

20. The combination with a fluid turbine having a vertically extending shaft, of two discs mounted on said shaft at right angles thereto, a plurality of blades parallel to said shaft having stream-line sections rigidly secured to said discs, the longitudinal axes of these stream-line sections being all tangent to a common circle concentric with said shaft, said sections having a width of a value which is but a small percentage of the diameter of said circle. 60, In testimony that I claim the foregoing as my invention, I have signed my name hereto.

GEORGES JEAN MARIE DARRlEUS.

US1835018A 1925-10-09 1926-10-01 Turbine having its rotating shaft transverse to the flow of the current Expired - Lifetime US1835018A (en)

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BE (1) BE336740A (en)
FR (1) FR604390A (en)
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NL (1) NL19181C (en)

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GB259558A (en) 1927-04-14 application
FR604390A (en) 1926-05-03 grant
BE336740A (en) 1926-10-30 grant
NL19181C (en) 1928-12-15 grant

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