US1828389A - Saxophone - Google Patents

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US1828389A
US1828389A US453280A US45328030A US1828389A US 1828389 A US1828389 A US 1828389A US 453280 A US453280 A US 453280A US 45328030 A US45328030 A US 45328030A US 1828389 A US1828389 A US 1828389A
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natural
pad
sharp
vent
key
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US453280A
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Calvani Fulvio
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Calvani Fulvio
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; AEOLIAN HARPS; SINGING-FLAME MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D7/00General design of wind musical instruments
    • G10D7/06Beating-reed wind instruments, e.g. single or double reed wind instruments
    • G10D7/08Saxophones

Description

Oct. 20, 1931. F. CALVANI 1,823,389
- SAXOPHONE Filed May 'iv, 1930 3 Sheets-Sheet 1;
C-SHARP KEY B- NATUKAL KEY BF LAT may O-NATURAL PAD /.5
Inventor j aZaio (QzZa'anZ' By 3mm A llo'mey Oct. 20, 1931. CALVANI 1,828,389
SAXOPHONE Filed May 17, 1930 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 /0 KEY F-NATURAL PAD E NATU RAL EFLAT "5'" a KEY E-NATURAL PAD C-NAWRAL (-SIMRP C SHARP VENT E "FLAT PAD D-NATURAL PAD 0- NATURAL VENT /4 flamm Attorney F. CALVANI 1 Oct. 20, 1931.
SAXOPHONE 8 Filed May 17, 1930 3 Sheets-Shee 5 NATURAL VENT Inventor .724 22/20 (alvana' M A llorney Patented Oct. 20, 1931 PATENT OFFICE FULVIO CALVANI, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY SAXOPHONE Application filed May 17, 1930.
This invention relates to certain new and useful improvements and structural refinements embodied in the key operated mechanism, valved vents, and spring assembly fi m'eans on a saxophone which is applicable I call attention to the fact that the register is normally seated, that is closed. Likewise, the D-natural pad is normally open,'that is. unseated. Thus, in ascending or descending the chro- 2 gmatic scale in the low register, it is essential to resort to awkward, uncertain, and sluggish fingering in producing the tones C-natural and C-sharp respectively. In fact, in descendmg the chromatic scale, for example, it t g is necessary to simultaneously depress the C sharp and G-natural keys in order to close the D-nat-ural pad and to open the C-sharp pad in unison to produce the tone C-sharp.
As is obvious, this necessitates using the glittle fingers of both hands and as these fingers are comparatively weak and the leverage system is so resistant, unusual skill is required for smooth performance.
Particularly does this crude'and bunglesome fingering interfere with the development of a clear unbroken trill for example from C-sharp to D-natural, or from G-sharp to C-natural. Then too, under the conventional arrangement, an abrupt breach in the 5 tone is found between C-natural and E-fiat, wherein the little finger of the right hand must be slid back and forth across the usual roller equipped keys used for closing and opening the corresponding vents.
9;; Other mechanical and commercial disad- Serial No. 453,280.
vantages, not necessary to mention, accompany the present day arrangement.
Briefly, what I have invented is a mechanism and key control system which permits the aforesaid objectionable features to be systematically overcome, and the gist of the conception is found in a dependable arrangement of parts which permits both the Csharp and D-natural pads to remain normally unseated, said D-natural pad being separately and remotely controlled from the usual C- sharp' key by the left hand, and both ads being simultaneously closed or seated y a single finger (little finger of the right hand) from the usual C-natural key.
Thus, with my invention, the little fingers may be used successively and independently of each other for more rapid and precise Inanipulation.
A noteworthy advantage of this improved arrangement is that by permitting both of the aforesaid pads (D-natural and C-sharp) to remain normally open, the C-sharp vent co-operates with the adjacent D-natural vent in producing a clear tone for middle D-natural not possible of accomplishment when the C-sharp vent is closed as under ordinary conventional construction.
In carrying the present inventive conception into practice, I have evolved and produced a smooth and eflicient operating mechanism and spring arrangement which enhances the performers ability and permits playing at this point on the instrument with greater precision.
The particular details and the relative association and arrangement will become more readily apparent from the following description and the accompanaying drawings.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is an elevational View of the bellend of the instrument showing the mechanism visible on this side of the instrument.
Figure 2 is a similar view observing the opposite side of the instrument to disclose the D-natural and C-sharp pads.
Figures 3 and 4 are horizontal sectional views taken on the planes of the lines 3-3 and 4-4 respectively of Figure 2.
Figure 5 is an enlarged detail sectional 1 legends have been placed view through an improved shaft construction, the section being on the line 55 of Figure 2.
Figure 6 is a perspective view of the inner shaft seen in Figure 5.
Figure 7 is a detail perspective view of the lower end portion of the master rocker shaft for actuating the D-natural pad.
So as not to obscure the novelty of this invention, the drawings have been prepared to omit many of the existing and conventional details. Some of the old parts have however, been illustrated to permit location of the details to be readily determined by persons skilled in the art to which the invention relates.
In the drawings, the bell-end of the instrument is generally denoted by the numeral 8. while the main body or tube is distinguished by the numeral 9. Incidently, appropriate on certain old parts for clearness of disclosure. For example, in Figure 2, the numeral 10 designates the F -natural pad co-operating with the F natural vent, while the numeral 11 designates the E-natural pad co-operating with the E-nat ural vent.
The ordinal 12 represents the E-flat key for controllin the E-flat ad 111 the usual wa .Similar legends are employed on the drawings to designate distinguishable details.
For example, in Figures 2 and 3, the numeral 13 designates the C-sharp pad co-opcrating with the C-sharp vent, while the numeral 14 represents the D-natural pad coo crating with the D-natural vent. Though these pads 13 and 14 are in the customary position on the instrument, they are manipulated through the improved mechanism constituting the novelty of this invention, as will be hereinafter made evident.
Considering now the details of the mechanism, I first call attention to Figure 1, where in the master rocker shaft is distinguished by the numeral 15. Under ordinary circumstances, this shaft terminates near the bell in a curvate arm which extends over and is connected with the C-sharp pad. In the present arrangement however, I equip this shaft 15 with a short rocker arm 16, and this is pivotally connected in any appropriate manner, with one end of a companion rocker 17 carried by the bushing 18.
This bushing 18 constitutes one section of an extension 19 providing continuation of the usual or existing shaft 20. Ordinarily this shaft 20 terminates at the point where the bearing post 21 is shown in Figure 1. In accordance with my idea however, it is necessary to provide an additional hearing as at 22 to accommodate the bushing and the internal bearin rod (not shown) which is located therein. 611 this same rod, is an adjacent independently operable bushing or sleeve 23.
The opposite end of this rocker 17 has opeashes crating connection with an intermediate rock er 24 (see Figure 3) carried by a bearing 25 mounted for oscillation on a rod supported between the posts 26 and 27. The rocker 24 in turn has operating connection with a companion depressing finger 28 carried by the sleeve 29. In this connection I invite attention to the numerals 30 and 31 detailed in Figure 5, wherein these posts are provided with spindle screws 32 projecting into bearing sockets formed in the opposite ends of the internal rocker shaft 33. The sleeve 29 is keyed by appropriate means and turned with the shaft 33.
Incidently, the sleeve 29 is provided with an anchoring hook 34 with which the free end of a return needle spring 35 is connected. The spring is anchored in the post 31 in a well known manner.
On the opposite end of this same shaft 33 is a companion sleeve 36 on which the arm 37 (see Figure 2) is integrally mounted. This arm 37 connects with the D-natural pad 14. In addition, the arm 37 is provided with an operating finger 38 located for operation heneath a depressing finger or arm 39 carried by the intermediate idler sleeve 40. This sleeve 40 is independent of operation of the parts 29, 33 and 36. It is provided with the C-natural operating key 41.
Referring now to Figure 4, it will be noted that the finger 39 also has operating connection with the adjacent end portion of a companion rocker 42 carried by the sleeve 43 which is mounted for independent oscillation on the rod 44 between the posts 26 and 27 shown in Figure 2. Also as shown in Figure 4, the same rocker 42 has depressing cam co-action with the adjacent arm 45 which is connected with the C-sharp pad 13. This arm 45 is formed integrally with the aforesaid sleeve 23 (see Figure 1) and it will be noted that this sleeve 23 is provided with a needle spring hook 46 receiving the free end of the needle spring 47 The spring 47 exerts a. pressure against the hook 46 in a direction to normally swing the pad 13 to an unseated or open position.
The tension of this spring 47 is obviously overcome by depressing the C-natural fingerpiece or key 41 (see Figure 2). The tension of the aforesaid spring 35 is however, overcome by the master shaft 15, its operating key, and therocker mechanism between the master shaft and the duplex shaft (29 and 33) through the medium of the linkage between the shaft 15 and the rocker 28 (see Figure 2).
This mechanism involves a sort of a double leverage system wherein the C-sharp key, through the medium of the master shaft 15 and the associated linkage is permitted to close the D-natural pad 14 against the tension of the spring 35 and independently of the C-sharp pad 13. Thus, one point in the invention is to utilize the C-sharp key to independently operate the pad 14 and to employ the return spring 35 for returning all of the details of this particular lever to a normal position for subsequent operation.
The second lever system involves the U- natural key 41 and the associated operating connection or linka e whereby both of the pads 13 and 14 may be simultaneously seated or closed, this lever system depending on the spring 47 for returning the parts to normal position and for opening the C-sharp pad 13. In this phase of the operation however, the spring 35 aids, for it is the primary means for simultaneously opening the D-natural pad 14. Thus, in a sense, the spring operates independently and yet simultaneously.
The outstanding feature to be noted is that the D-natural pad 14 may be closed inde pendently of the C-sharp pad 13 from a remote point, namely the operating key on the upper end of the master shaft 15, and that both of the pads 13 and 14 may be simul taneously closed by a single finger manipulation of the D-natural key 41. Hence as before stated, this permits the desired independent operation of the little fingers of the respective hands to expedite fingering.
It is understood that this arrangement does not change the conventional method of fingering, but avoids certain inconsistent and sluggish fingering by reversing the operation of the D-natural pad from a remote point and concentrating the operation of both pads 13 and 14 from a single point; namely, the finger piece 41.
It is though that persons skilled in the art to which the invention relates will be able to obtain a clear understanding of the invention after considering the description in connection with the drawings. Therefore, a more lengthy description is regarded as unnecessary.
Minor changes in shape, size, and rearrangements of details coming Within the field of invention claimed may be resorted to in actual practice if desired.
I claim:
1. In a saxophone, a tubular body terminating in a bell and provided adjacent said bell with a D-natural vent and a C-sharp vent, a D-natural pad for closing said D- natural vent, a C-sharp pad for closing said C-sharp vent, both of said pads being normally open, finger actuated means operated by the little finger of the right hand for simultaneously seating said pads and closing said vents, independent finger actuated means operable by the little finger of the left hand for separately closing said D-natural pad,
. and multiple spring means for automatically unseating said pads.
2. In a saxophone, a tubular body terminating in a bell and provided adjacent said bell with a D-natural vent and a C-sharp vent, a D-natural pad for closing said D- natural vent, a C-sharp pad for closing said C-sharp vent, both of said pads being normally unseated and open, finger actuated means-for simultaneously closing said pads,
independent finger actuated means for separately closing said D-natural pad, and multiple spring means for automatically opening said pads, said first named means being operable by the little finger ot' the right hand, and said second named means being controlled by the little finger of the left hand to permit the D-natural pad to be closed from a conventional C-sharp key, and to permit both of said pads to be simultaneously closed from the C- natural key.
3. In a saxophone, a tubular body terminating in a bell and provided adjacent said bell with a D-natural Vent and a C-sharp vent, a D-natural pad for closing said D- natural vent, a C-sharp pad for closing said C-sharp vent, both of said pads being normally open, finger actuated means for simultaneously closing said pads, independent finger actuated means for separately closing said Dnatural pad, and multiple spring means for automatically opening said pads, said C-sharp vent having the additional function of providing a supplemental D- natural vent to enhance clearness in tone and better relative intonation.
4. In a saxophone, a tubular body terminating in a bell and provided adjacent said bell with a D-natural vent and a Csharp vent, a D-natural pad for closing said D- natural Vent, a C-sharp pad for closing said C-sharp vent, a longitudinally disposed rocker shaft mounted for oscillation on said body and provided at its upper end with a C- sharp key, an operating connection between said shaft and D-natural pad, said operating connection embodying an automatically operable return spring, and said C-sharp key being operable, as is usual, from the little finger of the left hand, and means for simultaneously closing both of said pads, said last named means being operable by the little finger of the right hand.
5. In a saxophone, a tubular body terminating in a bell, provided adjacent said hell with a D-natural vent and a C-sharp vent, a D-natural pad for closing said D-natural vent, a C-sharp pad for closing said C-sharp Vent, a mounting for said C-sharp pad inc'luding a return spring for normally maintaining said C-sharp pad open, operating means for said C-sharp pad embodying a G- natural key occupying the customary position on the body, said C-natural key serving, when depressed, to overcome the tension of said spring and to close said C-sharp pad.
6. In a saxophone, a tubular body terminating in a bell and provided adjacent said bell with a D-natural vent and a C-sharp vent, a D-natural pad for closing said D- natural vent, a C-sharp pad for closing said C-sharp vent, supporting means for said C- sharp pad embodying a return spring for normally moving said pad to open position, separate supporting means for said D- natural pad comprising a pair of longitudinally spaced bearing posts, a solid shaft mounted for oscillation between said posts, tubular shaft sections keyed on said solid shaft, one of said shaft sections being provided with a spring hook, a spring anchored on one of said posts and engaging said hook at its free end, an independently operable idler sleeve mounted for oscillation on said solid shaft between said shaft sections, a C-natural key carried by said sleeve, an operating connection between said sleeves and C-sharp pad, remote control means for said solid shaft mounted on said body independently operating said D-natural pad, and an independent operating connection between said shaft and said D-natural pad, said remote control serv ing to independently operate the D-natural pad and said C-natural key serving to simultaneosuly close both of said pads against the tension of both of said springs, said second named spring serving to return said remote control to normal operative position.
In testimony whereof I atiix my signature.
FULVIO CALVANI.
US453280A 1930-05-17 1930-05-17 Saxophone Expired - Lifetime US1828389A (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2685220A (en) * 1950-11-24 1954-08-03 H N White Company Saxophone
US4453445A (en) * 1982-09-24 1984-06-12 Todd John H Saxophone valve key
US20060196342A1 (en) * 2004-12-16 2006-09-07 Cannonball Musical Instruments Brass instrument
US20070163421A1 (en) * 2006-01-17 2007-07-19 Cannonball Musical Instruments Wind instrument having a modified tone-rich surface
US7563970B2 (en) 2004-12-16 2009-07-21 Cannonball Musical Instruments Woodwind instrument

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2685220A (en) * 1950-11-24 1954-08-03 H N White Company Saxophone
US4453445A (en) * 1982-09-24 1984-06-12 Todd John H Saxophone valve key
US20060196342A1 (en) * 2004-12-16 2006-09-07 Cannonball Musical Instruments Brass instrument
US7335831B2 (en) 2004-12-16 2008-02-26 Cannonball Musical Instruments Brass instrument
US7563970B2 (en) 2004-12-16 2009-07-21 Cannonball Musical Instruments Woodwind instrument
US20070163421A1 (en) * 2006-01-17 2007-07-19 Cannonball Musical Instruments Wind instrument having a modified tone-rich surface
US7439429B2 (en) 2006-01-17 2008-10-21 James Wood Wind instrument having a modified tone-rich surface

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