US745804A - Wind instrument. - Google Patents

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US745804A
US745804A US7130601A US1901071306A US745804A US 745804 A US745804 A US 745804A US 7130601 A US7130601 A US 7130601A US 1901071306 A US1901071306 A US 1901071306A US 745804 A US745804 A US 745804A
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key
hole
cover
ring
sleeve
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US7130601A
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Lewis M Ellis
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Lewis M Ellis
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; AEOLIAN HARPS; SINGING-FLAME MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D7/00General design of wind musical instruments
    • G10D7/06Beating-reed wind instruments, e.g. single or double reed wind instruments
    • G10D7/066Clarinets

Description

PATENTED DEC. 1, 1903.
L. M. ELLIS.
- WIND INSTRUMENT.
APPLICATION FILED AUG. 8, 1901.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
H0 MODEL.
mm 4 mb mm hm No. 745,804 PATBNTED DEC. 1, 1903. L. M. ELLIS.
WIND INSTRUMENT. I
APPLICATION FILEDAUG. 8 1901.-
N0 MODEL. 3 SHEBTSSHEET 2.
GHOWQ id m: Nunnvs PETERS in wumaumu. wAsnmuTom n. c.
PATENTED DEC. 1, 1903; L. M. ELLIS. WIND INSTRUMENT.
APPLICATION FILED AUG. 8, 1901.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
N0 MODEL.
(:1 Himmm bio. 745,804.
UNITED STATES Patented December 1, 1908.
LEWIS M. ELLIS, OF CONNERSVILLE, INDIANA.
WIND INSTRUMENT.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent N 0. 745,804, dated December 1, 1903- Application filed August 8, 1901. Serial No. 71,306. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern.-
Be it known that l, LEWIS M. ELLIS, a citizen of the United States, residing at Connersville, in the county of Fayette and State of Indiana,havein vented anew and useful Wind Instrument, of which the follouiing is a specification.
Myiuvention relates to an improvement in the key mechanism of wind instruments such as clariuets, flutes, saxophones, oboes, bassoons, &c.
The object of my invention is to so construct the key mechanism as not to interfere with the present system of fingering, yet at the same time to make possible certain necessary and desirable combinations not heretofore ordinarily aceomplishable.
The accompanying drawings illustrate my invention as applied to the clarinet.
Figure 1 shows an elevation of the lower half of the main stem of a clarinet, the bell being omitted. Fig. 2 is a plan of the upper end at a slight angle to the view shown in Fig. 1, the mouthpiece being omitted. Fig. 3 is an under plan of the keys of the upper end. Fig. 4isa side elevation thereof. Fig. 5 is an inverted detail. Fig. 6 is a horizontal sectional detail of most of the keys shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 7' is a similar detail of most of the keys shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 8 is a sectional detail of the parts shown in Fig. 5. Figs. 9 and 10 illustrate musical passages which can be more conveniently produced by my apparatus than by construction heretofore made.
The body of the instrumentis provided with the usual holes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13,14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and 23 and also with a hole (not shown) in transverse line with hole 9 and covered by a cover-key 10. Between holes and 17 I also provide the usual hole, (not shown,) covered by the usual hole-cover key 16. Holes 1 2 3 4 5 and those covered by covers 10, 16, and 22 are normally closed by their respective covers. Holes 6, 8, 11, 13, and 15 are closed by the fingers, and when the said holes are'closed holes 7, 9, 12, and 14 are also closed by their respective covers by the action of the fingers on the respective ring-keys surrounding the holes 6, 8, 11, 13, and 15. Holes 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 23 are normally open. Hole 1 is covered by hole-cover 1, the lever of which is carried around beneath the instrument in the usual manner to a position to be operated by the thumb of the left hand. ered by a hole-cover 2, which is carried bya shaft 2, pivoted between standards 25 and 26, parallel tothe body of the instrument. Shaft 2 is provided at its lower end with a finger-piece 2, which lies in position to be operated by the knuckle of the forefinger of the right hand. Mounted between standards 25 and 26 and extending beyond 26 to a standard 27 is a shaft 28. Rotatable upon shaft 28 is a sleeve 29, which carries a hole-cover 3 for the hole 3. Secured to the lower end of sleeve 29 is a bridge 30, which straddles a sleeve 31, revoluble upon shaft 28, immediately below sleeve 29 and beneath bridge 30. Bridge 30 is provided at its lower end with a portion 32, sleeved upon shaft 28 and to which is secured a finger 33, which lies somewhat beneath a finger 34, carried by a sleeve 35, rotatably mounted upon shaft 28 immediately below sleeve 31. Secured to sleeve 31 is a bar 36, which extends downward parallel with shaft 28 and is provided at its lower end with a finger-piece 3', which lies immediately under finger 2. Secured to sleeve 35 is a ring-key 6, which lies adjacent hole 6 and is provided with a tail 6, which passes beneath a hole-cover 7, arranged to close hole 7. Rotatably mounted upon shaft 28, immediately below sleeve 35, is a sleeve 37, to which is secured a bar 38, which passes downward parallel with the body of the instrument and is provided at its lower end with a finger-piece 39, which lies beneath and slightly below the finger-pieces 2" and 3'. Bar 38 is supported at its lower end by a sleeve 40, rotatable upon shaft 28. Rotataably mounted upon shaft 28 immediately below sleeve 37, is a sleeve 41,which carries the hole-cover 7. Below sleeve 41 is a sleeve 42, which carries a ring-key 8, arranged adjacent hole 8. Secured to sleeve 42 is a finger 43, which lies beneath a finger 44, carried by a hole cover 9, arranged to close hole 9, the said hole-cover being carried by a sleeve 45, rotatably mounted upon shaft 28 below sleeve 42. Also secured to sleeve 45 is a ring-key 11, arranged adjacent hole 11.
Arranged upon the body of the instrument adjacent holes 12 and 13 is a pair of Hole 2 is covstandards 40, which support a shaft 47, upon which is sleeved a pair of sleeves 48 and 49. Secured to sleeve 48 is an arm 48:},which lies immediately beneath and is engaged by a tail 50, carried by a finger-piece 51, pivoted upon the lower end of shaft 28. ,Secured to sleeve 49 is a hole-cover 12 and ring-key 13. Supported in standards 52 is a shaft 53. Rotatable upon said shaft is a sleeve 54, carrying hole-cover 14, ring-key 15, and a lug 55. Mounted upon shaft53, below sleeve 54, is asleeve 56,whicl1 carries hole-cover 17'. Sleeve 56 also carries a lug 57, which passes beneath the lug 55, of any usual well-known form, by means of which connection between sleeves 55 and 56 may be accurately adjusted. Sleeve 56 also carries at its lower end an adjusting-lug 58. Below sleeve 56 upon shaft 53 is a sleeve 59, which carries hole-cover 20, a lug 60, which passes beneath lug 58, and a lug 61. Below sleeve 59 upon shaft 53 is a sleeve 62, which carries hole-cover 23, a lug 63, which lies beneath lug 61, and a tail 64, which is adapted to be engaged by a long key 65, the upper end of which is carried up in position to be engaged by the little finger of the left hand and is provided with a rail 66, which lies above and is adapted to engage arm 48%. Hole 22 is covered by a hole-cover 22, which is operated bya long key 67, which is brought into position to be engaged by the little finger of the left hand in the usual manner. Key 67 is, however provided with a tail 68, which lies immediately above and is adapted to engage arm 48*}. Parallel with shaft 53 is a shaft 69, which is supported in standards '70. Mounted upon shaft 69 is a key 71, which carries hole-cover 19. The stem of holecover 17 passes beneath shaft 69, and the hole-cover is engaged by a finger-piece 72, which is carried byasleeve 73, rotatable upon the upper end of the shaft 69. Secured to sleeve 73 is a bridge 74, which passes over the key 71 and at its lower end is secured to the hole-cover18,which is sleeved upon shaft 69. Rotatable upon the lower end of shaft 69 is a sleeve 75,which carries hole-eover21, a finger 76 brought adjacent key '71, and a lug 77, which lies above and is adapted toengage hole-cover 20. The hole-covers 14, 17, 18, 20, 21, and 23 and ring-key15are held normally up by the usual arrangement of springs engaging the respective sleeves to which said hole-covers and ring-key are secured.
Referring now to Fig. 5, projecting from the under side of sleeve 48 is a lug 48, and projecting from sleeve 49 adjacent lug 48 is a lug 49. Secured to one of standards 46 is a spring 49,which engages both lugs 48and 49. Secured to sleeve 48 is one end of a spring 48, the end of which engages both lugs 49'and 48 upon the side opposite to that engaged bythe spring 49. By this arrangement it will be noticed that upon depressing either one of finger-keys 51, 65, or 67 arm 48:} of sleeve 48 will be engaged and said sleeve swung upon its shaft. The strength and arrangement of spring 49 is such as to normally hold down the hole cover 12 and ring-key 13; but when the sleeve 48 is swung, as described, spring 49 is deflected by the lug 48 and spring 48 operates to swing sleeve 49, so as to withdraw from their respective holes the hole-covers and ring-key. If this movement has been produced by key and it is desired to retain the effect produced consequentupon the depression of hole-covers 14, 17, 20, and 23 and yet produce the effect consequent upon the closing of hole 13 with the finger and the consequent closing of hole 12 with the hole-cover 12, the result may be accomplished by pressing the first finger of the right hand on ring-key 13, sleeve 49 being thus swung upon its shaft, so as to depress hole-cover 12 and spring 48, serving to return the parts to raised position immediately upon the release of the ring-key 13. It is to be noticed in this connection that the result is accomplished not by a difference in strength of the two springs 48 and 49, but instead by reason of the fact that one of the springs is carried by one of the sleeves and that the springs overlap on opposite sides of the lugs. Herein lies what I conceive to be one of the fundamental features of myinvention, and this mechanism is reproduced in several parts now to be described. It is not absolutely necessary that each spring engage both lugs; but such an arrangement is advisable, as a better balance and set of the parts may be maintained.
Projecting from sleeve 45 is alug45, which is engaged by the free end of a spring 78, which is secured to the lug 43, carried by sleeve 42. Said lug 43 is engaged by the free end of a spring 79, which is secured to an intermediate standard 80, through which the shaft 28 is passed. Sleeve 42 carries an adjusting-lug 81, which passes beneath a lug 82, carried by the sleeve 41. (See Fig. 3.) Projecting from the underside of sleeve 41 is a lug 83, adjacent to which is a lug 84, which projects from the under side of the sleeve 37. Sleeve 37 is also provided with a lug 85, to which is attached aspring 86, the free end of which engages lug 84 and lies in line with lug 83. The opposite sides of lugs 83 and 84 are engaged by the free end of a spring 87, which is secured to a lug 87, projecting from the under side of sleeve Said lug 87 is engaged by the free end of a spring 88, which is secured to one of the intermediate standards 80. Projecting from about the middle of sleeve 31 is a lug 89, to which is secured a spring 90, the free end of said spring engaging lugs 91 and 92, which project from adjacent ends of sleeves 31 and 29, respectively. The opposite sides of said lugs 91 and 92 are engaged by the free end of a spring 93, which is secured to standard 25. Secured to standard 25 is a second sprin 94, the free end of which engages a lug 95, carried by the shaft 2 and so arranged as to normally hold holecover 2' down over its hole. Sleeve 42 oarries an arm 96, which is projected beneath shaft 2", so that when said shaft is thrown downward it will engage said arm 96 to swing sleeve 42.
Spring 93 engages lugs 92 and 91 upon the proper side to normally hold hole-cover 3 over its hole 3 and to hold the finger-piece 3 up. Spring 88 engages lug 87 upon the proper side to raise ring-key 6, which, by reason of its tail 6", also operates to raise hole-cover 7. Spring 87 engages lug 83 upon the proper side to hold hole-cover 7 in engagement with tail 6". Spring 86 rests against lug 84c and projects into the path of lug 83; but suffioient space is left between the lug S3 and the spring to allow the depression of hole-cover 7 to closed position before lug 83 comes into contact with said spring. Spring 79 engages lug 43 on the side proper to normally raise ringkey 8, thus resulting through lugs 13 and at in the normally raised position of the holecover 9 and the ring-key 11. Spring 78, which is secured to lug 43, engages lug 45 on the side proper to maintain lug 44 in engagement with lug 43. By this arrangement a depression of either of ring-keys 11 or 8 will result in a depression of hole-covers 7 and 9. If ring-key S has been depressed and ring-key 11 is left free, however, holecover 9 may be raised by depressing key 39, the rod 36 thereof engaging tail 96, which projects from the side of sleeve 45. The hole-cover 9 may also be raised when it has been first depressed by a depression of ringkey 8 by a depression of either of fingerkeys 2 or 3, the said keys lying in succession over the finger-key 39. The arrangement of springs is also such that a depression of ring-key 6 will cause a depression of holecover 7; but said hole-cover may be then raised by a depression of finger-key 39 or either of the keys 2 or 3" immediately thereover.
The mechanism described as applied to a clarinet does not change in any way the present system of fingering of the two or four ring Buffet system clarinet, but gives many new and desirable fingerings for securing different tones, some of which have been very difficult with the present system and have required long and tiresome practice before they could be successfully accomplished. Other systems of fingering have been devised to overcome or make possible such difficult combinations; but such systems have required the player to learn new fingerings before he could use the instrument at all. In the present case my instrument is capable of producing the required tones in the usual and regular ways now common in clarinets or other similar instruments, but in addition makes possible new fingerings which may be added by the player from time to time as opportunity is afforded.
s It will be noticed that as each tone-hole in the left hand is opened those immediately below it are open, thus giving a perfectly free exit, and consequently full and pure tones free from that choked quality which has heretofore been common in instruments of this class. This opening of the tone-holes in the left hand also permits perfect tuning to each other and to the fork-tones in a manner not heretofore possible with the ordinary system.
By the arrangement of connections between the keys described many new fingerings are possible, chief among which are the following: A-natural can be made in the regular way with the At} key 4, also by pressing 3 with the thumb-hole (not shown) closed. B-flatcan be made with An key 4E and thumbkey 1, with 3" and the thumb-key 1, with 4 and 3, with key 2. B can be made in the regular way with all fingers down and thumb-key 1 open or with keys Ah 4 and 2", with 2 and thumb-key 1, or with Al, key 4, 3 and thumb-key 1. O can be made in the regular way or with Ah key 4, 2 and thumb-key 1. O-sharp can be made in the two usual ways as in fifteen-key instrument. D-sharp can be made three waysby opening key D5 19, by holding first, second, and fourth fingers of right hand down and raising third of right, or byholding first and second of right hand down and fourth (key of left hand. The advantage of this improvement in passages like the passage illustrated in Fig. 9 can be appreciated. F-natural of the second octave can be made in four ways by opening key 16, by holding down first and third of right hand and raising second, by holding down firstand fourth ofright hand, and by holding down first of right hand and fourth of left. G-sharp of the second octave can be made in four waysby pressing Gfi key 51, Bk] key 65, or Cfi key 67, or by raising third finger of left hand and closing first and second of right. A-sharp of the second octave can be made in four ways-by opening .key Ati key 10', by pressing key 39 or key 3, and by closing first and third of left hand and raising second. O-natural of the second octave can be made in three waysby pressing key 39 or key 3 or by raising first of left hand and closing second. The advantage of the mechanism for producing G-sharp of the second octave can be appreciated in passages like that shown in Fig. 10.
The chromatic scale may be produced on applicants instrument both by opening the holes successively and also by cross-fingering.
I claim as my invention 1. In a wind instrument, the combination of a pair of rotatable sleeves, a lug projecting from each sleeve, a spring carried by one sleeve and engaging the lug of the other sleeve, and a second spring acting in the opposite direction to the first spring and engaging the lug of the first-mentioned sleeve.
2. In a wind instrument, the combination of a sleeve one or more keys adapted to rotate the said sleeve, a combined ring-key and hole-cover, a spring connection between said Sleeve and the combined ring-key and holecover, and means engaging both the sleeve and the combined ring-key and hole-cover for yieldingly holding the two parts in normal positions.
3. In a wind instrument, the combination of a pair of movable sleeves, a spring carried by a stationary support and engaging both of said sleeves in one direction, and a second spring carried by one of said sleeves and engaging the other sleeve in a direction opposite to the direction of the first spring.
4. In a Wind instrument, the combination of a pair of movable sleeves, a spring carried by one of said sleeves and engaging the other, and a second spring carried by a stationary support and engaging the sleeve engaged by thefirst spring but in opposition to said first spring.
5. In a wind instrument, the combination of an operating-sleeve, a combined ring-key and hole-cover, a spring carried by said sleeve and engaging the combined ring-key and holecover, and a spring carried by a stationary support and engaging the combined ring-key and hole-cover in opposition to the first spring.
6. In a wind instrument, the combination of a combined ring-key and hole-cover, a second ring-key, means for yieldingly holding the combined ring-key and hole-cover in engagement with the second ring-key, and means for independently operating the combined ring-key and hole-cover in opposition to said yielding means.
7. In a wind instrument, the combination of a combined ring-key and hole-cover, a
second ring-key, interacting parts, engagingin one direction only, carried by the said two parts, a spring carried by the second ringkey and engaging the combined ring-key and hole-cover to hold said interacting parts together, and means for independently moving the combined ring-key and hole-cover in the opposite direction.
8. In a wind instrument, the combination of a combined ring-key and hole-cover, a second ring-key, a pair of interacting lugs carried by saidtwo parts and operable in one direction only, a spring carried by the ringkey and engaging the combined ring-key and hole-cover so as to hold the said lugs together, and a spring carried by a stationary support and engaging the ring-key.
9. In a wind instrument, the combination of a ring-key, a hole-cover, intermediate connections acting in one direction only between said ring-key and hole-cover, a second ringkey, intermediate connections acting in one direction only between said second ring-key and the hole-cover, means for normally holding together the said intermediate connections between the first ring-key and the holecover, and between the second ring-key and the hole-cover, and means for independently operating the hole-cover.
10. In a wind instrument the combination of a normally raised ring-key, a normally raised hole-cover, a pair of lugs carried one by each of said parts and acting in a direction to close the hole-cover upon adepression of the ring-key, a second normally raised ring-key, intermediate connections between said second ring-key and the hole-cover to normally raise the hole-cover, yielding means holding the hole-cover in engagement with both ring-keys, whereby the hole-cover will be closed upon a depression of either ringkey, and means independent of the ring-keys for raising the hole-cover.
11. In a wind instrument, a ring-key, a spring normally raising said ring-key, a second ring-key, a spring normally raising said second ring-key, a hole-cover mounted between the two ring-keys, intermediate separable connections between the second ringkey and the hole-cover for normally raising the hole-cover, intermediate separable connections between the-first ring-key and the hole-cover whereby a depression of said first ring-key will depress the hole-cover, and a spring carried by the second ring-key and engaging the hole-cover and yieldingly holding the hole-cover in engagement with said second ring-key.
12. In a Wind instrument, a combined ringkey and hole-cover a second ring-key, a second hole-cover, intermediate separable connections between the combined ring-key and hole-cover and the second ring-key, means for yieldingly holding said connections together whereby a depression of either ring-key will cause a depression of the second hole-cover, means for raising the combined ring-key and hole-cover independentof the second ring-key and second hole-cover, intermediate separable connections between the second ringkey and the second hole-cover whereby a depression of said second ring-key will depress the second hole-cover,athird ring-key, intermediate separable connections between said third ring-key and the second hole-cover, means for yieldingly holding said connections together whereby a depression of the said third ring-key will cause a depression of said second hole-cover, and means independent of the said third ring-key for raising said hole-cover.
13. In a wind instrument, the combination of a normally raised combined ring-key and hole-cover,a normally raised second ring-key, a pair of coacting lugs carried one by each of said parts, a spring carried by the second ring-key and engaging the combined ring-key and hole-cover to hold said lugs in normal engagement, a second hole-cover, intermediate connections acting in one direction only between the second ring-key and the second hole-cover, a third normally raised ring-key, intermediate connections acting in one direction only between said third ring-key and the second hole-cover for normally raising the second hole-cover, a third l1ole-c0ver, means for normally holding said third hole-cover closed, a finger-key for raisin said third holecover, a pair of normally separated lugs one carried by the third ring-key and the other by the third hole-cover, and a spring connection between said last-mentioned finger-key and the third hole-cover, whereby the third hole-cover may be depressed by a depression of the third ring-key when the said finger-key is held depressed.
14. In a Wind instrument, the combination of a normally raised ring-key, a normally closed hole-cover, an independently-movable finger-key, intermediate normally separated connections operable in one direction only between said ring-key and hole-cover,a spring carried by the finger-key and engaging the hole-cover, and aspring carried by a stationary support and engaging the hole-cover and finger-key in a direction opposite to the firstmentioned spring.
15. In a Wind instrument, the combination of a normally raised combined ring-key and hole-cover, a normally raised second ring-key, a pair of lugs carried by said parts, a spring carried by the second ring-key and engaging the combined ring-key and hole-cover to hold the said lugs in normal engagement, a spring carried by a stationary support and engaging the said second ring-key so as to normally raise the same, a second hole-cover, a pair of cooperating lugs carried one by the second ring-key and one by the second hole-cover in position to cause a depression of the second hole-cover upon a depression of the second ring-key, a finger-key, a tail carried by the combined ring-key and hole-cover adapted to be engaged by said finger-key, a spring carried by said finger-key and arranged to be brought into engagement with the second hole-cover, a third ring-key, a spring carried by said ring-key and arranged to engage the second hole-ooverin opposition to the fingerkey spring, a portion of the third ring-key projected beneath the second hole-cover, a third hole-cover, a spring carried by a stationary support and engaging said third holecover to normally close the same, a second finger-key also engaged by said last-mentioned spring, a spring carried by said second finger-key and engaging the said third holecover in opposition to the before-mentioned spring, and a pair of normally separated lugs carried one by the third hole-cover and the other by the third ring-key whereby, after an elevation of the third hole-cover by means of the second finger-key, the said third holecover may be depressed by a depression of the third ring-key.
16. In a Wind instrument, the combination of a holecover, an independently-movable finger-key, an independently-movable ringkey, said ring-key engaging the hole-cover in one direction only, a spring carried by a stationary support and engaging the ring-key, a lug carried by the finger-key, an adjacent lug carried by the hole-cover, a spring carried by the ring-key and engaging the lug of the hole-cover, and an oppositely-operating spring carried by the finger-key and having its free end projected into the path of movement of the lug of the hole-cover.
LEW'IS M. ELLIS.
Witnesses:
MILEs K. MOFFETT, WILLIAM T. MURRAY.
US7130601A 1901-08-08 1901-08-08 Wind instrument. Expired - Lifetime US745804A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3136200A (en) * 1961-06-14 1964-06-09 Leblanc Corp G Saxophone
US3941026A (en) * 1974-09-16 1976-03-02 Hildebrandt Karl H Clarinet key mechanism

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3136200A (en) * 1961-06-14 1964-06-09 Leblanc Corp G Saxophone
US3941026A (en) * 1974-09-16 1976-03-02 Hildebrandt Karl H Clarinet key mechanism

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