US1809577A - Internal combustion engine - Google Patents

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Publication number
US1809577A
US1809577A US344085A US34408529A US1809577A US 1809577 A US1809577 A US 1809577A US 344085 A US344085 A US 344085A US 34408529 A US34408529 A US 34408529A US 1809577 A US1809577 A US 1809577A
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Prior art keywords
cylinders
cylinder
rocker
shaft
pistons
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Expired - Lifetime
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US344085A
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Louis J Wolff
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OSCILLATING MOTORS Co
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OSCILLATING MOTORS Co
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B53/00Internal-combustion aspects of rotary-piston or oscillating-piston engines
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/02Engines characterised by their cycles, e.g. six-stroke
    • F02B2075/022Engines characterised by their cycles, e.g. six-stroke having less than six strokes per cycle
    • F02B2075/027Engines characterised by their cycles, e.g. six-stroke having less than six strokes per cycle four
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B2730/00Internal combustion engines with pistons rotating or oscillating with relation to the housing
    • F02B2730/03Internal combustion engines with pistons rotating or oscillating with relation to the housing with piston oscillating in a housing or in a space in the form of an annular sector
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/12Improving ICE efficiencies
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S123/00Internal-combustion engines
    • Y10S123/08Multiple engine units

Description

June 9, 1931. l.. J. woLFF 1,809,577

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed March 2, 1929 4 Sheets-Sheet l Suva-14110@ LOULS WOLFR MMM Stratum June 9, 1931. l.. J. woLFF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed March 2, 1929 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 A gv Mm."

Lotus lWoLrr.

June 9, 1931. y J, WOLF 1,809,577

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed March 2, 1929 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 LOUIS J. WOLI'I'.

'j @@JMM einer wu .lune 9, 1931. L.. J. WOLFF 1,809,577

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed March 2, 1929 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 27 d LoUrsJ-WoLr1'. imam/co@ Patented June 9, 1931 LoUIs J.

WOLFF, F OMAHAQNEBRASK, ASSIGNOR T0 OSCILLACITIII'G` MOTORS OOM-l PANY, 0F OMAHA, NEBRASKA, A. CORPORATION OF NEBRASKA INTERNAL coMBUsTIoN' ENGINE Application filed March 2,

wear between the cylinders and pistons. A

further object of my invention is to provide an engine of this type employing toroidal cylinders arranged in pairs, and each pair of,.the cylinders having between their adjacent ends' a head-block carrying the valvemechanism and having theY intake and exhaust connections for both cylinders of the pair. A further object of my invention is to provide' an 'engine in whichthe pistonasse'mbly may be balanced about a common axis so as to be inherently free from any j tendency to cause vibration by unbalanced to which' the power rotative movement. A further object is to provide an engine in which'a ,plurality of cylinders are arranged symmetrically in a plane transverse to the crank-shaft axis, whereby the cylinders may be uniformly cooled by air-currents moving longitudinally of said axis. A further object of my invention is to provide, for an engine of the class Y described, a valve mechanism and actuating means therefor whereby all of the exhaustvalves may be controlled by axsingle cam, and the intake-valves similarly controlled by another cam. A further object is to provide an engine structure in which a plurality off multi-cylinder (units may be arranged in a common plane about a common crank-shaft, from all of the cylinders is transmitted.- Moreparticular objects of my invention will be set forth hereinafter.

In the accompanying drawings Fig. 1 is a front elevation of an engine embodying my invention, the chain-belt and gears for ac'- tuating the cam-shaft being removedfFig. 2 is a partial transverse section' on a plane passing through the cylinders, Fig.l 3 is a` vertical axial section on the line 3-3 of Fig. f

1929. Serial No. 344,085.

2, Fig. 4 is av diagrammatic view showing the arrangement of aplurality of the multicylinder units about a common crank-shaft, Fig. 5 is a detail section of one of the cylinders on the line 5-5 of Fig. 2, Fig. 6 is a detail transverse section on the line 6-6 of Fig. 3, and Fig. 7 is a` detail section through one of the cylinder head-blocks on the line 7-7 of Fig. 2.

In carrying out my invention according to thev illustrated embodiment thereof Iprovide a suitable frame comprising a pair of members, each having a base portion 10, and an upwardly extending portion 11. At the central parts of the base portions 10 are formed the bearings`c13 in which the crank-shaft 12 is revolubly mounted; the crank-blades 14, crank-pin 15, and crank counterweights 16 being positioned between the bearings 'as shown in Figs.A 2 and 3. An oil-pan 17, secured beneath the base 10, incloses the crank and is extended also about tle fly-wheel -18 which is carried on the rear end of the crankshaft. i I

The upper portions 11 of the frame-members are spaced apart by a shouldered tubular sleeve 19 of which the reduced ends lit into alined openings parallel with the crank-shaft, the shoulders of the sleeve engaging the inner.sides ofthe frame, as shown in Fig. 3. The front and rear frame-members are clamped together by a pair of bolts 20 extending through the same adjoining t e baseportions; and'other bolts 21 are arranged symmetrically about the axis of the sleevev 19, said bolts passing through sector-shaped parts 22 integral with the frame-members 11.- Said parts 22 are inclined'toward each other in opposite pairs, as indicated in Fig. 3, and btween the same are clamped the `ilugs 24 of the toroidal cylinders 25. The cylinder-lugs 24 are shouldered to fit against the arcuate outer edges of the parts 22, thesides of the lugs being inclined so that in transverse section the lugs are of dovetail shape, as shown in Fig. 5, and each of the lugs has a transverse opening for lreceiving the respective clamp-bolt 2l, y

The cylinders 25 are arranged in pairs symmetrical-to a vertical plane passing through the axes of the crank-shaft and the sleeve 19. Radiation-fins or flanges 26 are formed integrally'with the cylinders, said flanges extending circumferentially about the cylinders in planes radial to the toroidal axis, which is concentric with the sleeve 19. Between the adjoining ends of each pair of the cylinders 1s an integral head-,block comprising a pair of plates or heads A27 which directly engage the ends of the cylinders, a plurality of parallel radiation-webs or flanges 28 between said heads 27 and extending from the front to the rear edges of the block, and exhaust and intake conduits 29 and 30 which extend, respec- 5 tively, from the front and rear edges of the block to the valve-seats 31 at the opposite faces of the heads 27, the passa-ge through each conduit being divided at its inner end to extend through a valve-seat in each of the heads 27. Tubular valve-guides 32, arranged concentrically with the seats 31', are also formed integrally with .the head-block. Valves 33, having stems 34 slidable in. the guides 32, are adapted for engagement with the seats 31 to control the flow of. gases through the conduits 29 and 30 from and to the cylinders. The valve-stems 34 are grooved circumferentially to form annular rack-teeth 35 which are operatively engaged with similar teeth formed at the inner ends of rocker-arms 36, said arms being carried on the ends of small shafts 37 mounted in bearing-blocks 38 secured between the outer portions of the heads 27. The rocker-arms 36 extend through slots in the sides of the guides 32, as shown in Figs. 2 and 7, and the annular rack-teeth 35 on the valve-stems enable the valves to rotate freel about the stem-axes while maintaining op rative connection with the teeth on the ends of the rocker-arms. Each of the rocker-arms has a lug 39 integral therewith and extending outwardly from the shaft 37, and between the opposite pairs of said lugs 39 are arranged the helical valve-springs 40. The pressure of each of said springs 40, transmitted to the valve-stems through the respective pair of rocker-arms, holds the pair of valves normally in closed position, engaging the seat-s 31, as shown in Fig. 2. For moving the l`val-ves to open position theY shafts 37 are actuated by means hereinafter described.

On the sleeve 19, between the frame-members 11, is mounted the piston-rocker 41 which has, at its -upper and lower ends, oppositely extending curved arms 42 adapted to swing into the open ends of the cylinders 25. .The pistons 43 are secured to the ends of said arms 42, the pistons being short cup-shaped members, slightly smaller in diameter than the bore of the cylinders, whereby said pistons may be supported entirely upon the rocker,

" without frictional contact with the cylinderwalls. Suitable expansible. rings 44 are disposed in ring-grooves in the pistons, said rings being adapted to Contact with the cylinder-walls to form fluid-tight oints between the same and the pistons. One of the arms 42 at the lower end of the rocker is provided with a transverse pin 45, and from said pln 45 the connecting-rod 46 is extended to thei cylinders simultaneously with movement of the other pair of pistons toward the open ends of their cylinders, so lthat at each stroke of the rocker, by suitable timing of the ignition and valve-actuating means, there may be an 1ntake of combustible charge to one cylinder, compression of the charge in another cylinder, combustion and expansion of the charge in another cylinder, and scavenging of the fourth cylinder, the cycle of operations being twice repeated during each revolution of the crank-shaft.

Arranged concentrically with the sleeve 19, and secured upon the opposite sides of the frame-members 11, are the cam-housings of which each comprises separable inner and outer members 47 and 48, the latter carrying a ball-bearing 49 in which the cam-shaft'() is journaled. Said cam-shaft extends through the tubular sleeve 19, and at its front end carries the chain-gear 51 which is connected by a chain-belt 52 with a chain-gear 53 on the crank-shaft, by which the cam-shaft is driven at half the speed of the crank-shaft. To the rear housing-member 48 is secured a cup-shaped casing -54 to which is removably secured the bearing-member 55 of the ignition-timing and distributing device 56. The latter may be of the ordinary'and well-known construction in which the rotating member is coupled with or connected to turn at the same .rate as the cam-shaft, and from the timing and distributingr device the high-tension conductors 57 may be extended to the sparkplugs 58, the latter being screwed into diagonally extending threaded openings in the sides of the cylinders 25 near the closed ends' thereof, as shown in Fig. 2.

The exhaust-cam 59 is formed integrally with the cam-shaft and is positioned centrally of the front cam-housing, as shown in Fig. 3. The intake-cam 60 is positioned within the rear .housing and is formed integrally with a sleeve 61 fitting upon the reduced rear portion of the cam-shaft, the sleeve being retained longitudinally upon the shaft by a nut 62, l"and being prevented from turnin relatively to the shaft, by means of a suita le key (not shown). In each cam-housing are slidably mounted four radially extending stems .or tappets 63, spaced uniformly about'the axis ranged as to be carried by the outer housingmembersn48 when the latter are disconnected -from the inner' members 47,. although when the parts are in assembled relation said inner members 47 form a portion of the guides for the tappets. L

Upon the peripheral portions of the inner housing-members47 are lugs 65, Jshown in Fig. l, and upon said lugs are pivotally mounted angle-levers or bell-cranks, each having an arm 66 which engagesthe outer end of the adjacent tappet, and an arm 67 having near its end a recess or socket forreceiving'the end of a push-rod 68. The opposite or outer ends of the push-rods 4are recessed to receive the rounded ends of the adjustin -screws 69 which are carried at the end o arms 70 secured upon the ends of they shafts 37. The arrangement is such that during each revolhtion of the cam-shaft the cam will actuate the tappets successively, at uniform time intervals corresponding to a quarter-revolution of the shaft, and as each tappet is raised by the cam the motion will be transmitted by the respective bell-crank, push-rod, arm 70 and shaft 37, to the rocker-arm 36, by which the corresponding valve will be actuated to open position.

From theforegoing it will be seen that my invention provides an internall combustion engine, operating on a four-stroke cycle, in which the piston-assembly comprises anoscillating unit movable about a fixed axis, upon which the assembly may be so balanc d as to be inherently free from vibration d ringfoperationof the engine. It will also be seen that by suitably proportioning the counterweights 16 to the moment of the connecting-rod, crank-pin 15 and blades 14 about the axis of the crank-shaft, these elements may constitute abalanced rotative group,gsubstan tially free from any tendency to vibrate while in operation. By the supporting of the pistons upon the rocker 41, friction between the pistons and cylinders is eliminated, and wear of the cylinders is limited to that caused by the engagement therewith of the pistonrings.

Uniform cooling of the cylinders may be efected byair-currentsmoving in the direction of the toroidal axis, and thus passing bet'ween the cooling-flanges on thel bodies of the cylinders, and through the passages in the 'head-blocks intermediate the webs 28.

The valve mechanism is relatively simple, and adjustments of the valve-actuating means is easily eeeted by the adjusting-screws 69, which are so readily accessible as to enable adjustments thereof to be made while the engine is in operation.

Referring toFig. 4, there is indicated dii?- grammatically a combination of threeof t four-cylinder oscillating-piston units, arranged in a common plane about a common crank-shaft, to which power from each of the units may be transmitted by a single connecting-rod. The structural modiiicationsvrequired in such a multiple-unit embodiment of my invention will be" apparent of piston and cylinders'of the conventional,v

motor under eXtreme atmospheric changes which aircraft motors frequently encounter', tends for loss of power and often results in stalled motors, due to pistons seizing because lof heat, or motor cutting out from cold.

' The expansion and contractionof cylinder or piston in the full floating assembly would not change the operating conditions or cause frictional heat causing the seizing of piston from heat, or' spoil the sealing of compression if motor becomes chilled.

The piston fit in the conventional motor acts as a. crosshead absorbing 'the pressures caused by the angularity of the connectingl rod, producing wear and frictional heat, and thus a loss in power and a shorter lived engine. A' tight piston will heat and seize; a loose piston slaps and causes ring disturbances with a loss of compression and powerand also -pumps oil and lcauses 'crank cas'e dilution. This would not occur if t-Qhe'piston were carried in artrue path not in contactI with the cylinder wall, with friction cut down to only the ring pressures.

An appreciable amount of oil is saveddue to the elimination of all piston side pressures and the smaller amount of contact sur-` face. The cylinder length is shorter for the same stroke than in ai'c'onventional cylinder .due to the fact' that it is only necessary to cover the stroke of'thajrings. A supply of oil that would be disastrously low for a conventional piston andl cylinder assembly would be ample for the lubricationof rings andfcylinderin the fulliioating assembly.

Av cold motor of this -design is easier started due to less labor required to overcome the frictional drag than would be the case in a coldmotor of the conventional assembly.

v A conventional motor builds itselfvup by wear to its peak of performance and from there on it be began to gradually decline as 'K piston and cylinder wear away from one another.. I

This would not hold true in the full floating assembly as the engine is serviceable 'without breaking it in and will continue A serviceable a greater number of hours.

Now, having described my invention, what. I claim and desire-to secure by Letters Patent is: I i 1. In an internal combustion engine, a plurality of toroidal cylinders arranged inpairs ico " and disposed about a common axis, radially arranged head blocks interposed between each pair of cylinders and closing the inner ends thereof and provided with exhaust and intake conduits, said head blocks being also provided with interiorly arranged substantially parallel radiation webs interposed between the ends of the cylinders and extending from the front to the rear edges of the head blocks, a rocker mounted for oscillation about the toroidal axis of the cylinders and having pistons operating in the cylinders, and valve mechanism for-controlling the said conduits.

3. In an internal combustion engine, supporting means comprising a two-part symmetrical frame having rocker bearings and provided with outwardly converging cylinder supporting arms having arcuate surfaces at their outer ends, and toroidal cylinders secured to the said arms and fitted against the said arcuate surfaces and adapted to bemoved on the -said arcuate edges in a path concentric with the rocker bearings when the fastening means is removed.

4. In an internal combustion engine, supporting means comprising a two-part symmetrical frame having rocker bearings and provided4 with outwardly converging cylr inder supporting portions presenting opposite inclined cylinder holding surfaces at their inner faces, and toroidal cylinders provided with dove-tail portions presenting oppositely inclined faces to and conlined between thc said converging portions and fitted against the inclined surfaces thereof.

5. In an internal combustion engine, supporting means comprising a two-part symmetrical frame havingA rocker bearings and provided with outwardly converging cylinder supporting portions presenting opposite inclined cylinder holding surfaces atl their inner faces, said cylinder supporting portions being provided with arcuate outer edges concentric withthe rocker bearings, and toroidal cylinders provided with dovetail lugs presenting'inclined faces to and confined between tl-ie said converging cylinder 'supporting portions and tted against the inclined surfaces thereof.

6. In an internal combustion engine, a supporting frame, an oscillating rocker comprising a body portion centrally mounted in the frame, and arms arranged in pairs at the outer ends of the body portion and extending in opposite directions therefrom substantially concentric with the axis of the rocker, pistons rigid with and carried by the outer ends of said arms, and pairs of toroidal cyliiiders detachably secured, C10-axially in a common plane to the -supporting frame with the pistons having a floating action therein, said cylinders being interlocked with the supporting frame and movable backwardly from the pistons to expose the same when the fastening means of the cylinders is removed.

7. In an internal combustion engine, a plurality of toroidal cylinders arranged fixedly about a common axis, each cylinder having an open end, a rocker mounted for oscillation about said axis and having portions entering the open endsv of the cylinders, pistons mounted fixedly upon said portions of the rocker and movable therewith within the cylinders, said pistons being supported solely by said rocker and being spaced from the cylinder-walls suiiciently to remain entireljyf out of contact therewith and provide an intervening clearance-space between the pistons and cylinder-walls under all conditions of operation, whereby to eliminate friction between the pistons and cylinders and inhibit conduction of heatfrom. one to the other, and whereby heat may be conducted from the pistons through the connecting'portions of the rocker, and expansible packing rings carried by the pistons and extending across the clearance-spaces to engage the cylinder-walls, said rings being the sole Aelements contacting movably with the cylinderwalls.

- LOUIS QI. WOLFF.

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2416846A (en) * 1944-11-20 1947-03-04 Richter Charles Oscillating piston internal-combustion engine
US2968290A (en) * 1956-05-22 1961-01-17 Bromega Ltd Gas generators
US3204619A (en) * 1962-07-02 1965-09-07 American Mach & Foundry Internal combustion engine
US3281065A (en) * 1963-09-17 1966-10-25 Hispano Suiza Sa Gas compressors
US5560324A (en) * 1994-02-10 1996-10-01 Francis David Robert Grant Oscillating piston internal combustion engine
DE19624257C2 (en) * 1995-06-29 2002-03-07 Pyon Sang Bok Rotary piston internal combustion engine
US20050132984A1 (en) * 2001-11-14 2005-06-23 Josef Fuerlinger Piston type aircraft engine
FR2883919A1 (en) * 2005-04-05 2006-10-06 Mario Pascual Piston engine e.g. internal combustion engine, has piston that is integrated with piston guiding arm that is mounted to pivot in casing and connected to piston that is displaced in portion of casing

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2416846A (en) * 1944-11-20 1947-03-04 Richter Charles Oscillating piston internal-combustion engine
US2968290A (en) * 1956-05-22 1961-01-17 Bromega Ltd Gas generators
US3204619A (en) * 1962-07-02 1965-09-07 American Mach & Foundry Internal combustion engine
US3281065A (en) * 1963-09-17 1966-10-25 Hispano Suiza Sa Gas compressors
US5560324A (en) * 1994-02-10 1996-10-01 Francis David Robert Grant Oscillating piston internal combustion engine
DE19624257C2 (en) * 1995-06-29 2002-03-07 Pyon Sang Bok Rotary piston internal combustion engine
US20050132984A1 (en) * 2001-11-14 2005-06-23 Josef Fuerlinger Piston type aircraft engine
FR2883919A1 (en) * 2005-04-05 2006-10-06 Mario Pascual Piston engine e.g. internal combustion engine, has piston that is integrated with piston guiding arm that is mounted to pivot in casing and connected to piston that is displaced in portion of casing

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