US1696421A - Method of and apparatus for supporting the side walls of excavations - Google Patents

Method of and apparatus for supporting the side walls of excavations Download PDF

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US1696421A
US1696421A US263249A US26324928A US1696421A US 1696421 A US1696421 A US 1696421A US 263249 A US263249 A US 263249A US 26324928 A US26324928 A US 26324928A US 1696421 A US1696421 A US 1696421A
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excavation
members
walls
wale
supporting
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Showell Sam Houston
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Showell Sam Houston
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D17/00Excavations; Bordering of excavations; Making embankments
    • E02D17/02Foundation pits
    • E02D17/04Bordering surfacing or stiffening the sides of foundation pits

Description

Dec. 25, 192s.' 1,696,421

S; H. SHOWELL METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SUPPORTING THE SIDE WALLS 0F EXCAVATIONS Filed March 21, 1928 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 54M Haas-r0 5H0WELL,

Dec 25, 1928. 1,696,421

S. H. SHOWELL METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SUPPORTING THE SIDE WALLS OF ExcAvA'rIous- Filed March 21, "192 8 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Dec. 25, 1928.

STATES PATENT F'FICE.

SAM HOUSTON SHOWELL, OF MCKEES ROCKS, PENNSYLVANIA.

METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SUPPORTING THE SIDE WALLS OF EXCAVATIONS.

Application filed March 21, 1928.

This invention relates to methods of and apparatus for supporting the side walls of excavations and, while not limited thereto, relates more particularly to supporting the side walls of excavations which extend down into rock, and has for its object the provision of a supporting structure which will be sup ported entirely outside of the side walls of the excavation.

When excavations are made for buildings, subways, reservoirs and the like, in built-up sections, it is the practice to cut the sides of the excavations downsubstantially vertical due to property limitations and, in such cases, it is necessary to employ some sort of bracing to support the sides from caving inwardly. The method, almost universall adopted, is by driving sheet piling vertically in line and placing horizontal wales or rangers in front and in contact with them, and at intervals along these wales are placed shores or braces of timber to counteract the lateral pressure, thus concentrated at these interval points. The braces, in some instances, extend do wnwardly into the excavation on an angle of about 38 degrees fromthe horizontal, and the lower ends thereof rest against the bottom of the excavation. In deep work it is impractical to extend the braces down to the bottom of the excavation and, therefore, horizontal braces are extended entirely across the excavation to bear against the corresponding wales of the opposite side, and are held up by truss bracing. This method, although in general use, has many objections and is in itself very expensive to install due to the many and, bulky compressive members required. The installation of the bracing members must be closely coordinated with the excavation progress and, due to the obstructing effect of the braces, much of the excavation that otherwise would be removed with steam shovels must be taken out by clam-shell or hand methods and this is a much slower and more expensive operation.

l Vhen the above method of supporting the side walls of excavations is used in excava tion for buildings, the bracing members in terfere with erecting of the structural steel below the surface. Another objection to the above method is that holes must be left in the outside walls to allow each brace to pass through, and after the walls are poured and back-filled and the braces removed, these holes must then be concreted or filled separately.

Serial No. 263,249.

A still further objection tothe use of this old method of supporting the side walls of excavations is that it frequently happens, through oversight or change in plans, that one or more of the bracing members extend into the path of structural members and, therefore, must be moved. This is a difiicult operation since the braces are under load and other braces must be placed to take the load from the braces to be removed and other precautionstaken to prevent the side walls from caving in.

The present invention provides means out side of the side walls of the excavation for supporting the vertical sheet piling or sheeting, therefore eliminating the use of bracing inside of the excavation whereby the excavation is left open for the free use of steam shovels, the erection of structural steel and other wor In the drawings Figure 1 is a sectional elevation through an excavation, the side walls of whichare supported in accordance with this invention.

Figure 2 is a sectional elevation taken on the line IITI of Figure 1.

Figure 3 is a fragmentary sectional elevation showing the first step of excavating in accordance with this invention.

Figure 4 is a similer view showing the second step. 7

Figure 5 is a perspective elevation showing a length of side wall prepared in accordance with this invention.

Figure 6 is a view similar to Figures 3 and 4 showing the wale members in position.

Figure '1 is a sectional elevation showing the supporting structure completed except for back-filling. i

Figure 8 is an enlarged perspective elevation of a section of the completed support.

- In carrying out this invention, whichis particularly adapted for use in locations where the ground structure consists of a hard base of clay, shale or rock formation with an overlying layer of earth, theexcavat-ion will be started by removing the earth layer 2 down to the hard base 3, as shown in Figure 1. After the earth layer has been removed, a plurality of pockets 4 are cut into the earth sides of the excavation, which pockets are undercut at their lower ends, as at 5, to expose a material portion of the hard base 3.

After the pockets 4: are formed, suitable holes 6 and 7 are drilled inthe hard base on angles projecting downwardly and away from the excavation. The holes 6 are drilled on a materially steeper angle than the holes 7 for a purpose to be described.

After the holes 6 and 7 are completed, suitable tie or supporting rods 8 and 9 are positioned in the respective holes and secured in place by grouting 10. The rods 8 and 9 are preferably formed in two sections adjustably joined by turnbuckles 12 and have their lower ends upset to form enlargement-s or shoulders 13 which bear against the. grouting 10 and further preventthe rods from pulling out of the holes.

After the rods 8 and 9 are secured in position, horizontal Wale-members 14 and 15 are positioned along the side walls of the excavation and secured to the rods 8 and 9. The lower Wale-members 14 are first positioned along the excavation face and supported temporarily above the hard base by blocks 16. Suitable vertical posts 17 are then positioned on the lower Wale-members 1 1 and the upper Wale-members are supported on the posts 17. The rods 8 and 9 are projected through suitable preformed holes in the walemembers 14: and 15 and have nuts 18 threaded thereon to lock the Wale-members in position. After the Wale-members are thus locked or secured in position, the turnbuckles 12 may be adjusted to tension the rods 8 and 9 and pull the Wale-members back against the excavation wall.

After the Wale-members are thus positioned, permanent supporting blocks 19 are provided at the bottom of each of the pockets 4- by pouring a bed of concrete therein, as shown, or, if desired, sections of timber may be positioned therein. The blocks 19 are positioned directly on the hard base and project out under the lower Wale-members 14, so as to support said members. The blocks 19 are preferably formed from concrete since it is more rigid than timber and also, when it is poured in the pockets it surrounds the turn-- buckles 12, serves to lock said turnbuckles in position and also serves to help hold the rods against displacement.

After the wales are thus positioned and supported, the piling or sheeting 20 is driven home along the excavation face and back of the Wale-members forming a continuous support for the earth 2 overlying the hard base 3. The pockets 4.- are then back-filled in the usual manner, as indicated at 22 in Figure 1, and the excavation may then be continued down into the hard base 3 without danger of the relatively soft or lose earth caving in or falling.

The temporary blocks 16 may be removed after the supporting blocks 19 are set, if de sired, since the blocks 19 support the lower Wale-members. After the blocks 19 are set and the pockets 4 back-filled, the blocks act as cantilevers to support the wales, even if the side face of the hard base should crumble or be removed under a portion of the block as the excavation is continued.

From the above, it will be readily seen that I have provided a novel structure for holding up the side walls of excavations, which struc ture is supported entirely outside of the excavation and, herefore, permits free access to all parts of the excavation for completing the excavation or for other work in the excavation.

.Vhile I have shown and described one spc ific embodiment of my invention, and. a certain sequence of steps used in carrying outmy novel method, it will be understood that I do not wish to be limited thereto since various modifications may be practiced without departing from the scope of my invention as defined in the appended claims.

I claim 1. The method of preventing the caving in of the side walls of excavations, which consists in removing the earth from the excavation for a predetermined depth, then forming holes downwardly and outwardly on an angle from the base of the preformed excavation at a plurality of spaced points along the sides thereof, then securing tie-rods in said holes, then positioning Wale-members along the side walls of the preformed excavation and securing said wales to said rods, then driving sheeting home between the side walls of said excavation and said wales, and then continuing said excavation to the desired depth without further shoring or support.

2. The method of preventing the caving in of the side walls of excavations made in earth covering a hard base, which consists in rc moving the earth covering over the area to be excavated down to the base, then forming small diameter holes in the base downwardly and outwardly on an angle from the base of the preformed excavation at a plurality of spaced points along the side walls thereof, then securingadjustable tie-rods in said holes, then positioning horizontal Wale-members along the side walls of said preformed excavation and securing said Wale-members to said rods, positioning vertical posts between the ends of said Wale-members, adjusting said rods so as to place said rods under tension, then driving sheeting home between the side walls of said excavation and said walemembers, and then continuing said excavation to the desired depth without further shoring or support.

3. The method of preventing the caving in of the side walls of excavations made in earth covering a hard base, which consists in removing the earth covering over the area to be excavated down to the base, then forming vertical pocketsin the earth at a plurality of spaced points along the side walls of the preformed excavation down to the Ill) hard base, then forming small diameter holes downwardly and outwardly on an angle in the base at the bottom of said pockets, then securing tie-rods in said holes, then positioning horizontal wale-members along the side walls of said preformed excavation, and securing said Wale-members to said rods, then driving sheeting home between the side walls of said excavation and said Wale-members, and then continuing said excavation to the desired depth without further shoring or support.

4-. In an excavation extending through a layer of earth covering a hard base, a structure for supporting the earth side walls comprising supporting block members formed on said base at a plurality of spaced intervals along the side walls of the excavation, Wale-members supported on said supporting block members, vertical posts supported on said Wale-members, other Wale-members supported on said posts, tie-rods secured in said base outside of said excavation and extending upwardly on an angle and secured to said Wale-members to tie said Wale-members in position, and sheeting positioned between said side walls and said Wale-members.

5. In an excavation extending through a layer of earth covering a hard base, a structure for supporting the earth side walls comprising supporting block members formed on said base at a plurality of spaced intervals along the side walls of the excavation, walemembers supported on said supporting block members, vertical posts supported on said Wale-members, other Wale-members supported on said posts, tie-rods secured in said base outside of said excavation and extending upwardly on an angle through said support ing block members and secured to said walemembers under tension to tie said wale-memhers in position, and sheeting positioned be tween said side walls and said Wale-members.

6. In an excavation extending through a layer of earth covering a hard base, a structure for supporting the earth side walls comprising supporting block members formed on said base at a plurality of spaced intervals along the side Walls of the excavation, Wale-members supported on said supporting block members, vertical posts supported on said Wale-members, other Wale-members supported on said posts, adjustable tie-rods anchored in said base outside of said excavation and extending upwardly on an angle and secured to said Wale-members to tie said walemembers in position, and sheeting positioned between said side walls and said wale-members and supported vertically on said base.

7 The method of preventing the caving in of the side walls of excavations, which consists in removing the earth from the excavation for a predetermined depth, then forming holes downwardly and outwardly on an angle from the base of the preformed excavation at a plurality of spaced points along the sides thereof, then securing tierods in said holes, then positioning walemembers along the side walls of the preformed excavation and securing said wales to said rods, then mounting sheeting between the side walls of said excavation and said wales, and then continuing said excavation to the desired depth without further shoring or support.

8. In an excavation extending through a layer of earth covering a hard base, a structure for supporting the earth side walls com prising supporting members mounted on said base at a plurality of spaced intervals along the side walls of the excavation, wale-members supported on said supporting members, vertical posts supported on said wale-memhers, other Wale-members supported on said posts, adjustable tie-rods anchored in said base outside of said excavation and extending upwardly on an angle and secured to said wale-members to tie said Wale-members in position, and sheeting positioned between said side walls and said Wale-members and supported vertically on said base.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand.

SAM HOUSTON SHOWVELL.

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3226933A (en) * 1961-03-20 1966-01-04 Spencer White And Prentis Inc Sheeting wall system and method of constructing same

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3226933A (en) * 1961-03-20 1966-01-04 Spencer White And Prentis Inc Sheeting wall system and method of constructing same

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