US1601555A - Valve action for wind musical instruments - Google Patents

Valve action for wind musical instruments Download PDF

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US1601555A
US1601555A US2916025A US1601555A US 1601555 A US1601555 A US 1601555A US 2916025 A US2916025 A US 2916025A US 1601555 A US1601555 A US 1601555A
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pipe
wind
valve
auxiliary
branches
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Ferdinand A Buescher
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Ferdinand A Buescher
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D9/00Details of, or accessories for, wind musical instruments
    • G10D9/04Valves; Valve controls

Description

Sept. 2 s, 1925. 1,501,555

F. A. BUESCHER VALVE ACTION FOR WIND MUSICAL ms'muusms Filed May 9. 1925 2 sheets-$116551 Sept. 28 1926. 1,601,555

F. A. BUESCHER VALVE ACTION FOR WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS Filed May 9, 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 )IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII I Patented Sept. 28, 1926.

UNITED STATES FERDINAND A. BUESGHER, OF ELKHART, INDIANA.

VALVE ACTION FOR WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.

Application filed May 9, 1925.

This invention relates to valved wind musical instruments and provides an improve ment in the valve construction whereby for any given bore of wind pipe the length of valve stroke is shortened, enabling the musician to operate more quickly in making a run or playing a quick passage.

In using an instrument equipped with valves of the regular length of stroke, the musician is generally able to change the tone more quickly with the mouth and tongue than he can by operating the valves, so that the length of stroke of the latter imposes a limitation upon the skill of the performer. The present invention aims to provide a construction which avoids this limitation.

In the drawing Figure 1 is a plan view of the novel valve action of my improved wind musical instrument.

Figure 2 is an end view seen from of Figure 1.

Figure 3 is a side elevation, partly in section, taken along the line 33 of Figure 1.

Figure 4 is a section taken along the line 4-4 of Figure 2.

Figure 5 is a vertical diametrical section through one of the valve barrels showing the piston in released position.

Figure 6 is a similar view showing the piston in depressed position.

The construction of wind musical instruments of the type to which this invention relates is well known, a normally fixed length of the wind pipe extending from the mouthpiece to the bell or outlet of the instrument, there being other auxiliary sections of wind pipe in operative relation to said main or fixed section, with valves intercalated in said main section and associated with said auxiliary sections for connecting any or a number of the latter in series with the main section for the purpose of changing the length of the wind pipe to obtain the sevtral tones which the instrument is ca able of playing. The fundamental pitch of the in strument is determined by the cross sectional area, of the wind pipe. In a cornet, which is an instrument of soprano pitch, the diameter of the wind pipe is usually one-half inch, for an alto instrument it is nine-sixteenths of an inch, for a baritone, the bore is about five-eighths of an inch in diameter, and abass, eleven-sixteenths of an inch or three quarters of an inch, depending upon the size of the instrument. The valve, as

the top Serial No, 29,160.

usually constructed consists of a piston operating in a casing with which the main section of the wind pipe and one of the auxiliary sections communicate through ports opening in the wall of the casing, the valve piston being formed with passages of the same cross sectional area as the main and auxiliary sections of the wind pipe, which pass into and out of registry with said ports when the piston is moved to open or closed position. It is therefore apparent that the length of stroke necessary for the operation of the valve is directly proportional to the diameter of the wind pipe, to which length must be added an additional distance equal to the amount which the valve must overlap the ports to prevent leakage from said ports when the latter are closed. In a cornet, where the diameter of the wind pipe is relatively small, the stroke of the valve is of comparatively short length so that but-little trouble is experienced in making the valve action keep up with the speed of the musician, but in a bass instrument in which the passage of the valve must perform a transit across a wind pipe three quarters of an inch in diameter, the length of valve stroke is excessive so that the objectionable sluggishness of the instrument is much in evidence. By my invention the stroke of the valve in a bass instrument becomes as short as that of the cornet, as at present known, and the length of valve stroke in a cornet becomes still shorter, making that instrument more sprightly in operation, as well as permitting a lighter return spring to be used in the valve action, thereby making the valves easier to operate.

My present invention will now be described by reference in detail to the several figures of the drawing in which the numeral 1 represents the main wind pipe adapted to be connected, at one end, 2, to a mouth piece, not shown, and at the other end 3, to the bell, not shown, of the instrument. Cylindrical valve casings 4 are intercalated at intervals in the main wind pipe, portions of the latter being constituted, within said valve casings, by the passages 5 formed in the valve pistons 6. Auxiliary sections of the wind pipe are shown, consisting of the loops 7, 8 and 9. The outer ends of said loops preferably consist of U-shaped slides 10,11 and 12 respectively, by means of which the lengths of said loops may be adjustably varied. Each of the loops communicates at its ends with one of the valve casings, the valve pistons each being provided with a passage, adapted in certain positions of the valve piston to place the loop with which it is associated in series with the main wind pipe and in other positions of the valve to cut oil said loop from communication with said wind pipe. The valve pistons 6 are reciprocable within the cylindrical valve *asings, making a substantially fluid-tight tit therewith. Said pistons are depressed manually against the tension of springs 13 ield in tensioned relation l etween their lower ends and the lower ends of said casings. Said pistons are automatically returned to normal position when released. by the tension of said springs.

The principle of my invention depends upon a mathematical tact that the areas of circles are to each other as the squares of their diameters. Therefore I find that by branchin the section of the main wind pipe as shown at it and 15 inFigure 2, to provide multiple sets of branches for said'main wind pipe, and by similarly branching the ends of the sections 7, 8 and 9 ot the auxiliary wind pipe, to provide multiple sets of branches theretor, I can make the ends of said branched portions which communicate with the valve casing. of the same aggregate area as the unbranched wind pipe or the unbranched auxiliary sections thereof and at the same time have these branched portions or less diameter than the diameter of the unbranched wind pipe. Having done this I provide the valve piston with a plurality of passages 5 simultaneously registrable with the branched ends of the main wind pipe 2 and a plurality of passages 16 and simultaneously registrable with the branched ends 17 and 18 of the auxiliary wind pipe sections, said passage lying in diti'erent zones.

lVhen the valve pistons are in normal po sition the passage 5 establish direct communication through the wind pipe from the mouth piece to hell, the wind pipe being then of shortest length. In this position of the pistons the auxiliary wind pipe sections are not in communication with the wind pipe.

lVhen anyone of the pistons is depressed its passage 5 is put out of communication with the wind pipe. the auxiliary wind pipe section controlled by said piston being simultaneously connected in series with the wind pipe, lengthening the latter. Since the auxiliary wind pipe sections are of ditierent lengths and they can be connected in series with the wind pipe either singly or in combination with any of the other auxiliary wind pipe sections it is apparent that quite a range of variation in the length or the wind pipe may be obtained.

As the diameters of the branches of the main wind pipe and the auxiliary wind pipe sections are of less length than the diameter of a single wind pipe: or single auxiliary wind pipe section having the same aggregate cross sectional areas, it is obvious that the valves can perform their transitory function with a shorter length of stroke than can *alves, as heretofore used, with an unbranched wind pipe.

It is. to be understood that instead of branching the auxiliary wind pipe sections,

they can be continued. double, or manit'old throughout their entire lengths, it being essential only to the broad concept. of'the invention that the aggregate cross sectional areas otthe several parallel conduits which constitute a single auxiliary windpipe section be equal to the cross sectional: area of a single auxiliary wind pipe sectionhaving the fundamental pitch ol the instrument.

It is to be understood also that, while I have conventionalized the embodiment of my invention somewhat in the drawingsby showing the looped auxiliary windpipe sections extending rectilinearly, in practice they may be made to follow the forms of'curvature customary in the design of: instrument to which the invention is applied.

Having described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is

1. A wind musical instrumentincluding .main wind pipe provided with multiple sets of pipe branches; and with the aggregate cross sectional area of each set equalto the cross sectional area of the pipe, an auxiliary wind pipe provided with multiple sets of branches and with the aggregate cross sectional area of each set thereof equal to the cross sectional'area of the pipe, a valve intercalated inthe main wind pipe branches and in the auxiliarywind pipebranches for connecting the sets of the main wind pipe branches in multiple with the multiple sets of the auxiliary wind pipe branches, said valve having passagestosimultaneously ol)- struct the main wind pipe branchesirom the auxiliary pipe branchesand connecting the main pipe branches together and further for establishing communication between the main pipe brancheswith the auxiliary pipe branches.

2. A windmusical. instrument including a main wind pipeprovidcd. with multiple pairs of pipe branchesandwith the aggregate cross sectional areaoir'each set equal to the cross sectional area of the )l) an l l a auxiliary wind pipe provldedwlth multiple pairs of branches and with theaggregate cross sectional area of each set thereof: equal to the cross sectional area ot'the pipe, a

valve intercalated inv the main wind pipe branches and in the auxiliary wind pipe branches for connecting the pairs of the main wind pipe branches inmultiple with the multiplepairs of" the auxiliary;- wind pipebranches, said valve having passages to simultaneously obstruct the main wind pipe branches from the auxiliary pipe branches and connecting the main pipe branches together and further for establishing communication between the main pipe branches with the auxiliary pipe branches, and said valve constructed with a length of stroke substantially equal to the diameter of each of said branches.

A wind musical instrument including a main wind pipe, an auxiliary Wind pipe, each of said pipes being provided with multiple sets of branches, the branches of each of said sets being of the same diameter, the aggregate cross sectional area of each set of main wind pipe branches and the aggregate cross sectional area of each set of auxiliary wind pipe branches being equal to the cross sectional area of the unbranched 20 portion of their respective pipe, a valve mechanism including a casing into which the said multiple pairs of branches open, a reciprocatory valve in said casing having passages for establishing communication between the multiple sets of branches of the main wind pipe in one position of said valve and further to close the multiple sets of branches of the auxiliary Wind pipe, said valve further having other passages for connecting the multiple sets of branches of the main Wind pipe with the multiple sets of branches of the auxiliary Wind pipe in another position of said valve, and said valve constructed to operate with a length of stroke substantially equal to the diameter of each of said branches.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand.

FERDINAND A. BUESCHER.

US1601555A 1925-05-09 1925-05-09 Valve action for wind musical instruments Expired - Lifetime US1601555A (en)

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