US1562706A - Concrete building element - Google Patents

Concrete building element Download PDF

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US1562706A
US1562706A US733206A US73320624A US1562706A US 1562706 A US1562706 A US 1562706A US 733206 A US733206 A US 733206A US 73320624 A US73320624 A US 73320624A US 1562706 A US1562706 A US 1562706A
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slabs
reinforcing
members
concrete
building
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US733206A
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Lake Simon
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Lake Simon
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/30Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure
    • E04C2/38Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure with attached ribs, flanges, or the like, e.g. framed panels
    • E04C2/382Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure with attached ribs, flanges, or the like, e.g. framed panels with a frame of concrete or other stone-like substance

Description

S. LAKE- CONCRETE BUILDING ELEMENT Filed Aug. 20, 1924 3 Sheets-Shee t 1 Nov.
F FBM:
s. LAKE- CONCRETE BUILDING ELEMENT Filed Aug. 20, 1924 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Nov. 24,1925. 1,562,706
S. LAKE CONCRETE BUILDING ELEMENT Filed A112. 20, 1924 s Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented Nov. 24, 1925.
UNITED STATES SIMON LAKE, OF MILFORD, CONNECTICUT.
CONCRETE BUILDING-ELEMENT.
Application filed August 20, 1924. Serial No. 733,208.
- To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, SIMON LAKE, a-citi- 'zen of the United States, residing at Milford, in the county of New Haven andState of Connecticut, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Concrete Building Elements, of which the following isa full, clear, and ex/act description.
This invention relates to a concrete building element suitable for use in the construction of walls, floors and roofs of buildings,
and so designed and fabricated as to meet all of the requirements of strength, perma nence and adaptability incident to its several uses.
One object of the invention is to provide a'concrete building element which will lend itself readily to quantity production and shipment, and which may be used as a substitute for other buildingelements or materials.
Another object is to provide a building element of such a nature that it makes pos-] sible the constructionof buildings in a much shorter time than has heretofore been possible, thus materially reducing the cost of construction.
A further object is to provide a building element of such formation that a building constructed of same will be insulated against heat and cold, will be moisture and vermin proof, fire safe and sanitary.
The invention consists in aconcrete building. element composed, in effect, of two slabs forming the faces of the element, and these slabs joined together and held in spaced relation to each other by longitudinal and transverse webs or spacing means, the webs and the slabsprovided with reinforcing and strengthening members tied together to form a reinforcing framework bonded in the concrete of the element, as I will proceed now to explain and finally claim.
In the accompanying drawings illustrating the invention, in the several fi res of which like parts are similarly designated, Figure 1 is a fragmentary perspective view illustrating the various members of the reinforcing framework. Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section of a finished element. Fig. 3 is a fragmentary transverse section taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is a fragmentary section similar to that of Fig. 2, but
showing a modification. Fig. 5 is a section through the reinforcing framework taken shown mFig. 2. Fig. 7 is a fragmentary plan view of an element such'as is shown in Fig. 4:. Figs. .8 and 9 are fragmentary sections illustrating the method and apparatus for forming the elements. Figs. 10 and 11 are top plan view-s of cores, such as shown in Fig. '9, for use in the manufacture of the elements. F ig. 12 is a section taken on the line 1212 of Fig. 10., Fig. 13 is a perspective view of a device, such as shown in Fig. 9, for supporting the cores during the operation of forming the elements.
My building elements may be made in a variety of shapes and izes, and they may be provided with openings for doors and windows by the incorporation in them' of ment of rectangular form, without openings. i
The invention is best described by setting forth the method of its production, and this method may be stated as follows I take a plurality of transverse members or boards 1 rovided on their inner faces with grooves 2 extending throughout their length and upon their outer faces ,with similar grooves 3. These members 1 are arranged in pairs and are suitably spaced apart by spacers 4 arranged adjacent to their ends, which spacers in addition to maintaining the members 1 in proper spaced relation serve as a means for connecting them by nails, screws or the like 4', which are driven through the members 1 and into the spacers 4. The pairs of mem- St I the building element to be formed and are maintained in such spaced relation means of separator members 5 arranged etween them and substantially midway of their length, as shown. As will be seen, particularly lby reference to- Fig. 1, the members 1 are S otherwise secured the edge pieces 7 provided with rabbets 8. After these edge pieces have been secured in place, flat reinforcing bars bedofi at their ends as at 6 and on these slabbed off portions are nailed or' been secured in place, wire mesh 10 is laid over the whole exposed surface of the framework with its longitudinal edges resting in the rabbets 8 of the edge pieces 7, and is nailed or stapled to these edge pieces and to the members 1. The whole framework is then bodily turned over and edge pieces 7', similar to the edge pieces 7 and provided with rabbets 8', are secured upon the slabbed 01f portions' 6' of the members 1. Then longitudinal reinforcing rods or compression members 11 are stapled or otherwise suitably secured to the members 1, and wire mesh 12 is positioned over the whole exposed surface of the framework, with its longitudinal edges engaging with the rabbets 8 of the edge pieces 7", and is secured to the framework in the same manner as is the wire mesh 10. This structure comprises the foundation or main supporting and strengthening framework for the building element.
Referring now to Figs. 8 and 9, a layer of concrete or cement plaster 13 of suitable thickness and consistency isspread upon a pallet 14 prQerably of hollow construction providing a space 15 in to which steam or other heating fluid may be introduced, for a purpose later explained, and then the whole framework just described. with the side carrying the bars 9,downward, is placed upon this layer of concrete 13 and is worked into same until the wire mesh '10 and members 9 are embedded therein. Then a hoelike levelling tool 16, provided on its edges with pins 17 and with a handle 18, is run into the-s aces between the pairs of members 1, wit its pins 17 finding bearings and guides in the grooves 3 of the members 1 and the concrete in these spaces is screeded off to a uniform thickness and surface conformation. As will be seen, the members 1 are provided with undercut grooves 19 on their upper and lower edges which, due to their dove-tail shape, form a retaining con-v nection or bond with the concrete, thus anchoring the concrete to them in addition to its bond with the bars 9 and wire mesh 10.
After the molding operation has been carried this far, transverse reinforcing rods 20 are inserted in the spaces 21, the spaces are filled with concrete to approximately the level of the grooves 2, and insulating members or strips 22 are then slid into the grooves 2 from the ends of the members 1 These insulating members are provided with appropriately positioned openings 23 and 24, and through these openings and into the plastic concrete are forcedremforcing rods 25 and 26 respectively, and through similar openings 27 are inserted reinforcing and tying members 28 which bond with the concrete below the insulating members 22 and are hooked over the longitudinal rods 11. After these various elements have been poing with additional concrete, the top portion or slab of the element may be formed as nextdescribed;
Boards or the like 29 having hinged to them cam. members 30 provided with handles 31, as shown in detail in Fig. 13, are laid upon the lower slab of the element, as shown in Fig. 9, but with the cam members 30 turned down so as to lie flat u on the boards 29. Then the cores illustrate in Figs. 9, 10, 11 and 12 are slid into the spaces between adjacent pairs of members 1, and the handles 31 are turned to raise the cam members 30 to thereby elevate the cores to casting position, as shown in Fig. 9. With the cores in this position, concrete is spread over the whole upper surface of the frame of the element, and is worked through the wire mesh 12, suflicient concrete being supplied to form a substantial coatin above the mesh 12, as shown in Fig. 2, and 1s screeded off to the desired uniform thickness, the cores arranged as described forming a bedto receive the concrete thus applied.
It is during this operation that the filling of the spaces 21 between the members 1 may be completed and the rods 20' inserted, as hereinbefore indicated, and. I prefer to 'follow this procedure.
This last operation completes the casting or molding of the element.
In order to quickly dry out the concrete to hasten its a uiring such a set as will permit the ban ing of the element without danger of fracture, I prefer to artificially heat the entire concrete body, and this I do by the introduction of steam into the space 15 of the pallet 14 and into the interior of the cores.
By reference to Figs. 10 and 12, it will be seen that the cores are of waflie-like formation as regards their surface contour and comprise base members 32 to which are attached stamped or otherwise formed members 33 providing between them a depression 34 whic when in casting position, lies beneath one of the rods 11, and when the concrete is poured upon the core,
forms a rib 34', Figs. 2, 3 and 4, running suitably vides in addition to the longitudinal rib 34' an intermediate. transverse l'lb upon the under side of the upper slab. of the element.
After the concrete ha's attained its initial ments may be of such size that a sing e element will suflioe for each wall thereof and for the floors and roofs, orv it ma be necessary to use a number of the e ements to construct a wall, floor or roof.
a wall, floor or roof, the edges of the element may be finished as shown in 7 by casting concrete upon its ends and e g'es, such concrete bonding withthe reinforcmg elements which extend beyond the edges 0 the reinforcing framework.
Where a plurality of elements must be used, elements such as shown in Fig. 6 may be used, wherein the reinforcing elements extend beyond the edges. In uniting adjacent elements of this last mentioned type as indicated in Fig. .5, the abutting ends of the bars 9 and rods 11 are welded or otherwise united, and the wire mesh of adjacent elements is laced or otherwise joined, or merely overlapped, and'then the space between the elements and including these interlocked and welded "reinforcing elements is filled with a strong grout which is screeded off into uniformity with the surfaces of the adjacent elements, to form in effect a continuous unbroken face. The above'refers rincipally to the joining of the ends of the huilding elements, but itwill be apparent that it may be necessary in structures of considerable size, or containing' a number of stories, to super ose one element edge'wise upon another.-, hen my elements are to be usedinthis relationship, it may be found expedient to leave their edges unfinished,"so that air space will extend fromthe eenter gfone-element to the center of. the next adjacent element, but if this is not desired, the-lends "of the cored openings, and" the spaces '21 between the members -1 may be'closed by boards or insulating material 47; upon which wire mesh 48 may be nailed, and concrete-applied there to to complete the edges of the member as 11 shows a'modified'form of core'in in addition 'to-' the depression 34;;there; ,is a transverse de ression; 35 which-fw1ththe depressiondi" divides the surface of the core into four raised portions 36 and pro-- shown in Figs. 3, 6 and 7 at {19, and as in- "dicated. in Flg. 5, by the broken lines.
By m construction, it will be seen that j'If-provi e. a concrete building element having a reinforcing framework adapted to absorb longitudinal and transverse strains,
and having reinforcing elements combined with the concrete for distributing pressures exerted upon the building element. from above and below whether localized or even Fig. 3, between the separator members 5. When a single element only is needed an.
I produce, by my invention, a building element of very light weight relative to its -with the reinforcing framework and bonded by 28-.ft. 5 in. long by 3 in. thick, with a 2% in. airspace, thus making the upper and lower slabs only in. thick. Such a slab when only thirteen days old was found on ofiicial test to be capable of supporting a load of eighty pounds per square foot without damage of any sort. 7
, Referring to Fig. 4, it will be seen that, if desired, the value of the dead air space as an insulator against transmission through the element of heat, cold, moisture and sound may be enhanced by the addition of an insulating partition member 66 which may be slid into the grooves 3 and positioned thereby in spaced relation to the upper and lower slabs of the element, thus forming two dead I air spaces insulated from each other by the member 66.
As hereinbefore indicated, when the element is used in substantially horizontal position' for the construction of floors or roofs,
its reinforcing members. are capable of sustaining loads either localized or evenly distributed, and whet-her applied from above or below, and when used in vertical position, as in awall, will sustain loads applied from either side.
Moreover, itwill be seenth'at, due to the arrangement of the members comprisin the reinforcing framework proper, and o the reinforcing rods, bars, wire mesh and other elements applied, thereto and embedded in the concrete of the slabs and webs, loads, no
matter how or where-applied upon the element, will be distributed and absorbed throughout the whole element.
Various changes are contemplated as within the s )irit of the invention and the scope of the following claims.
What I claim is 1. A concrete building element, comprising a pair of substantially similar. slabs, longitudinal and transversewebs connecting "said slabs and maintaining them in predetermined spaced relation, a reinforcing framework embedded in said slabs and deslabs, and reinforcing members embedded in said webs and interengaging withthe reinforcement of said slabs.
3. A concrete building element, comprising a pair of similar slabs, webs extending longitudinally and transversely thereof and serving to connect them in spaced relation, insulating means incorporated-in said webs and serving to prevent transmission of heat, cold and moisture from one slab to the other, and reinforcing elements embedded in said webs and passing through said insulat ing means for tying the slabs together.
4. A concrete building element, comprising a pair of substantia ly similar slabs, re-
- inforcing elements incorporated in each of said slabs, webs arranged between and integral with said slabs'and serving to maintam same in spaced relation, and reinforcing elements embedded in said webs and interlocking with the reinforcing elements of said slabs.-
.5. A concrete building element, com rising a pair of substantiallysimilar sla s, a non-metallic framework embedded in said slabs and having web-formin members, webs of concrete defined by said members and connecting said slabs in s aced relation, insulating means incorporate in said webs and ada ted to prevent transmission of heat, cold an moisture from one slab to the other through said webs, metallic reinforcing elements incorporated in each of said slabs, and
metallic reinforcing members embedded in 0 said webs and extending through said insulating means and bonded in said slabs for connecting the slabs together through said webs.
6. A concrete building element, compris ing a pair of substantiall similar slabs spaced apart to form dea air chambers, transverse webs connecting said slabs at suitable intervals throughout their length, a longitudinal median web extending throughout the length of the element and united with said slabs, reinforcing elements embedded in said slabs, reinforcing elements embedded in said webs and interlocked with the reinforcing elements of said slabs, and a plurality of strengthening ribs formed upon the inner face of one of said slabs.
7. A concrete building element, comprising a pair of similar slabs, reinforcing elements incorporated in said slabs, means for spacing said slabs a predetermined distance apart to form dead air chambers, and reinforcing elements incorporated in said spacing means and interlocking with the reinforcing elements of said slabs for tying the slabs together throu b said spacing means.
8. A concrete bui ding element, comprising a pair of similar slabs, reinforcing ele ments incorporated in said slabs, means for spacing said slabs a predetermined distance apart to form dead air' chambers, and rein- 4 forcing elements incorporated in said spac ing means and interlocking with the reinforcing elements of said slabs for tying the slabs together through said spacing means, the reinforcing elements of said slabs extending beyond the ed es of said element and serving as means or interlocking engagement with the reinforcing elements of similar slabs arranged in structural association therewith.
9. A concrete building element, compris ing a pair of similar slabs, reinforcing elements embedded in said slabs, s acin and strengthening webs connectin sald sla s'together at intervals and provi ed with reinforcing elements interengaging with the reinforcin elements of the slabs, and strengthening ri s formed upon the inner face of one of said slabs and in line with the reinforcing elements thereof, whereby a reinforcing element of the slab lies in juxtaposition to each of said ribs.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand this 19th day of August A. D. 1924.
SIMON LAKE.
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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2457982A (en) * 1942-12-09 1949-01-04 Otto A Deichmann Method of producing building panels
US2587724A (en) * 1945-09-10 1952-03-04 Peoples First Nat Bank & Trust Precast reinforced concrete unit
US2629138A (en) * 1947-03-08 1953-02-24 Victor J Hultquist Method of assembling prefabricated building units in a building construction
US2652713A (en) * 1947-05-31 1953-09-22 John J Senglar Structural section
US2669860A (en) * 1945-01-31 1954-02-23 Norman Greenles Weir Loudon Hollow plaster building panels and method of making
US2703003A (en) * 1947-07-28 1955-03-01 Frederick H Ruppel Wall panel
US2892339A (en) * 1952-02-04 1959-06-30 Bellrock Gypsum Ind Ltd Building units

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2457982A (en) * 1942-12-09 1949-01-04 Otto A Deichmann Method of producing building panels
US2669860A (en) * 1945-01-31 1954-02-23 Norman Greenles Weir Loudon Hollow plaster building panels and method of making
US2587724A (en) * 1945-09-10 1952-03-04 Peoples First Nat Bank & Trust Precast reinforced concrete unit
US2629138A (en) * 1947-03-08 1953-02-24 Victor J Hultquist Method of assembling prefabricated building units in a building construction
US2652713A (en) * 1947-05-31 1953-09-22 John J Senglar Structural section
US2703003A (en) * 1947-07-28 1955-03-01 Frederick H Ruppel Wall panel
US2892339A (en) * 1952-02-04 1959-06-30 Bellrock Gypsum Ind Ltd Building units

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