US1559134A - Wall construction - Google Patents

Wall construction Download PDF

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Publication number
US1559134A
US1559134A US676903A US67690323A US1559134A US 1559134 A US1559134 A US 1559134A US 676903 A US676903 A US 676903A US 67690323 A US67690323 A US 67690323A US 1559134 A US1559134 A US 1559134A
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United States
Prior art keywords
wall
gypsum
lumber
boards
edges
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Expired - Lifetime
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US676903A
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Clarence W Utzman
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United States Gypsum Co
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United States Gypsum Co
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Priority to US676903A priority Critical patent/US1559134A/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/74Removable non-load-bearing partitions; Partitions with a free upper edge modular coordination
    • E04B2/7407Removable non-load-bearing partitions; Partitions with a free upper edge modular coordination assembled using frames with infill panels or coverings only; made-up of panels and a support structure incorporating posts
    • E04B2/7409Removable non-load-bearing partitions; Partitions with a free upper edge modular coordination assembled using frames with infill panels or coverings only; made-up of panels and a support structure incorporating posts special measures for sound or thermal insulation, including fire protection
    • E04B2/7411Details for fire protection

Description

Oct..27",.1925. 1,559,134 c. w. UTZMAN WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Nov. 26, -19:23

=- 1 IN V EN TOR.

g/ 'clw UTZMAN 9? I v Patented Oci. -27,

UNITED STAT -S" RA E-NT (OFFICE;

cmnnucn .w. n'r zxa'n, or 'cmcaeo, rumors, Assmnoa'ro 1mm s'ra'rns ozrsum,

- conrm, orcirxcaee; rumors, econronarron or rumors.

constrapcriom;

Application and mem er 2a, 192;. 's m' n 6., 670,903;

i Ila dlltbhqm itmgy. concerns v Be it knownthat 1-,Cmnnnor W.- U'rz- I-MA'N, a citizen of the United States, resid ing at Chicago, in the county of Cook and State of Illinois, have'invented new and use ful Improvements .in Wall Constructions, of which the following'is a'spccifi'cation;

-This invention relates to improvements in building construction andmore particularly--to.-the manner {and material used in erecting 1a fire. "re sistin g: 'wallv construction; In erecting sidewalls, ceilings and partitions, it has beenv customary to provide wooden studs as abacking for-the nailing; 15 of wooden or expanded metal laths over whicha coating of wall plaster is applied. Metal' angle irons, such ;as channel irons, have beensubstitutedfor the metal studs with plaster boards-or-expanded'metal laths Xsecured thereto by clips, or otherwise, and s then covered with-wall plaster in erecting walls that ossess greater fire resisting qualities than t e woodenstud and wooden-- lath -walls,-for with the use of woodit takes 25 a less. degree of heatpenetration to char and finally ignitethe wood laths and studs than it does to cause the metal studs to de- -form and buckle.

I is anob jectof this invention'to provide 0 .a 'wall .construction that will be even more -fire resisting than-the-fmetal backing conls'truction by the employment of a backing of greaterfireflresisting property than uncoveredinetal and securing thereto plaster wallboards in lieu of'lath and plaster. and"- at the sametime provide a' positive means -of securingthe parts together in such a form substantially a. mono-.

' manner as lithi'c wall urfacenot defaced. by the f 0' small-j" hair; line. cracks,. known as' map 'cracks,-" 'usually appearingin walls' eni-.-

ing.-such crack fillerjor finisher being-ex: posed to-the airlonboth sides of the crack.

v "p y ng -PlaStQ1.W&llh08,rdS i l-th place. of

lath andplastenj fiat'unbroken an surface presented without -the time and. la-

' bo'r of" applying i'thecustomary coating. of wall: plasterbutitalso will rovide 'a. wall ceiling or partition" of muc greater fire;

sum body having a fibrous-"covering'bonded ding, thegypsu boards contemplated in i this invention may both be sawedand fittedin the same manner as theiwooden construction herebefore mentiol led a J This invention contemplates the .iusebf gypsum lumber [for the backing of' wall-.

board the nature of which' boardwill per- 9 mit the accomplishment of -the-above de j; scribed objects. The yp'sum lufnber herein' g referred. to is prefers. ly a reinfomcd-gyp thereto, although the reinforcement ma be omitted or. the; covering. .omitte'd wit out departing from the scopeof this invention.'

. The gypsum lumber, as 'abovedescribed;

possesses greater fire resisting. qualities'than metalchannelironbacking on account of its low conductivity, .and it will take'a greater 4 degree of heat io -reduce its strength and shape than the deiee v I cause the metal bac, -'ng.to 'deform' orbu'ckle Furthermore, while gypsum lumber will re material as plasterwallboard 'will allow of a. cementing or attaching of the two together by an adhesive which will unite the contacting surfaces so that substantiallya monolithic surface of wall will provided. It-being impractical to bring the adjacent wallboards close enough together inferecting to prevent cracks or openings between their edges, on account of the unevenness of the manufactured articles, itghas been.

customary to fill such cracks or openings.

.with a; filler known as finisher or crack filler'but with the-wooden or metal backwill-dry out-from-bethsides in setting and leavea line of demarkationwhere the crack' occurs but when the bottom of'the crack or I is sealed by -the,gypsum' ,lumber' studo the same-material as'the edges of,

the wallb'oard'.'the crack filler or finisher dries evenly andcontinuesa oiheat necessary-jto 7e ta-in the usualnails necessary'to hold'plaster-wallboard in place upon woodengstud I m lumber beingof the same from one board to the other: The hair line i by an adhesive suchsmall 10.

or map cracks in the crack filler between wallboards nailedon wooden studs are caused by the pulling apart of the boards, however small the motion may be, from many causes, as the nails will bend or the wood expand or twist but when the boards are united surface tosurface with the stud movement 1s prevented.

- While the preferred form of this inventionis illustratedupon the accompanying I part of a 'wall constructed in accordance the stud. I

i In the embodiment of this invention as' usual manner Figure 2 is a top I edges of each board.

, accordance with with this invention, with parts broken away.

plan View of Figure 1. Figure 3 is a similar view of a modified form of this invention. v p

, Figure his. a view in side elevation of Figurel in course of construction in which one boardhas been placed inposition upon illustrated the gypsum lumber stud is "of the'same shape and dimensions as the customary wooden stud or backing and may be secured in position in thesame manner as the wooden backing. In this form the gypsum stud is shown as comprising a body 1 a paper covering 2, of the same character as plaster wallboard covering,bo'nded thereto. The plaster wallboards 3 and 4 are ofthe type having gypsum body with paper covering upon both side faces and passing over the longitudinal abutting of gypsum having ceiling or partitionin th1s invention the gypsum been secured 1n place, the

In erectlng the wall,

lumber having surface of the lumber over which the plaster wallboard is to p coating 5 of adhesive, such as flour paste,

. silicate of soda,

be placed is covered with a glue or any other desirable adhesive whichwill unite the paper ofthe stud to the paper of the. wallboard. The wallboards are then placed thereox'er in the and the surface of the wallboard is held in close engagement with the adhesive by nailing the wallboa-rd thereto so that the drying of the adhesive will bond the stud and wallboard throughout their contacting surfaces and form an air tightbacklng between the abutting edges of the adjacent wallboards. Heretofore it has been customary to arrange'the spacing of the studding forming the backing for wallboards so that the edges of the adjacent boards come together over a stud with one 01' more studs in between and nail'the wallboard to the stud about each'adjacent edge with nails closely spaced, for example about jinvention presents to the opposite 'edges' the edges of wallboards it has been found J acent boards a small distance apart and fill the aperture so formed with a substance,

advisable to space the abutting edges of adsimilar to the plaster body combined with an adhesive which is smoothed over in the plane of the flat surfaces of the boards and distance, for exmay be covered with the decorating medium applied to the exposed surface of the wall or ceiling without indicating its presence. However such crack filler or finisher ordinarily dries out from both sides of the crack and causes a slight depression along the line of theadjoining boards and during settling I or vibration of the building or upon the expansion or contraction of the wooden baoking, formtine hairline or tween the boards. accordance .wlth thls invention when the map cracks be- In the ,wall as erected in crack filler or finisher 6 is applied between i the boards (the distance between the boards in Figures 1: and 2 boards bemg forming an is exaggerated), the bonded to the gypsum lumber from that side only and may be readily applied in such quantity that it will dry out adjoining edges presence will not be .dis-

Furthermore, the entire margins of thebeing bonded throughout air tight joint, only the outer surface of the crack filler or'finisher is in contact with the atmosphere and will dry to the same gypsum lumber backing and to each other vibrations or otherslight movements of the building ean' not impart slidlng movements of the ad omingboards over the backingsuch movements being the cause of map cracks. the finisher or crack filler will not show the hair line cracks as in other constructions, in act the wall, ceiling, or partition constructed in accordance with this interior of the [room substantially a monolithic surface.

Figure 3 illustratesanother form of this i invention particularly adapted for the erect1on of partitions in which the gypsum lumber is provided with depressions 7. slightly greater in depth than the thickness of the wallboard to be applied, arranged along the of the op pesite sides, as.

' shown, so that a portion 8 of the gypsum spaced apartnails, asshown, the boards 3- lumber will enter between the adjacent edges of the boards and separate the edges fromeach other. In this case the-adhesive 5 is appliedto both surfaces of each depression and the boards applied'and held in contact with both surfaces of each depression by and 4 being applied on one side and the boards 9 and 10 being applied on- .the oppo- 'site side of the stud. The depth of the depressions are such that when the under sides of-the boards therein are bonded to the gypsum stud by theadhesive their outer surfaces will be in line with the surface of the interposed portion 8 of the stud and with each other. In caseof irregularities in the.

widths oithe boards or gypsum studs causing a gap betweenthe edges of theboards.

and side walls of the depression not filled by the adhesive crack filler or finisher may be employed'in the same manner as above described or it may be desirable to arrange the spacing of the gypsumlumber so that such a gap will customary occur. and will be customary filled by the finisher or crack filler which in this construction will act in the same manner as in the' construction heretofore'described.

In carrying out this invention it is not necessary that the plaster wallboards are of the bound edge type nor is it necessary that they be covered with fibrous material.

'A suitable adhesive may be a plied to the .fibrous covered stud to bond t e margins of the uncovered plaster boards thereto and the finisher will bond raw plaster edges to each other in the same manner on the bound edges. Neither is it necessary that the gypsum lumber be provided with-a fibrous covering for the same reason. It being understood that any construction .whereby the backing for walls, ceilings, partitions or the like may be glued, cemented-or otherwise form an air tight permanent jointure to the composition or other boards attached thereto and the abutting edges of such boards be bonded to each other so that the wall, ceiling or partition or the like when so erected 1 will resent substantially a monolithic surface is included-within the scope of this invention. y

This invention also contemplates the application of expanded metal lath to the gypsum lumber backing and covering thellath with wall plaster which plaster will bond the metal lath to the gypsum studs at'the time itembeds the metal lath and-forms therewith substantially a monolithic wall construction presenting an unbroken wall surfaceI A wall, ceiling or partition so 0on structed will be more fire resisting than metal lath with' metal angle iron backing, or plasterboard with metal angle backing, cov ered with wall plaster and even more fireresisting than a similar construction employing plaster wallboard and. gypsum lumber backing, as herein described. On account of the low conductivity of the gypsum in the gypsum lumber withstanding a greater degree of heat. before it disintegrates and fails under 'the stresses and strains to which it is normally subjected in its erected position than the degree of heat that will cause the metal backing to deform, buckle orfail, and

as this gypsum lumber when taken in combination with metal lath, in which the metal of the lath is under different stresses ,and strains than the backin ,and to which the plaster when applied orms a mechanical key holding the wall in place, when subj ected to excessive heat will exist for a longer time thereon, wall sections held thereagainst and bonded to the lumber, and means applied between the abutting edges to the section bonding them to each other.

A fire resisting wall. comprising a backing of gypsum lumber, an adhesive. applied thereon, wall sections 'offire resisting material having their adjacent edges layin over the gypsum lumber, contacting with t e adhesive thereon and bonded by the adhesive to said lumber. Y

4. A fire resisting wall comprising a backing of gypsum lumber, re resisting wall sections having their abutting edges laying.

over said backing, an adhesive between the lumber and sections bonding one to the other, and means between the abutting edges of the sections contacting therewith and with the adhesive covered lumber therebetween bonding theedges to each other and to the lumber thereby presenting a.wall sur-- face substantially monolithic in structure.

5 Afire resisting wall construction having a fire resisting backingcomprising ypsum lumber studs and gypsum wallboard sections with their abuttlng edges laying over' the studs, an adhesive etween the studsand contacting portions of the wall sections, bonding them to the studs. and

gypsum filler between the abutting edges of the wallboards-bonding1 said edges to each other and bonding'to t monolithic wallsurface.

6. A fire resisting wall construction hav- 1a fire resisting backing comprising e stud presenting a gypsuhil lun lb er an'd studs and gypsunj'ivall sections bonding them to thee studs, and be=' board sections with their contiguous edges" tween the contiguous edgesof the wall- 1 I laying over the'studs, Said studs havin deboards and projection of the studs-bonding ltntession sto rec'eive the said edges q? the the margins and edges of said wallboards to 7 5* contiguous boarde -aligning the outer surthe studs presenting a; monolithic wall fi EGGS of the-said boards and projecting porsurface. a 7 U tion but the stud, an adhesive between the studs and contacting portions of the wall CLARENCE W; UTZMAN;

US676903A 1923-11-26 1923-11-26 Wall construction Expired - Lifetime US1559134A (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2440936A (en) * 1943-04-08 1948-05-04 Celotex Corp Panel wall construction
US2720778A (en) * 1951-01-18 1955-10-18 Okunis George Jurgis Veneered wall construction
US3260027A (en) * 1963-03-11 1966-07-12 United States Gypsum Co Building board or the like
US3300933A (en) * 1964-03-11 1967-01-31 Arthur J Donahue Wall construction
US4658557A (en) * 1982-04-26 1987-04-21 Mulford Cass E Building wall construction
WO1998014674A1 (en) * 1996-10-03 1998-04-09 National Gypsum Company Composite structural member and wall assembly method
US20080141618A1 (en) * 2006-12-07 2008-06-19 Gordon Ritchie Wood substitute structural frame member

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2440936A (en) * 1943-04-08 1948-05-04 Celotex Corp Panel wall construction
US2720778A (en) * 1951-01-18 1955-10-18 Okunis George Jurgis Veneered wall construction
US3260027A (en) * 1963-03-11 1966-07-12 United States Gypsum Co Building board or the like
US3300933A (en) * 1964-03-11 1967-01-31 Arthur J Donahue Wall construction
US4658557A (en) * 1982-04-26 1987-04-21 Mulford Cass E Building wall construction
US6061995A (en) * 1996-03-04 2000-05-16 National Gypsum Company Composite structural member and wall assembly method
US6412247B1 (en) 1996-03-04 2002-07-02 National Gypsum Properties, Llc Composite structural member and wall assembly method
WO1998014674A1 (en) * 1996-10-03 1998-04-09 National Gypsum Company Composite structural member and wall assembly method
US20080141618A1 (en) * 2006-12-07 2008-06-19 Gordon Ritchie Wood substitute structural frame member

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