US1509104A - Solo trumpet - Google Patents

Solo trumpet Download PDF

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US1509104A
US1509104A US563361A US56336122A US1509104A US 1509104 A US1509104 A US 1509104A US 563361 A US563361 A US 563361A US 56336122 A US56336122 A US 56336122A US 1509104 A US1509104 A US 1509104A
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trumpet
tube
solo
bell
tubes
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US563361A
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Hickernell Ross
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Hickernell Ross
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; AEOLIAN HARPS; SINGING-FLAME MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D7/00General design of wind musical instruments
    • G10D7/10Lip-reed wind instruments, i.e. using the vibration of the musician's lips, e.g. cornets, trumpets, trombones or French horns

Description

Sept. 23, 1924.

R. HICKERNELL SOLO TRUMPET Filed May 24, 1922 ano: nu*

Patented Sept. 23, 1924.

UNITED STATESv Ross HICKERNELL,

or WAR-REN, omo.

SOLO TRUMPET.

Application led May 24, 1922. Serial No. 563,361.

To all wlw/m, t may conce/m:-

Be it known that l, Ross HIOKERNELL, a citizen of the United States, residing at VJai'ren, in the county of Trumbull and itate of `lGhio, have invented certain new and of which the following is a specification.

The trumpet haslieretofore been used ex clusively as an orchestral instrument, speaking only when the sti-ident quality of tone is desired, and not as a solo instrument. its tone is hard, inflexible, unsympathetic and even blatant. It lacks that mellowness, flexibility and broader tone which adapts the cornet to solo work. Yet the latter is not an ideal solo instrument, either from a musical standpoint, because of its lack of brilliancy; or from an artistic standpoint, because of its general appearance.

Originally the trumpet was an eight foot C principle, twice as long as the present cornet and trumpet in t), and produced sixteen harmonics in its practical register, with a. compass extending one octave deeper than the cornet. There was thus a distinct difference. The trumpet had a refined noble quality of tone, extremely rich and flexible, while the cornet, when first produced, was quite the contrary and at variance with the trumpet quality. It had but eight harmonies and was quite harsh and unrefined 1n comparison with the trumpet. However, because of its shorte-r tube and consequent greater separation of harmonics, for certain popular styles of composition, it could be played upon with more assurance and freedom than upon the eight foot trumpet.' As a consequence, the cornet grew rapidly in popularity and favor, the old eight foot trumpet became obsolete and the four foot principle was adopted for both the cornet and the trumpet. This transition in the case of the trumpet resulted in the creation of the modern four foot trumpet with a voice so harsh and unmusical as to be unfit for the class of work for which the cornet was invented, to wit :-the solo, and it has therefore for many years been relegated to the orchestra.

The trumpet from time immemorial has been regarded as the classic wind instrument, full of grace and charm and in tone it is naturally the soprano of the brasses; yet as now constructed it stands apart and distinct from the other members of the brass family of instruments. The tromuseful Improvements in Solo Trumpets,

bone and tuba are in agreement as to tonal quality, each having a clear, free full tone throughout its entire register. On the othe-r hand, the modern trumpet does not even agree with itself in its several registers, the lower register being foggy, the middle register being inclined to break and choke, and the upper register alone being clear but also coarse; and producing no fundamentals.

The object of my invention is to produce a trumpet for solo work, having a quality of tone that is clear, full, resonant and brilliant throughout its register from its lowest to its highest tone, and without any of the harsh, shallow, inflexible, coarse and blatant qualities of tone which heretofore characterized the. modern trumpet; and to produce all fundamental tones.

In the following description, I shall refer to the accompanying drawings, in which Figure l is a side view of a trumpet embodying my invention and Figure 2 is a sectional view on the line 2 2- of Fig. l.

The general arrangement of parts is the same as usual, including the valve cylinders 8, which contain the usual valves controlled by the fingering keys 4.-, for changing the air passages through the several crooktubes 5, 6, 7 in producing the different tones, in the manner well understood and requires no explanation.

ln trumpets, as heretofore constructed, the tubes forming `the air ducts or passages from the mouth piece to the beginning of the bell tube have been of uniform diameter, with mouth-pipe of large bore, and bell of proportionately small diameter. The tones which are produced upon these instruments have the undesirable qualities above described. For the purpose of discovering the defects which are responsible for the production of these undesirable qualities, I have conducted a large number of experiments extending over a long period of time. I have discovered that the objections specilied can be overcome and the desirable qualities can be produced by changing the construction of certain portions of the instrument while retaining the same arrangement of parts. The essential features of my invention or discovery consist in constructing the mouth-pipe or tube, and the curved end tubes which respectively connect the mouth-pipe with the intermediate valve mechanism and the latter with the bell-tube,

of small and .tapering construction, properly graduated; Ithe bore of thetubein these portions increasing gradually in diameter by distinct mathematical ratios in the direction of travel of the fair column. I have determined that the intermediate tubes constituting the valve-controlled passages'by which the length of theairv column is varied, should remain of uniform diameter or bore in order; to l. effect .the desired result.

:In .constructingfthe trumpet in accordance -with my invention, the mouth-pipeA l() is -niade.. rsmaller than prior instruments of this type where iitpjoinslthe.mouth piece l1 and A:" gr-adually increasesA progressively in diameter v.totheendof this tube, indicated at Z1, nine pinches,`at theratio of/three to four.- The Lend lU-,tube 12 is .formed with a gradually increasing `diameter from the point oto the lpointd,ithree inches; at the ratio of eight to nine., The connecting tubes .8 and 9 fshoiildheof uniform size; and the crooki tubes 5,6, and Taare also of-uniform diameter. Thebell tube Vlfbeginning at the ,more-,gradually around-thecurved end vporation,y seven.inclies,at the ratioof four to v five and morerrapidly in the Vstraight por- Y. .tion leading totheloell. 141/2, l2 inches, at 39Q-tlievratio-.of one to two and from lill/to l5-four inches, at the ratio one to two. Ey the. construction described, 'the vibrating air column 4is permitted to expand continul ously. andl progressivelyl asit passes through the. gradually ienlargingbore of the mouthpipelO and again 'asit passes through the y `Agradually increasingy bore of thev end U-tube .,-lleadingto the-,intermediate valve conl. rtrolledcrook-tubes; and continuing there- 4Q from the airfcoluiiin is Vpermitted to expand continuously and in larger'forrn from the linitial, curvedend of the bell-tube until it Yemergesfrom the bell.-

Y .il .have found that. it is important vthat lthevibrating air column should be formed ,ni-.much smaller aty the beginningthan hereto- Aforeand to expand gradually after leaving the :mouthpiece the limited .length before mentioned, and, that'it is essentialalso thatl th-is. air column should be4 permitted lto expand as it passes .around the curved ends ofthe tubes, that fis, through the U-tube l2 land. the initial curved end of the bell piper .gld-and: that it should increase more rapidly fronithispointto 141/2, and with extreme :rapidity from; thisvpoint to end of bell l5. I have also 4foundlthat the intermediate `val'vle-'controlfled crook-tubes should maini, tain the air column .of uniform size .at these Vpoint fe increases progressively `.in diameter,

sections-and of an internal diameter corresponding withthe eXitend d ofthe U-tube l2. In fact, it is by making these intermediate valve controlled tubes which regulate the varying length lof thel air passage of ,the instrument of uniform bore between the conical sections, that I ain able to maintain l.and preserve the superior tonal qualities and which would be destroyed by the Vmanipulation of the controlling-valves, ,if .said intermediate crook-tubes and connectanism for controlling thelength :of the vibrating air column, having valve-controlled `crook-tubes of ,uniform diameter, a U-tube of progressively increasingdiameter inter- -posedbetween the mouth-pipe and said intermediate mechanism, and a. bell-tube connected to said intermediate mechanismiand terminating in a large bell, said bell-tube havingpa curvediend portion. and a straight portion vterminating in thebell, thevstraignt portion being graduatedatthe ratio of-.one

zto two lin a lengthV of twelve inches.

2. Ina solo trumpet as set forth in claim l, said curved'endportion of the bell-*tube being graduated at the ratio of four` to five ,i in a length of seven inches.

3.121 solo trumpet, .comprising -`asniall mouth-pipe progressively increasing inv diameter at the` ratio-of three tofour in a length of nine inches, intermediate Emechanism for controlling tlielength of the vibrating air column, having valve-controlled crook-tubesof uniform diameter, aU-tube of-progresively increasing diameter interposed between t-he mouth-pipe andsaidintermediate mechanism, said U-tube being graduated at the ratio of jeightrto nine in a length .of three inches, and abell-tube connected to said intermediate mechanism and terminatingin a large vbellsaid .belltubev having Ya curved end portion and a straight portion leading to the bell, the curved end portion being graduated ,atthe ratio of four tolive in a length of seven inches and the straight portion beinggraduated at the ratio of one to two in a length of twelve inches and-the bell being graduated at the rratio of one to two ina length f of four inches.

ln testimony whereof .l affix my signature.

ROSS HICKERNELL.

US563361A 1922-05-24 1922-05-24 Solo trumpet Expired - Lifetime US1509104A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2987950A (en) * 1958-04-24 1961-06-13 Conn Ltd C G Wind instrument of the cup mouthpiece type
US3022697A (en) * 1956-12-04 1962-02-27 Conn Ltd C G Electroformed mouthpipe and mouthpiece receiver
US3686995A (en) * 1969-11-21 1972-08-29 Fred J Marzan Brass wind instrument
US6717041B1 (en) 2003-04-08 2004-04-06 G. Leblanc Corporation Tuning adjustment retaining mechanism

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3022697A (en) * 1956-12-04 1962-02-27 Conn Ltd C G Electroformed mouthpipe and mouthpiece receiver
US2987950A (en) * 1958-04-24 1961-06-13 Conn Ltd C G Wind instrument of the cup mouthpiece type
US3686995A (en) * 1969-11-21 1972-08-29 Fred J Marzan Brass wind instrument
US6717041B1 (en) 2003-04-08 2004-04-06 G. Leblanc Corporation Tuning adjustment retaining mechanism

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