US1309536A - Quotient mechanise for computing-machines - Google Patents

Quotient mechanise for computing-machines Download PDF

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US1309536A
US1309536A US1309536DA US1309536A US 1309536 A US1309536 A US 1309536A US 1309536D A US1309536D A US 1309536DA US 1309536 A US1309536 A US 1309536A
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quotient
keys
dials
registering
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06CDIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
    • G06C7/00Input mechanisms
    • G06C7/02Keyboards
    • G06C7/06Keyboards with one set of keys for each denomination

Description

J. F. MAYS.
ouomm MECHANISM FOR COMPUHNG MAcHlNEs.
lumai/Wet MIJ( J. F. MAYS.
OUTlENT MECHANISM FOR CMPUUNGZMACHINES. APYLICAHON FILED IAN.1|.1919. 1 309 536. Patented July 8, 1919,
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J. F1 MAYS..
QUOTIENT MECHANISM FOR coMPUHNG MACHINES.
APPLICAHON FILED JAN. Il. 1919. 1,309,536. Patented July 8, 1919.
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A 6mm,
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
JAMES F. MAYS, OE BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA, ASSIGNOR T0 MAYS ACCGUNTING MACHINE COMPANY, OF LEXINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA, .A CORPORATION OF NORTH CARCLINA.
QUOTIENT MECHANISL FOR COMPUTING-MACHINES.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented July 8, 1919.
- Application lcd January 11, 1919. Serial IO. 270,705.
-mechanism for calculating machines designed and arranged to perform operations of division, and as to certain of its features is in the nature of an improvement upon the quotient mechanism disclosed and claimed in my prior application for Letters Patent filed April 30, 1917, Serial No. 165,413.
The invention has for its general object to provide mechanism whereby the human element is reduced 'to 4a minimum; permitting computations to be made by purely mechanical or routine operations and without any considerable mental effort, thereby not only reducing the necessary amount of skill on the part of the operator, but eliminating, to a large extent, the possibilities of error.
A more particular object ofthe invention is to provide a convenient combined arrangement of the operating and registerin devices whereby the several amounts disp ayed by the machine at the same or diierent times, for example, the dividend and quotient, will occupy such positions with respect to one another that their relationshi will be readily apparent and the mental e fort required to correlate them correspondingly reduced.
Another object of the invention is to provide certain mechanical checks which will compel the various operationsto be performed in the proper manner and sequence, thereby eliminating the possibilities of error through ignorance or carelessness.
The foregoing and other objects of the invention, together with means whereby the same may be carried into effect, will best be'understood from the following description of one form or embodiment thereof illustrated in the accompanying drawings. It will be understood, however, that the particular construction and arrangement described and shown has been chosen for illustrative purposes merely, and that the invention, as defined by the claims hereunto ap pended, may be otherwise practised without de arting from the spirit and scope thereof.
n said drawings:
Figure l is a plan view of the complete machine.
Fig. 2 is a substantially' complete longitudina vertical section.
Fig. 3 is a detail sectional view on the line 3-3, Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is aplanwiew, partly broken away,
' of the registering "mechanism, certain of the arts being omitted in order to simplify the illustration.
Fig. 5 is a rear elevation, partly broken away, of the ,quotient registering mechanism.
Fig. 6 is an irregular, transverse vertical sectional view taken substantially on the line 6 6, Figs. 2 and 4, with certain parts broken away or omitted.
F1g. 7 is an enlarged vertical section, taken Vsubstantially on the plane of Fig. 2, of one of the quotient dials and certain parts associated therewith or adjacent thereto.
Fig. 8 is an elevation, partly broken away, looking from the right in Fig. 4, of the division key, its locking lever, and certain adjacent parts.
Fig. 9 is a simplified longitudinal vertical sectional View illustrating one of the keys of the machine and its connection with the main actuating shaft.
Figs. 10 and 11 are detail sections on lines 10--10 and 11-11, respectively, Fig. 4.
Fig. 12 is an enlarged vertical section taken substantially on line 12-12, Fig. 4. of the division key and the parts cont-rolled thereby.
Fig. 13 is a section on the line 13*l3, Fi 12.
he machine illustrated, as to its general organization, is of the ty e shown and described in Letters Patent o. 1,220,665, granted tomeMarch 27,1917,and comprises an outer casing 20 inclos'ing an inner casing or frame for the computing and registering mechanism, which latter is operated by a series of columns of keys 21 having finger tips 9.2 upon which appear the digits represented by the respective keys, in accordance with the usual practice in ,machines of this class. In the accompanying drawings, eight columns of keys are shown, but any desired number of columns may be employed. 4
The keys 21, registering devices o erated and controlled thereby', and the mec anism operatively connecting said keys and registering stantiall similar to the corresponding parts disclosedrv and claimdin m rior application for Letters Patent filed vl) une 24, 1918, Serial No. 241,523, and constitute a `mechanism similar in general principle of operation to that disclosed in Letters Patent No. 1,220,665 above'referred to, although modified and improved in certain particulars. Except as hereinafter pointed out, this main or prlmary computing and registering mechanlsm constitutes no art of the present invention and is not il ustrated in all its details herein but will be-briefiy described as follows: l
The ke 's 21 are vertically reciprocable through tie top of the casing, are, as above stated, arranged in vertical columns, and the keys in each column arearranged in a numerical series with the key bearin the numeral 1 at the lower end of the co umn or 4at the left in Fig. 2, and with the key bearing the numeral 9 at-the upper end of the column or at the right in Fig. 2. The keys bearing the numera s 1 to 6, inclusive, are operatively connected -to key levers 23, as by means of pins 24 rojecti from said keys which engage the Eifurcatg ends of Ysaid levers The levers 23 corresponding to the keys of each column are pivoted upon a bracket 26 (see Fig. 9) at the rear of the machine frame, and engage, at points intermediate their ends, a cross member 27 carried by a bar 28 which is guided to reciprocate vertically in the frame, and which is provided with a rack' 29 eooperating with a se ental pinion 30 on a rock shaft 31, one o these shafts being provided foreach column of ke s. ing the numerals 7 8 and 9 are without key levers, these keys operating directly upon the corres Gliding shaft 31` through racks 32 carri by the keys and segmental pinions 33 upon the shaft. The shafts 31 are journaled in suitable transverse members 34 and 35 of the main frame or inner casing, and each shaft is rotated differentially, 1n accordance with the articular key which is actuated, as explained more fully in my prior application abovereferred to, it being understood that the construction is such that the motion im' parted to each shaft 31 for a given ke depression (which is the same for all the eys) is proportional to the key depressed. The rock S tion, after each actuation thereof, by springs 36, and each key is restored to its normal devices as herein shown are all sub- 488. -.The top of the casing 20 is Kef s bearl afts 31 are restored to normal posi-4y elevated position when released by means of a spring 37, the upward movement being limited by stop pins 190. It will be4 understood that one of these shafts 31 is provided for each column of keys comprising a unit of the, machine, and that any desired number of units may be used.
v A primary registering dial 38 is provided for each unit of the machine, and each dial 38 is fixed to a dial shaft 39, the latter being mounted in suitable bearings in bars 40 and V41, the former constituting one of the transverse members of the main frame, vand the latter being secured, as by screws 92, to a transverse framemember rovided with si ht openings 42 through w ich the numeras on the several dials are successively visible as said dials are progressively rotated. An extra dial 38, mounted on a dial shaft 39is preferably provided, said extra/dial having no actuatm keys, but being employed to receive, t rough carrying mechanism the excess amounts accumulated by the dlal 38 of highest order, as is usual in machines of this type. The dial shaft 39* is journaled in the frame member 40 and in a transverse frame member 165.
The dials 38 are driven from the rock shafts. 31 by means of toothed segments 43 which mesh with pinions 44 loosely mounted on the dial shafts 39 and connected with said dials by suitable ratchet mechanism. as more fully describedin my prior application above referred to. For' the urposes of the present description it is su cient to say that at each oscillation of a segment 43 the corresponding dial 38 is rotated an amount proportional to the value of the key depressed in the corresponding column, said ratchet mechanism' being of such a character as to avoid retrograde actuation of the dials, while permitting independent forward actuation thereof. `by the carrying mechanism hereinafter referred to, and also preferably com risn means for preventing overthrow fof t e dia s beyond the amount of movement imparted thereto by the se ent 43. The return or idle movement of t e ratchet mechanism is limited by engagement of stop pins 200 carried thereby with stop lugs 201 on the bar 41.
Overthrow or excess motion of the key-operated dial-actuating mechanism,Y compris ing the rock shafts 31 and segments 43, is also prevented b mechanism substantially similar to that s own in my rior a plica tion referred to. Briefly, sald mec anism comprises a series of arms 45 secured to each rock shaft 31 and coperating with stops 46 pivoted to a supporting bar 47 and coperating with the keys 21. The several stop arms 45 of each series are differentially spaced about the shaft 31 in sucha manner as to engage their respective stops 46 at difsaid member.
ferent periods in the rotation of said shaft in accordance with the value of the key depressed, these arms being located beside the respective key bars, and being set at different angles with respect to the axis of the shaft 31 according to the extent of rotation which is to be imparted to said shaft by the different keys. The bars 47, of which there is one for each column of keys, end which serve also as guides for the lower ends of the keys, are preferably angular invcrosssection, and are supported at their ends by the frame members 34 and 35 and intermediate their ends by a third frame Iiiember 48, which also serves as an intermediate support for thershafts 31.' To the latt'er end, said frame member 48, is provided atits upper edge with notches to receive said shafts 31 and with vertical slots 49 to receive the bars 47, the lower flanges of said hars being slotted to receive said member and being-supported by pins 50 carried by The stops 46 of each series compriselevers pivoted to the vertical flange of the corresponding bar 47, the upper end of each stop being bent laterally to overlie a correspoiidmgly formed projection on the upper edge of said bar, and the lower end of each of said stops being arranged tocooperate with a cam surface at the lower end of the respective key bar. A spring 51 tends normally to pull each of the stops out of the ath of the corresponding sto'p arm 45 and into engagement witha stop pin 52. When any key is depressed, however, engagement of the lower en dthereof with the llowerend of the corresponding stop causes said stop to be projected into the path of movement of the corresponding stop arm, whereby movement of the shaft 31V Will be positively arrested when said shaft has been rotated an extent corresponding to the key de ressed` fr he carrying or transfer mechanism herein shown for rotating each dial one stcp u on the 'completion of ten steps by the next dial of lower denomination is substantially similar to that disclosed and claimed in my prior application for Letters Patent filed February 14, 1917, Serial No. 148,559, the same being a variation of, or an improvement on the carrying mechanism shown and described in Letters Patent No. 1,165,337, granted to be December 21, 1915. Except as hereinafter pointed out, and in combination with certain other parts, this mechanism specifically forms no portion "of the present invention and is not fully illustrated in detail herein. Briefly, however, said mechanism comprises an escapement mechanism, designated Aas a whole by the numeral 53, associated with each of the dialsy except that of lower denomination, each escapement mechanism being controlled by cams 54, cam levers 55 and pallets 56 from the dial shaft of next lower denomination in such a manner that when a dial of, lower denomination has been advanced ten steps the dial of next higher denomination will be automatically advanced one step. Mechanism is provided for controlling the escapement mechanism above referred in such a manner as to delay the carrying operation until the completion of the movement of the dials b their direct operating means, said controliing mechanism, asmore full described in my prior applicationlast re erred to, comprisin escapement Wheels 57 which coperate wit pawls or pallets 58 and are operatively connected with a laterally reciprocaiting bar 59 for oscillation thereby. The carry control bar 59 is guided for longitudinal movement on the upper face of a transverse frame member 60 and is provided with slots 61 to receive guide lugs or pins 62 projecting from said frame member. yAt one end said bar59 is provided with an ear 0r bracket 63 (see Fig. 6) connected by a link 64 with a pinion 65 secured to a shaft 66 journaled in a bracket 67 secured to the side frame member 160. ,The pinion 65 ,meshes with a toothed sectdr 68 on one arm cam roller,75 cooperating with a cam 76.
carried by the corresponding shaft, whereby, as said shaft is'rotated as above described, the shaft 73 will be rocked, to cause, through the arm 72 and link 71, an oscillation of the segment .68 and pinion 65 and a correspondin lon `tudinal reciprocation of the bar 59. uita le means operated by a hand lever 77 at the exterior of the casing may be provided for resetting the dials 38 to zero in order to clear the machine after the computing operation. This mechanism, however, forms no portion of the present invention and may be of any usual or well known character.
Each of the dials 38 carries upon its periflihery two series of numerals 78 and 79. T e numerals 78 are employed in the regular operations of addition and multiplication, said numerals on the several dials occupying 4corresponding angular positions in accordsay, for each numeral of a series 78, the complement of that numeral, on the basis of 9, in the corresponding series 79, is ari-an ed to appeal' simultaneously therewith at t ie adjacent sight openin 42.
The primary dia s, 38, dial shafts 39, and sight openings 42 are disposed in alinement with the several columns of ke 7s 21. Also in alinement with the several ey columns and with the Sight openings 42 is a Second parallel series or roiv of sight openings ,80 through which may be observed numerals carried by a set of secondary or quotient dials 81. The quotient dials 81 are eo-aXially disposed with r pect to the primary dials 38, and to this nd each of said quotient dials is secured a hub 82 (see Fig. 7) journaled at its opposite ends in bracket members 83 and 84, respectively. The bracket member 83 is secured, as by screws 85, to the bracket member 84, which latter is provided with depending ears 86 secured by screws 87 to the 'iframe member 88, said brackets being further secured to said frame member and to each other by angle plates 89 (see Fig. 4) connected with said brackets and frame member by screws 90. The forward end of the hub .92 is received in an opening 91 in the frame member 88 in axial alinement with the corresponding dialshaft 39. By virtue of this arrangement, it will be seen that the quotient dial mechanism may be readily removed from the machine as a unit, for purposes of repair or otherwise, without disturbing Y the primary registering mechanism. A Each quotient dial 81 is provided with a stop pin 93 adapted to engage a zero stop pin 94 projecting from the bracket member 83. Each of said dials is normally held in the zero position with its in 93 in engagement with the correspon ing zero pin 94, and in which position the numeral 0 thereon appears at the sight opening 80, by means of a spring 95 secured at one end to a pin 96 projecting from the hub 82 and at its opposite end to a pin 97 projecting from the bracket member 83.
For the purpose of actuating the quotient dials 81 by rotating them ste by step so as to cause the numerals carried thereby to appear successively at the sight openings 80, the following mechanism is employed. Slidably mounted in each of the hubs 82 is a shaft or arbor 98 connected with said hub for rotation in unison therewith by-means of a pin 99 carried by the shaft and engaging an interior groove 100 in the hub. Fast upon each of the shafts 98 is a ratchet wheel l 101 (see also Fig. 5), each of said ratchet wheelshavin nine teeth spaced to correspond with t e numerals to 9 of the corresponding dial, and a blank tooth space 102 positioned to correspond with the dial numeral 0, whereby error in the result of damage to the mechanism, caused by an imA proper attempt to advance any dial beyond the 9 position, is prevented. Cooperating with the several ratchet wheels 101 is a series of spring fingers or pawls 103 carried by a reciprocating bar 104 mounted for lim ited longitudinal movement on the bracket member 84, as by means of lugs 105 projecting from ysaid bracket member and passing through slots 106 in said bar, said bar being normally held in the retracted position shown in Fig. 5 by a light s ring 180 (Fig. 4). The bar 104 is connecte by a link 107 with an arm 108 on a shaft 109 disposed in alinement with the Shaft 66 and journaled'in a bracket 110 secured to the side frame member 160 adjacent the bracket 67. The shaft 109 is adapted to be operatively connected, by means hereinafter described, with the shaft 66, whereby at each operation of any of the keys of the machine (which, as above de-4 scribed, results inan oscillation of the shaft 66) the bar 104 will be reciprocated to cause the pawls 103 thereon toengage and advance the corresponding ratchets 101 and dials 81 one step. The dialsy 81 are retained in the positions into which they are advanced by their pawl and ratchet actuating mechanism by means of holding pawls 111 which eopv erate with spaced pins 112 carried by the several dials, said pawls being pivoted on cars 113 formed on the bracket member 84 and beingl he d in operative position by sprin 114. or releasing the pawls 111 to permit the springs 95 to return the quotient dials to zero position, there is provided a resetting bar 115 slidably mounted for limited longitudinal movement on thebracket member 84 by means oflugs 116 rojecting from said bracket member an passing through slots 117` in the bar. The bar 115 is provided with a series of pins 116 adapted, as said bar is moved longitudinally toward the right in Fig. 5, to engage and release all 'of the holding pawls 111. For so moving said bar, the latter is provided at one end with an angular extension 117 constituting an operating handle which extends through a suitably disposed slot 118 in the top o the casing. Said slot is preferably closed by a plate 119 carried by the handle 117*l for the urpose of excluding dirt from the casing. he bar 115 may be, and referably is normally held in the retracte or inoperative position shown in Fig. 5 by a light spring, not shown but substantially similar to the spring 180 for retracting the bar 104.
For t e purpose of connecting and disconnecting the shafts 66 and 109 in order to render the quotient registerin mechanism operative or inoperative at wil the following means are provided, reference being had particularly to Figs. 4, 8, 12 and 13. Fast upon the end of the shaft 66 is a disk 120 having a peripheral notch 121, while fast upon the adjacent end of the shaft 109 is a disk 122 having a correspondingly positioned notch 123, livoted to the disk 122 is a. dog 124 carrying a pin 125 adapted to engage th'e notches 121 and 123, thereby connecting the disks and 122, and, consequently, the shafts 66 and 109, for rotation or oscillation in unison. The pin 125 extends through a slot 126 in a slide 127 guided for vertical movement in keepers 128 secured to the bracket 110, said pin also extending into an vopening 129 in said bracket. The arrangement is such that, as the slide 127 is depressed from the position shown in Fig. 12, the pin 125 will be caused to enter the notches 121 and 123 to connect the parts as above described. The slide 127 is normally held in its elevated position, as shown in Figs. 12 and 13, by means of a spring 130 connected at one end to a pin 131 projecting from the bracket 110, and at its opposite end 'to a pin 132 carried by the slide 127 and passing through a slot 133 in said bracket, whereby said slide is further guided. The slide 127 is formed with an upward extension 134 which passes through a suitably disposed opening in the top of the casing and is provided with a finger piece 135, said extension and finger piece constituting a division key whereby-said slide may be depressed' against the tension of the spring 130 to render operative the quotient mechanism. For the purpose of retaining the division key in operative or depressed' position against the tension of` the spring 130, there is provided a lock vlever 13G pivoted at 137 to the frame member 160 and having a finger piece 138 extending through a suitably disposed slot in the top of the casing, said lever having a shoulder adapted to engage a laterally extending arm 140 on the key 134 when the latter is depressed.
For the purpose of selectively connectingV the several quotient dials with their actuating mechanism in order to render operative any predetermined dial in accordance with the requirements, the following means are provided, Disposed intermediate the several columns of the keyboard of the machine, and between the main sight openings 42 and the quotient sight openings 80, is a series of decimal pointers 141 (Figs. 1 and 7) having stems 142 which extend through slots 143 in the top of the casing and are connected to slides 144 beneath the latter. Said slides are provided with operating linger pieces 145 which extend through slots 146 in the top of the casing, whereby said decilnal pointers 141 may be moved from their normal inoperative position into a position between the adjacent sight openings 42, as shown in the case of the third pointer from the right in Fig. 1.
As above described, the shafts 98 are connected with the hubs 82 of the dial 81 for rotation in unison therewith, but are movable longitudinally with respect to said hubs. carrying with them the ratchets 101, whereby said ratchets may be moved into and out of the path of movement of the operating pawls 103. For so moving said ratchets, the shafts 9S are pro ded adjacent their ends with collars 147 between which and the ratchets 101 are received the bifurcated ends of arms 148 (see also Fig. 5) on slides 149, each having a perforated ear 150 to receive a pin 151 depending from the corresponding slide 144. Each slide 140 comprises a rearwardly extending locking bar 152 guided for longitudinal movement on headed pins 153 proJecting from brackets 154 secured to the top of the casing, said pins passing through slots 155 in said bars. The locking bars 152 are formed with hooked lugs 15G adapted, when said bars are moved forwardly from the normal position shown in Fig. 7, to engage pins 157 carried by the keys 21. The arm 148 and locking bar 152 of each slide 149 are at opposite sides, respectively, of the ear 150. which is Vdisposed substantially centrally of s'aid slide, the arm 148 operating in the column at the left of the corresponding decimal pointer 141 and the locking bar 152 operating in the column at the right thereof. The slide 149* (see Fig. 4) at the extreme right end of the series has no locking bar 152 (there being no key column at the right of this slide), but is guided on a stud 158 projecting from the side frame member 150. The slide 144 for operating the slide 145)a is provided with an operating finger piece 145n (Fig. 1) similar to the finger pieces 145, but has no decimal pointer 141, the latter being unnecessary in this position. As will now be seen, when any finger piece 145 is operated to move the corresponding decimal pointer 141 into operative position, the quotient dial immediately to the left of said decimal pointer will be connected with the quotient dial operating mechanism for actuation thereby when any of the regular keys of the machine are operated, while the column of keys immediately at the right of said decimal pointer will be locked against operation.
,The finger ieces 145 are so disposed as to be conveniently movable into operative position by placing the fore-finger of the right hand in the rear of the finger piece to be so moved, while placing the thumb of the saine hand in front of the next finger piece to the left, and giving to the thumb and forefinger a slight twist in a clockwise direction, this twist not. only moving into operative position the right hand finger piece of the pair, but restoring to inoperative position the' left-hand finger piece if the latter should happen to be in operative position.
inasmuch as the figures composing the quotient are, usually less in number than those composing the, dividend, the number ol' quotient dials S1 may, for the sake of simplicity. be less than the number of prlmalv dials titi, and in the eight column machine herein shown seven quotient dials are provided. It will be obvious, however, that these dials ma)v be of any desired number. 'lhe slides 144 are equal in number to the quotient dials. but, for convenience, additional decimal pointers 141a are provided between the remaining primary dials 38 and hetween the primary dial ot' highest order and the extra dial 3S, These decimal pointers 141 are pivoted to the top of the easing and may he turned from the inoperatiie position shown in dotted lines at the lett iu Fig. l into the operative posltion shown in full lines therein. The decimal pointers 141 are also preferahl)I pivoted to the slides 144 h v their stems 142, S0 that the \l may be operated in the salite manner as the pointers 141` without operating the slides 144, for convenience in marking ofi' decimal places, or for other purposes, ain performing operations other than division, .or even in the. latter operation under some circumstances, as where the position of a decimal point is to be indicated and retained.
The complete operation of the machine, in performing an operation of division, is as follows: Assuming` for example` that the number 725,423 is to he divided by 332, the former number` constituting the dividend, is set up b v the numerals ot' the complementar v series 79 on the primar)v dials 3B, by suitable manipulation ofI the computing kers. using the keys etuuplementary to the several numbers to he set up. as will be under-lood hv those skilled in the art. It iS rlear thatl the til-st sub-dividend will be T25. The third decimal marker 141 from the right in Fig. 1 is then moved into operative position. as shown in said figure, therelrv marking oti T225 on the primary or dividend dialsor register. This operation eausxs the quotient dial in the fourth column t'rom the right to be connected with its` actuating' mechanism and also serves to lock the regular kevs in the third column. The fingers of the operator are then placed upon the appropriate keys (namely. the 'L" Ii." and 3f keys) in the fourth, fifth and sixth columns (corresponding to the columns in which the sub-dividend 725 appears) and said keys are struck twicel (332 being divisible into 725 twice) or until the sub-dividend appearing at the left o f the operated decimal pointer has been diminished to an amount less than the divisor. rThis operation has caused the fourth quotient dial to lie advanced two steps, so that the numeral 2" appears upon the quotient.l register in the fourth column, while the remainder ot' the ysub-dividelul appearing at the left of the operated decimal pointer will be (31, shown by the dividend register in the fourth and fifth columns. The appropriate finger pieces 145 are then manipulated, above described, to restore the previously operated decimal pointer to normal position and to move the second decimal pointer from the right into operative position, thereby unlocking the keys in the third column, disconnecting the fourth quotient dial from its operating mechanism, connecting the third quotient dial to its operating mechanism, and locking the keys in the second column. The sub-dividend now pointed oft will he (S14. The divisor, 33:2, 1s then struck once on the keys of the third, fourth and fifth column, whereupon the numeral 1 will appear upon the quotient register in the third column, and a remainder of 282 will appear in the third, fourth and fifth columns of the dividend register. The next decimal marker is then moved into operative position (the one last, used being restored), marking ofi' a new Sub-dividend of 28:22. The fingers of the operator are then moved -one column to the right and the divisor is struck eight times in the second, third and fourth columns` the numeral S appearing on the quotient register in the sccond column and the remainder 166 appearing on the dividend register in the second, third, and fourth columns. The last operated marker is then restored, and the finger piece 145l at the extreme; right is operated. The final dividend appearing on the dividend dial is 1663. Moving the fingers to the first, second and third columns, the divisor, 332, is struck five times, the numeral 5 appearing on the quotient register in the first column, and the remainder 3, appearmg on the dividend register in the. first column. The complete quotient, 2185, will now appear on the quotient register in the first four columns.
From the foregoing itA will be seen that, the quotient dials being disposed in column alinement with the computingl keys and primary dials, the arrangement of the work heeonies substantially the same as that naturally employed in nraking similar computations with pencil and paper. or without the use of a calculating machine, so that the mental strain required to correlate the. several amounts dis )layed h v the different registers of the maclhine is greatly reduced with a corresponding reduction in the possibility of error. It will also be seen that the arrangement of decimal markers with respect to the several registers is a natural one, the corresponding decimal places in the dividend and quotient being correspondingly positioned. It will, moreover, be seen that the operation of the decimal pointers serves not only to connect the proper quotient dial for operation but to lock the computing keys in the column at the right of the columns which should 'be operated to produce the correct result, so that the operator, in working from left to right in making the successive divisions is not only .revented from inadvertently striking the reys in the wrong column, but is compelled to shift the decimal pointers at the proper time in order to connect the proper quotient dial before moving from one column or decimal place to the next. It will furthermore be seen that the quotient mechanism above described is of relatively simple construction and is direct in its operation, being actuated by the same mechanism which controls and operates the carrying devices and which must, of necessity, be operated at each operation of the machine, thereby eliminating many of the parts heretofore required in machines of this character, and utilizing. to a considerable extent, much of the power of the key struck, which, in similar machines, has heretofore gone to Waste.
The quotient dials and associated mechanism, while designed primarily for use in performing operations. of division, as above explained, are not limited in their utility to this purpose, being also useful for the purpose of checking operations of multiplication` by employing them to register the multiplier, or the number of times the multiplicand is stru/'k in the several columns in accordance with the usual method of performing multiplication on machines of this type.
These and other benefits and advantages of the invention, will, however, be readily apparent to those skilled in the art Without further explanation.
I claim l. In a calculating machine, the combination of a series ot registering devices, a series of columns of keys for actuating the respective registering devices, devices for individuallyr setting the respective registering devices in condition for operation, and division markers operatively connected to the respective setting devices, each division marker being movable into a position to mark its respective column of keys and operative by such movementl to connect for operation the appropriate registering device for the column ot keys thus marked.
2. In a calculating machine, in combination. a series of quotient dials, key actuated operating means therefor and means for connecting and disconnecting said dials with respect to said operating means and a series of division markers arranged adjacent to the respective dials and coperative with said connecting means, said markers being operative toindividually connect the dii'erent dials for operation by said operating means.
3. In a calculating machine, in combination, a series of primary registering devices, a series of secondary registering devices, each of said secondary registering devices being in column alinement with one of said primary registering devices, and devices arranged between the columns for controlling the operation of the individual secondary registering devices.
4. In a calculating machine, in combination, a series of prnnary dials, a series of quotient dials, each of said quotient dials being in column alinement with one of said primary dials, operating means for said quotient dials, and a series of controlling members arranged between the columns each acting directly to operatively connect an adjacent quotientdial with said operating means independently of the others` 5. In a calculating machine, in combinaA tion, a series of primary registering devices, a series of secondary registering devices, each of said secondary registering devices being in column alinement with one of said primary registering devices, a series of decimal pointers disposed between the columns, and means o )erable with said decimal pointers for controlling the operation of the individual secondary registering devices.
C. In a calculating machine. in combination, a series of primary registering devices.
a series of secondary registering devices. each of said Secondary registering devices being in column alinement with one of said primary registering devices, a series of decimal pointers disposed between the columns, slides by which said decimal pointers are carried, finger pieces for operating said slides, and means operated by said slides for controlling the operation of the individual secondary' registering devices.
7. In a calculating machine, in combination, a series of registering devices, a plurality of keys for operating the same. and means for selectively controlling the operation of said registering devices and for simultaneously locking certain of said keys.
8. In a calculating machine, in combination, registering dials, key controlled mechanism for actuating the dials, a movable decimal pointer, dial selecting mechanism, key lockin mechanism, and means common to said decimal ointer, dial selectin mechanism, and key ocking mechanism iiir operating the same.
9. In a calculating machine, in combination, a plurality of keys, a plurality of registerin devices controlled by said keys, movab e decimal pointers, devices for selectively rendering operative certain of said registering devices, devices for selectivelyy locking said keys, and a series of control,- ling members each operativelyy connected with one of said decimal pointers and with one each of said selective devices.
10. In a calculating machine, in combinallt) tion, a series of keys, a series of rimary rc Iistei'iiig devices controlled by said keys, a series of secondary registering devices operable iii conjunction with said primary registering devices, said elements being arranged in columns each including a plurality of keys, one of said primary registering devices, and one of said secondary registering devices, and means for controlling the operation of the secondary registering devices and for simultaneously locking certain of said keys.
l1. In a calculating machine, in combination, a plurality of columns of keys, a series of registering devices corresponding respectively to the several columns, a series of iii-.iiiually operated members corresponding respectively to the several iegiste1iiig de-" vices for connectingr the saine, one at a time, for actuation by said keys, and means operable by said members for locking a column' of keys one step in advance of the registering device actuated.
12. In a calculating machine, in combination, a series of keys, a series of primary registering devices, a series of secondary registering devices operable in conjunction with. said primary registeringdevices, said elements being arranged in lumns each including a plurality of keys, one of said primary registering devices, and one of secondary registering devices, and means for rendering operative the secondary registering device in any desired column and for simultaneously locking the keys in another coluiiiii.
13. In a calculating machine, in combination, a series of keys, a series of primary registering devices of successive orders, a series of secondary registering devices of corresponding orders, said elements being arranged iii columns each including a plurality of keys, one of said primary registering devices, and the secondary registering device of the same order, and devices disposed between said columns and each operable to render operative the secondary registering device in tlie column of next higher order and simultaneously to lock the keys in the column of next lower order.
14. In a calculating machine, in combination, a series of keys, a series of primary registering devices of successive orders, a series of secondary registering devices of corresponding orders, said elements being arranged in columns each including a plurality of keys, one of said primary registering devices, and the secondary registerin device of the same order, a series of decima pointers disposed between the columns, slides by which said decimal pointers are carried, finger pieces for operating said,| slides, means operated by each of said slides to render operative the secondary register- ,the operation of the devices, respectively, erated by ach of said members for locking all of the keys in one of said columns.
' operating with said ratchets,
in device in the column of next higher or er, and means operated by each of said slides for locking the keys in the column of next lower order.
15. In a calculating machine, in combination, a series of keys, a series of i'iinary registerin devices controlled by said keys, a series o secondary registering devices operable in conjunction with said primary registering devices, said elements being arranged in columns each including a plurality of keys, one of said primary register- 'ng devices, and one of said secondary registering devices, members for controlling secondary registering and a locking bar op- 16. In a calculating machine, in combination, a series of quotient dials, a reciprocatory member constituting a common actuator for said dials, and devices adjustable relatively to the respective dials and to said reciprocatory member to individually conneet the respective dials to said-actuator.
1-7. In a calculating machine, in combination, a series vof registering devices, ratchets for operating the same, respectively, a reciprocating bar, and pawls carried by said bar for actuatin said ratchets, said ratchets being individua ly and selectively movable into and out of the paths of movement of said pawls.
18. In a calculating machine, in combination, computing keys, a series of sliiftable decimal pointers, a corresponding series ot re -stering dials, a corresponding series of shiftable ratchets having rotatable connection with said dials, respectively, a correspondin series of key locks, and manually operate means for moving as a unit each of said decimal pointers and the corresponding ratchets and key lock.
19. In a calculating machine, in combination, a series of registering dials, coaxial shafts connected thereto for rotation in imison therewith, ratchets carried by said shafts, a reciprocating bar, and pawls carried by said bar for actuating said ratchets, respectively, said shafts being longitudinally movable in said dials to carry said ratchets into and out of the paths said pavvls. C
20. In a calculating machine, in combination, a series of quotient dials, ratchets carried by said dials respectively, a reciprocating bar, pawls carried by said bar and cozero stops for said dials, means on said dials for engaging said stops, springs for normally holding said engaging means in engagement with said stops, holding pawls for retaining said dials in the positions into which they are advanced by said first named pawls and of movement of` bar having ratchets, and a reciprocating u f easing a o holding paWls for retaining said dials in the positions into which they are advanced by said first named pawls and ratchets, and a second reciprocating bar having means for engaging and releasing all of said holding pawls.
22. In a calculating machine, the combination with primary registering mechanism including carrying mechanisms and a reciprocatory control member common to said carrying mechanisms, of secondary registering mechanism having operative connection with said control member of the carrying mechanisms for actuation therebya 23. In a. calculating machine, the combination with primary registering mechanism including carrying mechanisms and control means common to such carrying mechanisms of secondary registering mechanism, and means for detachably connecting said secondary registering mechanism with said control means for the carrying mechanisms for actuation thereby.
24. In a calculating machine, in combination, a series of primary registering devices, a parallel series of secondary registering devices, carrying mechanisms forV said primary registering devices including a member common to all of said devices and extending across the series, operating means for said secondary registering devices including a member common to all of said last named devices and extending across the series, and a common actuator for said members.
25. In a calculating machine, in combination, a plurality of columns of keys, a series of primary registering devices arranged in alinement with the several key columns, respectively, a parallel series otf secondary registering devices disposed respectively in alinement with the several key columns and primary registering devices, operating mechanism for said primary registering devices whereby each of said devices may be operated by any of the keys in the corresponding column, said mechanism including a common carry control ban extending across the series and means for actuating said bar, ratchets for operating said secondary registering devices, respectively, an operating bar common to all of said last named devices, extending across the series thereof substantially parallel to said carry control bar and operatively connected with said actuating means, and pawls carried by said bar and coperating with said ratchets, said ratchets being severally movable into and out of the paths of movement of said pawls.
26. In a calculating machine, in combination, keys, primary registering mechanism operative by the keys, quotient mechanism, an operatin member therefor, a single actuator for sai operating member actuated by the keys, and a division key and connections for operatively connecting and disconnecting said member and actuator.
27'. In a calculating machine, in combination, primary registering mechanism including carrying mechanism and an actuator therefor, quotient mechanism, an `operating member for said quotient mechanism, and a division key and connections for operatively connecting and disconnecting said operating member and actuator.
28. In a calculating machine, in combination, a series of quotient dials, a common operating member therefor, each of said dials havingY adjustable means for operatively connecting'the 'saine with said operating member, a single actuatorfor said operating member, and a division key and connections for operatively connecting and disconnecting said member and actuator.
29. In a calculating machine, in combination, a plurality of key operated rock shafts, an actuator common to said shafts, a supplementary actuator operated by said first named actuator, a series of registering devices each having a ratchet operatively connected thereto, manually operated means for operatively connecting or disconnecting said actuators, and Imanually operated means to make operative connection between said supplementary actuator and said ratchets.
30. In a calculating machine, the combination with primary registering mechanism and quotient mechanism, of operating means for the quotient mechanism including tivo alined rock shafts, one of which is driven from the primary mechanism and the other of which is adapted t0 actuate the quotient mechanism, a division key, and means controlled by said key for operatively connecting and disconnecting said rock shafts to render said quotient mechanism operative or inoperative.
31. In a calculating machine, in combination, a series of primary registering devices, a parallel series of secondary registering devices, carrying mechanism for said primary registering devices including a member common to all of said devices and extending across the series, operating means for said secondary registering devices including a member common to all of said last named devices and extending across the series, alincd rock shafts, to which said members are operatively connected!` respectively, und manually operated means for connecting and disconnectingr said rock shafts.
3Q. In a calculating machine, the combination with quotient mechanism, of operating means therefor including two alined roc( shafts and means for operatively connecting and disconnecting said rock shafts to render said quotient mechanism operative or inop erative, said means including a notched disk on each of said shafts, a pin movable into and out of the notches in said disks, and a division .key for operating said in.
33. In a calculating machine, t e combination with quotient mechanism, of operating means therefor including two alined rock shafts and means for operatively connecting and disconnecting said shafts to render the quotient mechanism operative or inoperative, said means including a notched disk on each of said shafts, a dog pivoted to one of said disks and provided with a pin movable into and out of the notches in both of said disks, a slide havin a slot to receive said pin, and a division ey for operating said slide.
34. In a calculating machine, in combination, quotient mechanism, an operating member therefor, an actuator for said operating member, a division key and connections for operatively connecting and disconnecting said member and actuator, a spring for normally holding said key in disconnecting position, and a lever for locking said key in connecting position.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand in presence of two subscribing witnesses.
JAMES F. MAYS. Witnesses:
SAM J. SMrrH, JN0. H. Mom.
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2436668A (en) * 1948-02-24 podenphant
US2531089A (en) * 1950-11-21 Calculating machine
US2965293A (en) * 1960-12-20 Adjustable actuating mechanism

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2436668A (en) * 1948-02-24 podenphant
US2531089A (en) * 1950-11-21 Calculating machine
US2965293A (en) * 1960-12-20 Adjustable actuating mechanism

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