US1198464A - Acoustical instrument. - Google Patents

Acoustical instrument. Download PDF

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Publication number
US1198464A
US1198464A US551638A US1910551638A US1198464A US 1198464 A US1198464 A US 1198464A US 551638 A US551638 A US 551638A US 1910551638 A US1910551638 A US 1910551638A US 1198464 A US1198464 A US 1198464A
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Prior art keywords
diaphragm
stylus
record
arm
sound
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US551638A
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Louis Lumiere
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Victor Talking Machine Co
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Victor Talking Machine Co
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Priority claimed from US50514909A external-priority patent/US986477A/en
Application filed by Victor Talking Machine Co filed Critical Victor Talking Machine Co
Priority to US551638D priority Critical patent/US1036529A/en
Priority to US551638A priority patent/US1198464A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B3/00Recording by mechanical cutting, deforming or pressing, e.g. of grooves or pits; Reproducing by mechanical sensing; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B3/44Styli, e.g. sapphire, diamond
    • G11B3/46Constructions or forms ; Dispositions or mountings, e.g. attachment of point to shank

Definitions

  • My invention relates to improvements in acoustical instruments such as telephones, microphones, sound recording and reproducing machines, and musical instruments in general, and the present application is a division of an application for Letters Patent of the United States, filed by me March 26, 1910, Serial No. 551,638, which'in turn is a division of anapplication for Letters Pat ent of the United States, filed by me June 30, 1909, Serial No. 505,149,
  • my invention relates more particularly to that part of the instrument which is known as the diaphragm Or the body, which in the process of sound recording is thrown into vibration by sound waves, and whose vibrations are traced and recorded by a stylus in the original record, while in the process of reproduction of sound, the diaphragm (as a general'rule the diaphragm of a separate machine) is thrown into corresponding vibration by a stylus, to which it is attached, the same being made to follow the undulations in the record.
  • the diaphragm Or the body which in the process of sound recording is thrown into vibration by sound waves, and whose vibrations are traced and recorded by a stylus in the original record, while in the process of reproduction of sound, the diaphragm (as a general'rule the diaphragm of a separate machine) is thrown into corresponding vibration by a stylus, to which it is attached, the same being made to follow the undulations in the record.
  • My invention further relates to the sound reproducing mechanism in which the diaphragm is mounted, and by means of which the diaphragm and the casing in which it is inclosed or mounted is made or compelled or allowed to swing over the face of the recorded surface during the reproduction of sound for the purpose of following the sinuosities of the record groove.
  • the object of my invention is to provide a diaphragm and a mounting therefor, by' means of whichsounds may be faithfullyrecorded and reproduced, and which will be sensitive to sound Waves, and by the use of which the reproduction of sound will be im-;
  • sponsive elements each of which is subjected to a molecular tension, and to subject each of said sound elements to molecular tension to increase the sensitiveness thereof; to provide a talking machine with mechanism adapted to eoact and cooperate with such a diaphragm as has been above described; and to mount said diaphragm and its accessories in such a manner as to enable it to be used to advantage in sound reproducing ma,- chines.
  • the invention consists in a diaphragm for acoustical instruments, having one or more freely resilient, sound responsive surfaces or elements, which have been brought into a condition of molecular stress, of an aggregate superficial area substantially larger than the surface of a plane disk of the same diameter, and in a recorder or reproducer in which said diaphragm is mounted.
  • the effect of bringing the surfaces of a vibrating body into a condition of molecular stress by torsion is to reduce to a minimum the tendency of the vibrating body to form nodes .during operation, so that the surface or surfaces of the diaphragm will vibrate as a whole and will not produce the disagreeable effect which is technically known as blasting or shattering.
  • FIG. 1 shows a folded strip of material from which the improved diaphragm may" be made
  • Fig. 2 is a plan view of a modified form of folded strip of material from which a diaphragm may be made
  • FIG. 3 1s a plan view of the diaphragm;
  • Fig. 4 is a sectional elevation of the diaphragm ,
  • Fig. 5 is a sectional elevational view of a slightly modified form of diaphragm;
  • Fig. 6 is a diagram to illustrate the way in which the surfaces or elements of the diaphragm are twisted;
  • Fig. 7 is a side elevational view, partly in section, of a sound reproducing machine provided with a diaphragm made in accordance with my invention, and illustrates one manner in which the same may be applied and mounted in a sound reproducing machine;
  • Fig. 8 is a sectional detail portion of the structure illustrated in Fig. 7;
  • Fig. 9 is a plan view of the sound reproducing machine illustrated in Fig.
  • Fig. 10 is a side elevational view, partly in section, of a further modified form of sound reproducing machine provided with a diaphragm such as is above described;
  • Fig. 11 is an enlarged view, partly in section, of a diaphragm and a stylus bar mounting such as is shown in Fig. 10; and
  • Fig. 12 is a bottom plan view of the reproducer illustrated in Fig. 10.
  • a diaphragm is constructed so that it presents the form shown in Figs. 1, 3 and l: of the accompanying drawings in which the whole surface of the diaphragm on either side consists of a plurality of elements reversely flexed to form a fanlike series of radially disposed ridges and furrows, the ridges on one side of the diaphragm corresponding to the furrows on the other side of the diaphragm, and the furrows gradually widening out and becoming less deep as they approach the edge of the diaphragm, until at its perimeter the diaphragm lies in one plane.
  • the elements forming the sides of the ridges and furrows provide the desired freely resilient sound responsive surfaces.
  • a diaphragm of this form may be obtained by folding or plaiting a substantially rectangular strip of paper 1, or other suitable material, in the man ner shown in Fig. 1.
  • the length of the stip of material before folding should be substantially the length of the circumference of the diaphragm to be formed therefrom, and the width of the strip should be substantially equal to the radius of the said diaphragm.
  • the ends 2 and 3 should be brought together and secured to each other in any suitable manner.
  • the strip will present, roughly speaking, the ap earance of a cylinder having fluted sides. his strip of material is then pressed down and forced to assume the form shown in Figs.
  • Fig. 3 the diaphragm is designated as 4, and the elements forming the plaits or ridges and furrows are designated by the numeral 5.
  • the diaphragm t thus formed in the manner above described will be seen to have a surface formed wholly of a multiplicity of flexed sound responsive elements, reversely sloped or angled to each other, forming dihedral ridges.
  • the surface of the diaphragm will consist of a surface com'prising salient radial angled surfaces, and radial reentrant angled surfaces. Any sector of the surface will have a fanlike formation.
  • the recording or reproducing stylus 6 As the case may be.
  • the diaphragm is for .use with or for a record having an up and down, or vertical cut, since the diaphragm is directly provided with a stylus at its center.
  • the stylus 6 may be secured directly to the inner edges of the elements of the diaphragm by being cemented or glued thereto in the manner shown in Fig. 4, or it may be secured in place by means of nuts 7, as will be more particularly described below, in connection with the form of apparatus shown in Figs. 7, 8 and 9, and also as shown in Fig.
  • the stylus 6 may also be surrounded by rings of stiff paper 8, secured on either side of the diaphragm at the center thereof, to give it additional rigidity at that point. 1 do not,
  • the effect of constructing the diaphragm in this manner is that the whole diaphragm, i. 6., the surface of each element of each ridge and furrow, is under molecular stress, produced by torsion, butthe sides of the ridges and furrows are twisted out of the plane in which they lie at the center of the diaphragm into a plane, practically at right angles thereto at the circumference of the diaphragm. 1 have further found that in a diaphragm produced by this means, thetendency of the vibrating body to form nodes during operation is reduced to a minimum.
  • each of the elements composing this diaphragm being helicoidal, and since each point in the vibrating body, as it moves, follows a direction normal to the tangential plane at this point, the result is that the direction of movement is different for each point that has to be considered, so that the formation of nodes is practically impossible. It is obvious, of course, that the same condition of molecular stress would be produced upon twisting a sheet of material which naturally possessed a helicoidal or other than plane form, so as to take up a position in a true plane or other helicoidal form of different pitch.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates clearly the torsion which is applied to each of the multiple surfaces or elements of thediaphragm when the strip of material is made to take up the form shown in Figs. 3 and at from the form shown in Fig. 1.
  • this diagram 5 represents a thin flat sheet of elastic material, such as is formed by each of the several folds or plaitings of the strip shown in Figs. 1 and 2. If the two ends of this sheet are turned in opposite directions, as indicated by the arrows, and are made to take the position shown in dotted lines, it is found that a very resilient body is formed, which is capable of vibrating more readily, and is more sensitive, i. 6., more sound responsive in its new position than it was before. This is probably due to the molecular stress which is imparted to it by this twistingaction.
  • the width of the folds 5, relative to the breadth of the strip in which they are made, may vary, but I have found a convenient proportionto adopt when making the diaphragm of paper is about 10 to 1, so that each fold of the strip is ten times as long as wide.
  • a diaphragm constructed in the-manner above described can be usefully made of considerably greater diameter than has heretofore been possible.
  • a plane diaphragm of mica, or other material, such as is used at the present day if made of more than about three and a-half inches in diameter, loses in quality of reproduction, the reproduction becoming less musical and there being a liability to what is technically known as shattering, due probably to the diaphragm not vibrating as a whole, e., to the setting up of nodes in the diaphragm.
  • a diaphragm having freely resilient sound responsive surfaces brought into a condition of molecular stress, preferably by torsion, and also of an aggregate area substantially larger than a plane disk of the same diameter, may of course be produced in other Ways than that above described. I have found, however, that the above described method is a convenient one for making the diaphragm.
  • Diaphragms may be made according to this invention of any suitable elastic material, such as paper, (which may be var-- nished if desired), card, celluloid, metal, or the like, and the'surface or surfaces of the diaphragm or elements composing the vibrating body, may be put under tension by any suitable means.
  • any suitable elastic material such as paper, (which may be var-- nished if desired), card, celluloid, metal, or the like, and the'surface or surfaces of the diaphragm or elements composing the vibrating body, may be put under tension by any suitable means.
  • Figs. 7, 8 and 9 One means of mounting the stylus bar and diaphragm in an operative position particularly for use with a record having a record of sound in the form of a groove the walls thereof is shown in Figs. 7, 8 and 9.
  • the diaphragm 4 is held at the edges by clamping rings 9 and 10, and, to the front ring 9, may be secured a small trumpet 11 for directing the sound waves.
  • the clamping ring 10 is fixed to a suitable backing ring 12, having radial arms 13 by which the same is carried by a tube 11 which is capable of turning freely in the bearings 15-15, of the swinging arm .16, pivoted at 17 upon a rigid bracket 18, fixed to the cabinet 19.
  • the cabinet 19 is pro vided with a suitable mechanism for rotating the turn-table 20 upon which a record 21 is carried in the usual manner.
  • the tube 14 is provided at one end with a mounting 22 freely rotatable upon said tube 14, but prevented in any suitable manner, from longitudinal movement upon the tube 14:
  • This mounting which may be mounted thereon in any suitable manner, as by being pivoted on the knife edges 24, and retained on said knife edge bearings by a spring 25, in the usual manner.
  • the upper end of the stylus bar 23 is connected by a rod 26 with the diaphragm 4, the rod 26 being connected or attached to the diaphragm by nuts 7 in'the manner shown in Fig. 5. In this construction as shown in Figs.
  • the diaphragm is preferably made from a sheet of 22 carries a stylus bar 23 material such as is shown in Fig. 2 of the drawings so as to provide a suitable recess on each side of the diaphragm, in which the nuts 7 are seated. These nuts may be further cemented or otherwise secured to the diaphragm.
  • the diaphragm is also shown as being provided with a stiffening ring 8 at the center of the diaphragm and surrounding the stylus bar connection 26. Suitable nuts or collars 27 may be employed for holding the tube 14 from lengthwise movement in the bearings 15.
  • the arm 16 will swing across the record on the pivot 17, and the mounting carrying the stylus bar 23, will oscillate around the tube 14 with any unevenness in the rotation of the record.
  • a suitable weight 29 may be attached to the mounting 22, to cause the stylus to engage the record with the requisite amount of pressure.
  • Figs. 10, 11 and 12 I have illustrated a further modification of the way in which my diaphragm may be used in connection with a sound reproducing machine.
  • the record 21 is supported upon and rotated by a turn-table 2O driven by any suitable motor within the casing 19. and the cabinet is provided with a bracket 18 similar to the arrangement above described in connection with Figs. 7 and 8.
  • An arm 30 is mounted upon a stem or pintle 31 to swing on said bracket in a plane substantially parallel with the plane of the record 21.
  • the bracket 18 may be provided with a vertically adjustable stop 32 for the end of the stem 31, which, in the form illustrated in Fig.
  • the arm 30 may be raised or lowered to adjust the parts carried thereby with respect to the record 21 on the turn-table 20, to set the stylus at the proper angle to the record surface.
  • the free end of the arm 30 carries a yoke, support or bifurcated lever, or second arm 33 pivoted to the said arm by a bolt or pin 34, so as to be capable of swinging in a plane substantially perpendicular to the plane of the record.
  • the said arm 30 is provided with a stop 35, which prevents the yoke from swinging downwardly beyond a pre-determined point.
  • the outer ends of the yoke 33 are secured to lugs 36 bolted to the rings 37 38 by bolts 39, passing through said rings and said lug. Screws 40,passing through the ends of the yoke 33 and into the lugs 36, form the pivots to permit the rings and the parts carried thereby, to oscillate thereon.
  • the diaphragm 41 is of the kind which I have described above, that is to say, the diaphragm is formed by reversely folding a sheet of material to form plaits, each plait forming an element of the diaphragm, and each of these plaits or elements is subjected to a torsional tension or strain by the bringing of the folded or plaited sheet of material into a substantially circular form. In these Figs.
  • the diaphragm is shown practically as being formed from a' sheet of material such as is shown in Fig. 2; that is to say, a strip in which each plait is cut away at its inner corners so as to form a recess on each side of the center of the diaphragm to permit of a convenient attach ment of the stylus bar to the diaphragm.
  • the diaphragm 41 is clamped between the rings 37 and 38, and securely held in that position by means of the screws 42 passing through the said rings and drawing them together.
  • rings 4343 of a suitable non-metallic and preferably slightly elastic material, one on each side of the diaphragm.
  • These rings 43 may be of fabric or rubber, or fiber, or any other suitable material to prevent an actual contact between the diaphragm and the metallic rings 37 and 38, and to securely hold the periphery of the diaphragm in a single plane.
  • a suitable small trumpet 11 may be also secured between the rings for the purpose of directing the sound waves. 1 have shown it plainly in Figs. 10 and 11 as composed of a slightly flaring substantially conical member having a flange 11 clamped between the rings 37 and 38, the screws 42 passing therethrough. The periphery of the diaphragm 41 is clamped between the intermediate rings 43, and held thereby in a single plane as plainly shown in Fig. 11.
  • the bottom of the reproducer is provided with a suitable support for the stylus bar, said support comprising a bar 44 secured to the ring 38 by screws 45, or in any other suitable manner.
  • the said bar 44 may carry a block 46 rigidly secured thereto and upon the lower side of said block, I mount the stylus bar. Any suitable mounting for the stylus bar may be employed, but in the said modification illustrated in Figs. 10 to 12, I have shown the block 46 as provided with a pair of alined knife edges 47 engaging suitable recesses and lateral extensions 48 of the stylus bar 49.
  • Each lateral extension is provided with a spring 50, one end of which is attached to said extension 48, and the other end of which extends outwardly and is provided with a hole through which a screw 51 passes, the head of the screw engaging the end of said spring 50 and the screw being threaded in a suitably tapped plate 52 carried by the said block 46.
  • the lower end of the stylus bar is provided with a suitable set screw 53 for securing the stylus 54 in the socket there- 49' extending at an angle to the stylus carrying portion and it may then extend upwardly as at to this point of attachment to the center of the diaphragm.
  • the said upwardly extending portion 55 as being curved in order to make it slightly yielding, and the point between the portions 49 and'55 as being materially weakened to enable the stylus bar to readily bend or spring or give slightly at this point to transform the vibratory movement of the stylus into a reciprocatory movement of the portion 55 which is directly attached to and consequently communicates its motion to the center of the diaphragm.
  • the arm 30 should be set at such a height that the stylus will be given a slight rake to the recorded surface, as plainly shown in Fig. 10.
  • the trumpet 11 may be provided with a suitable counterbalance-weight 59.
  • the diaphragm is constructed upon the same principle, and that it is mounted in substantially the same Way, and that any suitable manner, of securing the st lus to the center of the diaphragm may e employed, and while I have shown a small trumpet 11 in connection with the construction which I have illustrated, it is to be understood that the trumpet may be entirely dispensed with if desired, the func tion being to give direction to the sound waves rather than to increase the volume of the sound reproduced by the diaphragm.
  • a talking machine comprising a record support, an arm pivoted to oscillate in a horizontal plane, a second arm pivoted to said last named arm to oscillate in a vertical plane, a combined reproducing and amplifying member pivoted to said second arm, means to limit the downward movement of said second arm, and balancing means to lessen the weight of said combined reproducing and amplifying member upon a record on said support, said member being operative to discharge sound freely throughout the entire area of said member.
  • a diaphragm support for talking machines comprising a bracket, an arm mounted on said bracket and restrained to swing in a substantially horizontal plane, a forked support carried by said arm and movable with respect thereto in a substantially vertical plane, a stop arranged to limit the downward movement of said support, and a diaphragm mounted between and carried by the arms of said support and movable about an axis with respect thereto.
  • a talking machine comprising a record support, a pivoted arm, a yoke pivoted to said arm, a combined reproducer and amplifier pivoted to said yoke and balancing means to lessen the weight of said combined reproducer and amplifier upon a record on said support, the amplifying portion of said last mentioned pivoted member being substantially perpendicular to the plane of the reproducing portion of said member.
  • a talking machine comprising a record support, an arm pivoted to oscillatein a horizontal plane, a yoke pivoted to said arm to oscillate in a vertical plane, a combined reproducer and amplifier pivoted to said yoke and balancing means to lessen the weight of said combined reproducer and amplifier upon a record on said support.
  • a talking machine comprising a record support, an arm pivoted to oscillate in a horizontal plane, a second arm pivoted to said last-named arm to oscillate in a vertical plane, a combined reproducing and amplifying member pivoted to said second arm, means to limit the downward movement of said last-named arm, and balancing means to lessen the weight of said combined reproducing and amplifying member upon a record on said-support, the outermost periphery of the amplifying portion of said member being arranged when inverted to rest upon said first-named arm.
  • a talking machine comprising a pair of pivotally connected arms, the first of said arms being pivoted to swing in a horizontal plane, and the second to swing in a vertical plane, means to limit the downward movement of the second of said arms, and a combined reproducing and amplifying member pivoted to the second of said arms and arranged When inverted to rest upon the first of said arms, said member being operative to direct sound freely upwardly therefrom.
  • a diaphragm support for talking machines comprising a bracket, an arm mounted on said bracket and restrained to swing in a substantially horizontal plane, a forked support carried by said arm and movable with respect thereto in a substantially vertical plane, means to limit the downward movement of said. support, and a diaphragm mounted between and carried by the arms of said support and movable about an axis with respect thereto.
  • a diaphragm support for talking machines comprising an arm restrained to 1,1ee,sea
  • a talking machine comprising :1 record support, a pivoted arm, a yoke pivoted to said last-named arm, and a reproducing member pivoted to said yoke and operative to direct sound freely therefrom.
  • a talking machine comprising a record support, a pivoted arm, a yoke pivoted to said last-named arm and entirely supported thereby, and a reproducing member pivoted to said yoke and operative to direct sound freely therefrom.

Description

L. LUMIERE.
ACOUSTICAL INSTRUMENT.
APPLICATION FILED FEB-28,1911.
1 1 98,464; Patented Sept. 19, 1916.
1, SHEETS-SHEET 1- ATTORNEY L. LUMIERE.
ACOUSHCALINSTRUMENL APPLICATION FILED FEB-28.1911.
1 1 98,464 Patented Sept. 19, 1916.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
' INVENTOR Id/%WESSES a 9 ATTORNEY L. LUMIERE.
ACOUSTICAL INSTRUMENT.
APPHCATlON F|LED FEB- 28, 1911- 1,1 98,464; Patented Sept. 19, 1916.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 3- Z0105 Zzmu'eze.
WITNESSES BY 2 E j :5 g ATTORNEY L. LUMITERE.
ACOUSTICAL INSTRUMENT.
APPLICATION FILED FEB.28, 1911.
1 1 98,464. Patented Sept. 19, 1916.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 4.
INVENTOR 7/;TNESSES I By ATTORNEY Zlon/irl/l/mzz'e.
Original application filed June 30, 1909, Serial No. 505,149.
Serial No. 551,638. Divided and this application filed UNITED STATES PATE OFFICE.
LOUIS LUMIERE, OF LYON, FRANCE, ASSIGNOR T0 VICTOR TALKING MACHINE COM- PANY, OF CAMDEN, NEW JERSEY, A CORPORATION OF NEW JERSEY.
ACOUSTICAL INSTRUMENT.
vented certain new and useful Improve ments in Acoustical Instruments, of which the following is-a full, clear, and complete disclosure.
My invention relates to improvements in acoustical instruments such as telephones, microphones, sound recording and reproducing machines, and musical instruments in general, and the present application is a division of an application for Letters Patent of the United States, filed by me March 26, 1910, Serial No. 551,638, which'in turn is a division of anapplication for Letters Pat ent of the United States, filed by me June 30, 1909, Serial No. 505,149,
As 'applied to sound recording and reproducing apparatus, my invention relates more particularly to that part of the instrument which is known as the diaphragm Or the body, which in the process of sound recording is thrown into vibration by sound waves, and whose vibrations are traced and recorded by a stylus in the original record, while in the process of reproduction of sound, the diaphragm (as a general'rule the diaphragm of a separate machine) is thrown into corresponding vibration by a stylus, to which it is attached, the same being made to follow the undulations in the record.
My invention further relates to the sound reproducing mechanism in which the diaphragm is mounted, and by means of which the diaphragm and the casing in which it is inclosed or mounted is made or compelled or allowed to swing over the face of the recorded surface during the reproduction of sound for the purpose of following the sinuosities of the record groove.
The object of my invention is to provide a diaphragm and a mounting therefor, by' means of whichsounds may be faithfullyrecorded and reproduced, and which will be sensitive to sound Waves, and by the use of which the reproduction of sound will be im-;
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Sept. 19, 1916.
Divided and application filed March 26, 1910, February 28, 1911. Serial No. 611,441.
sponsive elements, each of which is subjected to a molecular tension, and to subject each of said sound elements to molecular tension to increase the sensitiveness thereof; to provide a talking machine with mechanism adapted to eoact and cooperate with such a diaphragm as has been above described; and to mount said diaphragm and its accessories in such a manner as to enable it to be used to advantage in sound reproducing ma,- chines.
Further objects of my invention will be found in the specification and claims below. The invention consists in a diaphragm for acoustical instruments, having one or more freely resilient, sound responsive surfaces or elements, which have been brought into a condition of molecular stress, of an aggregate superficial area substantially larger than the surface of a plane disk of the same diameter, and in a recorder or reproducer in which said diaphragm is mounted. It is found that the effect of bringing the surfaces of a vibrating body into a condition of molecular stress by torsion, is to reduce to a minimum the tendency of the vibrating body to form nodes .during operation, so that the surface or surfaces of the diaphragm will vibrate as a whole and will not produce the disagreeable effect which is technically known as blasting or shattering.
One construction of diaphragm made according to this invention and the method of making it is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 shows a folded strip of material from which the improved diaphragm may" be made; Fig. 2 is a plan view of a modified form of folded strip of material from which a diaphragm may be made Fig.
3 1s a plan view of the diaphragm; Fig. 4 is a sectional elevation of the diaphragm ,Fig. 5 is a sectional elevational view of a slightly modified form of diaphragm; Fig. 6 is a diagram to illustrate the way in which the surfaces or elements of the diaphragm are twisted; Fig. 7 is a side elevational view, partly in section, of a sound reproducing machine provided with a diaphragm made in accordance with my invention, and illustrates one manner in which the same may be applied and mounted in a sound reproducing machine; Fig. 8 is a sectional detail portion of the structure illustrated in Fig. 7; Fig. 9 is a plan view of the sound reproducing machine illustrated in Fig. 7 Fig. 10 is a side elevational view, partly in section, of a further modified form of sound reproducing machine provided with a diaphragm such as is above described; Fig. 11 is an enlarged view, partly in section, of a diaphragm and a stylus bar mounting such as is shown in Fig. 10; and Fig. 12 is a bottom plan view of the reproducer illustrated in Fig. 10.
According to one method of carrying out this invention, a diaphragm is constructed so that it presents the form shown in Figs. 1, 3 and l: of the accompanying drawings in which the whole surface of the diaphragm on either side consists of a plurality of elements reversely flexed to form a fanlike series of radially disposed ridges and furrows, the ridges on one side of the diaphragm corresponding to the furrows on the other side of the diaphragm, and the furrows gradually widening out and becoming less deep as they approach the edge of the diaphragm, until at its perimeter the diaphragm lies in one plane. The elements forming the sides of the ridges and furrows provide the desired freely resilient sound responsive surfaces. A diaphragm of this form may be obtained by folding or plaiting a substantially rectangular strip of paper 1, or other suitable material, in the man ner shown in Fig. 1. The length of the stip of material before folding should be substantially the length of the circumference of the diaphragm to be formed therefrom, and the width of the strip should be substantially equal to the radius of the said diaphragm. lVhen the strip has been plaited or folded in the manner above described and shown, the ends 2 and 3 should be brought together and secured to each other in any suitable manner. At this stage of the process or method, the strip will present, roughly speaking, the ap earance of a cylinder having fluted sides. his strip of material is then pressed down and forced to assume the form shown in Figs. 3 and 4, one edge of the strip being crimped together at the center, and the other edge forming the perimeter; the radial ridges and furrows, or plaits, being closest together and of greatest depth at the center, and gradually opening out and flattening toward the edge, where the diaphragm may be held in one plane between clamping rings, as shown in Figs. 7 to 12. In Fig. 3 the diaphragm is designated as 4, and the elements forming the plaits or ridges and furrows are designated by the numeral 5. The diaphragm t thus formed in the manner above described will be seen to have a surface formed wholly of a multiplicity of flexed sound responsive elements, reversely sloped or angled to each other, forming dihedral ridges. The surface of the diaphragm will consist of a surface com'prising salient radial angled surfaces, and radial reentrant angled surfaces. Any sector of the surface will have a fanlike formation. To the center of the diaphragm is attached, in any suitable manner, the recording or reproducing stylus 6, as the case may be. As shown in Fig. 4:, the diaphragm is for .use with or for a record having an up and down, or vertical cut, since the diaphragm is directly provided with a stylus at its center. For making the attachment between the stylus and diaphragm, or between the connection between the stylus and the diaphragm, I prefer to bevel off the inner edge of the diaphragm, as particularly shown in Figs. 2, 7 and 8. The stylus 6 may be secured directly to the inner edges of the elements of the diaphragm by being cemented or glued thereto in the manner shown in Fig. 4, or it may be secured in place by means of nuts 7, as will be more particularly described below, in connection with the form of apparatus shown in Figs. 7, 8 and 9, and also as shown in Fig. The stylus 6 may also be surrounded by rings of stiff paper 8, secured on either side of the diaphragm at the center thereof, to give it additional rigidity at that point. 1 do not,
however, limit myself to this form of con:
nection. The effect of constructing the diaphragm in this manner, is that the whole diaphragm, i. 6., the surface of each element of each ridge and furrow, is under molecular stress, produced by torsion, butthe sides of the ridges and furrows are twisted out of the plane in which they lie at the center of the diaphragm into a plane, practically at right angles thereto at the circumference of the diaphragm. 1 have further found that in a diaphragm produced by this means, thetendency of the vibrating body to form nodes during operation is reduced to a minimum. The surface of each of the elements composing this diaphragm being helicoidal, and since each point in the vibrating body, as it moves, follows a direction normal to the tangential plane at this point, the result is that the direction of movement is different for each point that has to be considered, so that the formation of nodes is practically impossible. It is obvious, of course, that the same condition of molecular stress would be produced upon twisting a sheet of material which naturally possessed a helicoidal or other than plane form, so as to take up a position in a true plane or other helicoidal form of different pitch.
The diagram shown in Fig. 6 illustrates clearly the torsion which is applied to each of the multiple surfaces or elements of thediaphragm when the strip of material is made to take up the form shown in Figs. 3 and at from the form shown in Fig. 1. In this diagram 5 represents a thin flat sheet of elastic material, such as is formed by each of the several folds or plaitings of the strip shown in Figs. 1 and 2. If the two ends of this sheet are turned in opposite directions, as indicated by the arrows, and are made to take the position shown in dotted lines, it is found that a very resilient body is formed, which is capable of vibrating more readily, and is more sensitive, i. 6., more sound responsive in its new position than it was before. This is probably due to the molecular stress which is imparted to it by this twistingaction.
It will be clear that each of the surfaces or folds 5 of the diaphragm,-illustrated-in Figs. 3 and 4:, is in the same condition of molecular stress as the sheet 5' in Fig. 6.
The width of the folds 5, relative to the breadth of the strip in which they are made, may vary, but I have found a convenient proportionto adopt when making the diaphragm of paper is about 10 to 1, so that each fold of the strip is ten times as long as wide.
I have found that in a diaphragm having multiple resilient surfaces such as that above described, a greatly improved reproduction can be obtained. Moreover, a diaphragm constructed in the-manner above described can be usefully made of considerably greater diameter than has heretofore been possible. Experience has seemed to prove that a plane diaphragm of mica, or other material, such as is used at the present day, if made of more than about three and a-half inches in diameter, loses in quality of reproduction, the reproduction becoming less musical and there being a liability to what is technically known as shattering, due probably to the diaphragm not vibrating as a whole, e., to the setting up of nodes in the diaphragm. I have found, however, that I am able to make a diaphragm according to the'present invention, as large as ten inches or more in diameter, without impairing' the quality of the reproduction, and by means of this diaphragm, I at the same time attain a much greater volume of sound than with the smaller diaphragm. This amplification of the sound, I believe to be due not only to the increased diameter of the dia phragm, but also to the increased surface area of the diaphragm produced in the construction above described, by the plaitings or crimpings or folds in the material of the having lateral undulations in diaphragm; this appears to have the effect of putting into motion a greater volume of air and so increasing the volume of sound.
A diaphragm having freely resilient sound responsive surfaces brought into a condition of molecular stress, preferably by torsion, and also of an aggregate area substantially larger than a plane disk of the same diameter, may of course be produced in other Ways than that above described. I have found, however, that the above described method is a convenient one for making the diaphragm.
The advantage arising from the use of a diaphragm constructed as above described, is that the volume of sound produced is suflicient to enable me to dispense with the usual amplifying horn, and in this way much of the metallic and hollow character usually associated with talking machine reproductions may be eliminated.
Diaphragms may be made according to this invention of any suitable elastic material, such as paper, (which may be var-- nished if desired), card, celluloid, metal, or the like, and the'surface or surfaces of the diaphragm or elements composing the vibrating body, may be put under tension by any suitable means.
One means of mounting the stylus bar and diaphragm in an operative position particularly for use with a record having a record of sound in the form of a groove the walls thereof is shown in Figs. 7, 8 and 9. In this case, the diaphragm 4 is held at the edges by clamping rings 9 and 10, and, to the front ring 9, may be secured a small trumpet 11 for directing the sound waves. The clamping ring 10 is fixed to a suitable backing ring 12, having radial arms 13 by which the same is carried by a tube 11 which is capable of turning freely in the bearings 15-15, of the swinging arm .16, pivoted at 17 upon a rigid bracket 18, fixed to the cabinet 19. The cabinet 19 is pro vided with a suitable mechanism for rotating the turn-table 20 upon which a record 21 is carried in the usual manner. The tube 14 is provided at one end with a mounting 22 freely rotatable upon said tube 14, but prevented in any suitable manner, from longitudinal movement upon the tube 14: This mounting which may be mounted thereon in any suitable manner, as by being pivoted on the knife edges 24, and retained on said knife edge bearings by a spring 25, in the usual manner. The upper end of the stylus bar 23 is connected by a rod 26 with the diaphragm 4, the rod 26 being connected or attached to the diaphragm by nuts 7 in'the manner shown in Fig. 5. In this construction as shown in Figs. 7 and ,9, the diaphragm is preferably made from a sheet of 22 carries a stylus bar 23 material such as is shown in Fig. 2 of the drawings so as to provide a suitable recess on each side of the diaphragm, in which the nuts 7 are seated. These nuts may be further cemented or otherwise secured to the diaphragm. In the said figures the diaphragm is also shown as being provided with a stiffening ring 8 at the center of the diaphragm and surrounding the stylus bar connection 26. Suitable nuts or collars 27 may be employed for holding the tube 14 from lengthwise movement in the bearings 15. As the stylus 28 follows the record groove, the arm 16 will swing across the record on the pivot 17, and the mounting carrying the stylus bar 23, will oscillate around the tube 14 with any unevenness in the rotation of the record. A suitable weight 29 may be attached to the mounting 22, to cause the stylus to engage the record with the requisite amount of pressure.
In Figs. 10, 11 and 12, I have illustrated a further modification of the way in which my diaphragm may be used in connection with a sound reproducing machine. In said figures, the record 21 is supported upon and rotated by a turn-table 2O driven by any suitable motor within the casing 19. and the cabinet is provided with a bracket 18 similar to the arrangement above described in connection with Figs. 7 and 8. An arm 30 is mounted upon a stem or pintle 31 to swing on said bracket in a plane substantially parallel with the plane of the record 21. The bracket 18 may be provided with a vertically adjustable stop 32 for the end of the stem 31, which, in the form illustrated in Fig. 10, consists of a screw threaded into the bracket 18, beneath and in vertical longitudinal alinement with the stem 31, and against the upper end of which the lower end of the stem or pintle 31 rests. By this means, the arm 30 may be raised or lowered to adjust the parts carried thereby with respect to the record 21 on the turn-table 20, to set the stylus at the proper angle to the record surface. The free end of the arm 30 carries a yoke, support or bifurcated lever, or second arm 33 pivoted to the said arm by a bolt or pin 34, so as to be capable of swinging in a plane substantially perpendicular to the plane of the record. The said arm 30 is provided with a stop 35, which prevents the yoke from swinging downwardly beyond a pre-determined point. The outer ends of the yoke 33 are secured to lugs 36 bolted to the rings 37 38 by bolts 39, passing through said rings and said lug. Screws 40,passing through the ends of the yoke 33 and into the lugs 36, form the pivots to permit the rings and the parts carried thereby, to oscillate thereon. The diaphragm 41 is of the kind which I have described above, that is to say, the diaphragm is formed by reversely folding a sheet of material to form plaits, each plait forming an element of the diaphragm, and each of these plaits or elements is subjected to a torsional tension or strain by the bringing of the folded or plaited sheet of material into a substantially circular form. In these Figs. 10 to 12, the diaphragm is shown practically as being formed from a' sheet of material such as is shown in Fig. 2; that is to say, a strip in which each plait is cut away at its inner corners so as to form a recess on each side of the center of the diaphragm to permit of a convenient attach ment of the stylus bar to the diaphragm. Asis plainly shown, in Fig. 11, the diaphragm 41 is clamped between the rings 37 and 38, and securely held in that position by means of the screws 42 passing through the said rings and drawing them together. I prefer, however, to interpose, between the rings 37 and 38, and the diaphragm, thin rings 4343 of a suitable non-metallic and preferably slightly elastic material, one on each side of the diaphragm. These rings 43, may be of fabric or rubber, or fiber, or any other suitable material to prevent an actual contact between the diaphragm and the metallic rings 37 and 38, and to securely hold the periphery of the diaphragm in a single plane. A suitable small trumpet 11 may be also secured between the rings for the purpose of directing the sound waves. 1 have shown it plainly in Figs. 10 and 11 as composed of a slightly flaring substantially conical member having a flange 11 clamped between the rings 37 and 38, the screws 42 passing therethrough. The periphery of the diaphragm 41 is clamped between the intermediate rings 43, and held thereby in a single plane as plainly shown in Fig. 11.
The bottom of the reproducer is provided with a suitable support for the stylus bar, said support comprising a bar 44 secured to the ring 38 by screws 45, or in any other suitable manner. The said bar 44 may carry a block 46 rigidly secured thereto and upon the lower side of said block, I mount the stylus bar. Any suitable mounting for the stylus bar may be employed, but in the said modification illustrated in Figs. 10 to 12, I have shown the block 46 as provided with a pair of alined knife edges 47 engaging suitable recesses and lateral extensions 48 of the stylus bar 49. Each lateral extension is provided with a spring 50, one end of which is attached to said extension 48, and the other end of which extends outwardly and is provided with a hole through which a screw 51 passes, the head of the screw engaging the end of said spring 50 and the screw being threaded in a suitably tapped plate 52 carried by the said block 46. In this way the stylus bar is yieldingly held upon the knife edges 47, but is free to oscillate upon them as bearings. The lower end of the stylus bar is provided with a suitable set screw 53 for securing the stylus 54 in the socket there- 49' extending at an angle to the stylus carrying portion and it may then extend upwardly as at to this point of attachment to the center of the diaphragm. I have shown the said upwardly extending portion 55 as being curved in order to make it slightly yielding, and the point between the portions 49 and'55 as being materially weakened to enable the stylus bar to readily bend or spring or give slightly at this point to transform the vibratory movement of the stylus into a reciprocatory movement of the portion 55 which is directly attached to and consequently communicates its motion to the center of the diaphragm. In adjusting the reproducer to the recorded surface, the arm 30 should be set at such a height that the stylus will be given a slight rake to the recorded surface, as plainly shown in Fig. 10. This will permit the record to slide freely beneath the stylus without unduly scratching the same and cause the stylus to engage the record with a suiiicient pressure to insure thetracking of the stylus in the record groove. The record may then slide freely beneath the stylus, and the whole reproducer may swing slightly on the bolts or pins 40 to allow for any irregularity or unevenness or warp in the recorded surface. In order that the stylus may. not bear too heavily upon the record, the trumpet 11 may be provided with a suitable counterbalance-weight 59. From the preceding description it will be plain that the whole construction is such that the trumpet, diaphragm, rings and stylus attached thereto may be swung upwardly about the bolts or pin 34 as a pivot for the purpose of replacing the stylus or for throwing the whole device into an inoperative position, as indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 10. In operation it will be apparent that when the record is given a rotary movement from the turn-table 20 and the stylus 54 engages the record 21, the whole reproducer will swing about the stem or pintle 31 as a pivot allowing the needle or stylus 54 to track across the record and the stylus will be caused to assume the correct angle to the recorded surface by the adjustment of the step 32 against which the stem or pintle 31 abuts, and further, that the stylus will be prevented from hearing too heavily upon the record by the counterweight 59 attached to the upper end of the trumpet 11.
In all the forms which I have above described, it will be seen that the diaphragm is constructed upon the same principle, and that it is mounted in substantially the same Way, and that any suitable manner, of securing the st lus to the center of the diaphragm may e employed, and while I have shown a small trumpet 11 in connection with the construction which I have illustrated, it is to be understood that the trumpet may be entirely dispensed with if desired, the func tion being to give direction to the sound waves rather than to increase the volume of the sound reproduced by the diaphragm.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to protect by Letters Patent of the United States, is:
1. A talking machine comprising a record support, an arm pivoted to oscillate in a horizontal plane, a second arm pivoted to said last named arm to oscillate in a vertical plane, a combined reproducing and amplifying member pivoted to said second arm, means to limit the downward movement of said second arm, and balancing means to lessen the weight of said combined reproducing and amplifying member upon a record on said support, said member being operative to discharge sound freely throughout the entire area of said member.
2. The combination with a diaphragm for talking machines and a stylus operatively connected thereto, of a rigid bracket, a horizontally swinging arm pivoted to said bracket, a forked support pivoted to the end of said horizontally swinging arm so as to be capable of vertical movement, and a stop for preventing said forked support from dropping below a substantially horizontal position, said diaphragm being carried on pivots between the arms of said forked support so that said stylus rests on the record substantially as described.
3. A diaphragm support for talking machines comprising a bracket, an arm mounted on said bracket and restrained to swing in a substantially horizontal plane, a forked support carried by said arm and movable with respect thereto in a substantially vertical plane, a stop arranged to limit the downward movement of said support, and a diaphragm mounted between and carried by the arms of said support and movable about an axis with respect thereto.
4. A talking machine comprising a record support, a pivoted arm, a yoke pivoted to said arm, a combined reproducer and amplifier pivoted to said yoke and balancing means to lessen the weight of said combined reproducer and amplifier upon a record on said support, the amplifying portion of said last mentioned pivoted member being substantially perpendicular to the plane of the reproducing portion of said member.
5. A talking machine comprising a record support, an arm pivoted to oscillatein a horizontal plane, a yoke pivoted to said arm to oscillate in a vertical plane, a combined reproducer and amplifier pivoted to said yoke and balancing means to lessen the weight of said combined reproducer and amplifier upon a record on said support.
6. A talking machine comprising a record support, an arm pivoted to oscillate in a horizontal plane, a second arm pivoted to said last-named arm to oscillate in a vertical plane, a combined reproducing and amplifying member pivoted to said second arm, means to limit the downward movement of said last-named arm, and balancing means to lessen the weight of said combined reproducing and amplifying member upon a record on said-support, the outermost periphery of the amplifying portion of said member being arranged when inverted to rest upon said first-named arm.
7. A talking machine comprising a pair of pivotally connected arms, the first of said arms being pivoted to swing in a horizontal plane, and the second to swing in a vertical plane, means to limit the downward movement of the second of said arms, and a combined reproducing and amplifying member pivoted to the second of said arms and arranged When inverted to rest upon the first of said arms, said member being operative to direct sound freely upwardly therefrom.
8. A diaphragm support for talking machines, comprising a bracket, an arm mounted on said bracket and restrained to swing in a substantially horizontal plane, a forked support carried by said arm and movable with respect thereto in a substantially vertical plane, means to limit the downward movement of said. support, and a diaphragm mounted between and carried by the arms of said support and movable about an axis with respect thereto.
9. A diaphragm support for talking machines comprising an arm restrained to 1,1ee,sea
swing in a substantially horizontal plane, a forked support carried by said arm and movable with respect thereto in a substantially vertical plane, means to limit the downward movement of said support, and a diaphragm mounted between and carried by the arms of said support and movable about an axis with respect thereto.
10. A talking machine comprising :1 record support, a pivoted arm, a yoke pivoted to said last-named arm, and a reproducing member pivoted to said yoke and operative to direct sound freely therefrom.
11. A talking machine comprising a record support, a pivoted arm, a yoke pivoted to said last-named arm and entirely supported thereby, and a reproducing member pivoted to said yoke and operative to direct sound freely therefrom.
12. In a talking machine, the combination of an arm restrained to swing in a substantially horizontal plane, a forked support carried by said arm and movable with respect thereto in a substantially vertical plane, means to limit the downward movement of said support, and a diaphragm mounted between and carried by the arms of said support and movable about an axis with respect thereto.
In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand this 15th day of February, A. 1)., 1911.
LOUIS LUMIERE.
Witnesses:
GASTON JEANNI-AUS, MARIN, VACHON.
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