US1130827A - Apparatus for generating ozone. - Google Patents

Apparatus for generating ozone. Download PDF

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US1130827A
US1130827A US59501410A US1910595014A US1130827A US 1130827 A US1130827 A US 1130827A US 59501410 A US59501410 A US 59501410A US 1910595014 A US1910595014 A US 1910595014A US 1130827 A US1130827 A US 1130827A
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electrode
annular
roughened
dielectric
cylindrical
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William John Knox
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KNOX TERPEZONE Co OF AMERICA
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B13/00Oxygen; Ozone; Oxides or hydroxides in general
    • C01B13/10Preparation of ozone
    • C01B13/11Preparation of ozone by electric discharge

Description

W. J. KNOX.

APPARATUS FOR GENERATING OZONE.

APPLICATION FILED 1320.1.1910.

1,130,827, Patented Mar. 9, 1915.

s SHEETS-SHEET 1 Z4 1' I if E flg 2 Z/ Z; gii 5 5,27 ii witnesses: m gvwewi'oz 31 Gnom W. J. KNOX. APPARATUS FOR GENERATING OZONE.

APPLICATION FILED DEU.1,1910 1,1 30,827. Patented M21119, 1915.

8 SHEETS-SHEET 2.

W. J. KNOX.

APPARATUS FOR GENERATING OZONE.

. APPLICATION FILED DEG.1, 1910.

1,1 30,827. Patented M21119, 1915.

3 SHEETS-SHEET 3- 1% [Mega co 5 W00 wfo a 7/29 35137 6 forum [Elf/431W W UNITED STATES PATENT orrron.

WILLIAM JGHN KNOX, OF NEW YORK, N. Y., ASSIGNOR TO KNOX TERPEZONE GQMPANY OF AMERICA, A CORPORATION OF WEST VIRGINIA..

Specification of Letters Patent.

APPARATUS FOR GENERATING OZONE.

Patented Mar. 9, 1915.

Application filed December 1, 1910. Serial No. 595,014.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it lmown thatl, VVILLIAM JOHN Knox,

a. citizen of the United States, and a resident.

of theborough of Manhattan, in the city of New York, county of New York, and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Apparatus for Generating Ozone, of which the following is a specification.

My invention relates to that class of apparatus in which an interrupted electric current of high tension and frequency is caused to pass between electrodes and through in 'terposed dielectrics so as to produce a non but other gases may be altered in a similar manner.

It is well known that electrical discharges take place most readily from points and least-readily from smooth surfaces. 4 Electrodes with perfectly smooth, plane surfaces are undesirable for this reason because the electrictension accumulates; on such surfaces until the electric strain ruptures at some point which may be nearest to the opposing electrode and an are or violent discharge occurs. A multiplicity of points on the surfaces ofthe electrodes causes a more evenly distributed discharge, but if any one of the points should extend farther toward the opposing electrode than the others, there will be a freer discharge from such point and a tendencyto form an arc. Partly to neutralize this tendency, (ll-electric plates, usually of glass, are customarily interposed between such electrodes to spread or diffuse the current by their resistance and thus to diminishthe tendency to form arcs. The usual method of forming such an element is to attach a sheet of metallic foil by means of an adhesive, such as glue, to the outersurface of a glass plate or tube. This has the disadvantage of forming a smooth electrode surface and it has been sought to overcome this by first mechanically indenting or corrugating the metallic foil. Such mechanical indentations are, however, exceedingly coarse when compared with the fine soft non-arcing electrical discharge desired and tend to cause arcing for this reason. It is also desirable that the dielectric be in intim'ate contact with the electrode surface at every point as, if it were not, there would be some points of closer contact and less re sistance, from which the freer discharge of current would cause a local heating of the dielectric and cause an arc that would puncture the glass. In converting the oxygen of common air into ozone it is highly undesirable that any arcing occur, even incipient arcing, as such concentrated localized discharges cause the formation of nitrogen oxids.

The object of my invention is, primarily, to form what may be designated as a hightension electrode element, consisting of a liquid electrode and a corresponding solid dielectric, whose opposing surfaces are at all points in substantially'intimate contact, and in which, such surfaces in contact, consist of an exceedingly great number of fine,

uniform indentations and corresponding points, all of which lie practically in a true plane. To attain this result I make use of a glass plate or tube one of whose surfaces has been slightly but sensibly roughened by the action of hydrofluoric acid, the. vapor or liquid, or by. the action of a fine sand blast.

Against this finely indented glass surface I place a layer of metallic mercury or liquid conductive material. or other material which will enter the indentations and conform to ,the indented surface as an electrode. The

mobile'conducting liquid enters the fine indentations in the surface of the glass and thus forms an electric discharging surface with an innumerable number of fine points of discharge, and at the same time theelectrode surface and the dielectric surface are in absolutely uniform intimate contact.

Another object of my invention is to so combine these high tension, electrode elements in couples or pairs with suitable air" I spaces between the opposed dielectric. surfaces as to form a complete unit for producing a soft, high-tension, electric discharge between such electrodes when connection is I method of construction are fully shown in made to the electrodes from a source of high-tension interrupted electric energy. v

A further object is an improved mechanical construction whereby the apparatus is readily assembled, or taken apart, rigid joints and cements are avoided, and simplicity of construction is attained. The nature of the invention and the the drawings, of which Figure 1 shows a completely assembled unit or apparatus of-one style of construction; Fig. 2 is a vertical section of a modified form of the same; Fig. 3 is a broken vertical section of an electrode element, with an exaggerated detail of the indentations in the dielectric and a section of the removable cap which seals'the tube; Fig. 4 is a detail which shows a further method of joining and sealing the bottom edges of two concentrio glass tubes of an outer electrode element; Fig. 5 is a shortened vertical section of a preferable form of an apparatus or unit with a modified sealing device or cap; Fig. dis a vertical section showing two complete electrode elements, assembled with base and sealing cap to form a completely assembled apparatus; Fig. 7 is a horizontal cross-section of Fig. 6 on the lines VII-VII; Fig. 8 is a horizontal cross-section. of Fig. 6 on the line VIIIVIII, and Fig.9 is a plan view of the base.

Throughout the drawings the same numbers are used in the main to designate similar parts. v

Referring to the outer electrode element, shown in Figs. 1 and 3, it will be seen that two tubes, preferably of glass, are employed which are preferably so proportioned and positioned with respect to each other that there is an annular uniform concentric space 1 between the wallsof the tubes. In Fig. 3 both tubes are closed at the bottom ina concentric, hemispherical form and the space between the tubes at the bottom is filled'with a dielectri. cement or lute 2, such as is produced by melting shellac or gilsonite, and

this dielectric filling or cement 2 extends to ,a horizontal line. 3 in the cylindrical portion of the space. The inner tube 4 serves the purpose of a dielectric and may be of a suitable thickness, preferably 5% of an inch.

Its outer surface, that is, its surface of greatest'diameter, from a point at a line 3 to a line 5 near the top of the tube, is previously roughened by submitting the surface to the action of hydrofluoric acid in some form, or to the action of a finesand blast.

The outer tube 6 is expanded near the top into a cylindrical form of greater diameter than the main column of the tube. This forms a wide annular space or cup 6' open top of the dielectric filling 2 from line 3 to roughened. The open top of the cylindrical electrode element, above described, is closed by a cap 7 the main body of which is shown,

with suitable outletand inlet connections; i

and this cap is made of any non-conducting, ozone-resisting material and its cylindrical portion is of a diameter which will allow it to enter the annular space at the top of the electrode element. This annulancupis designated by 7, and the vertical cylindrical body of the cap by 9, and the height of the sides of the cap 7 is such that its lower edge rests upon the shoulder 10 at the bottom of the annular cup 8, and the cap 7 is held approximately in a position concentric with the dielectric tube 4 by points or teats 11 placed at intervals around the lower edge of the cap. The mercury or other conducting substance in the annular space 1 extends up into the annular cup 6 to the line 5 and thus envelops the body 9 of the cap 7, and her- ,metically closes the main body of the electrode element from the atmosphere. This cap 7 and the cup 6, with the mercury or other fluid electrode, thus form a liquid seal her- Inetically tight but readily broken by raising the cap vertically from position and thus giving immediate and easy access to.

the interior. Electrical connection from a source of high-tension, interrupted electrical energy is made to the mercury electrode by means of a metallic wire or flatmetallic strip 12 which strip is thrust'into the mercury through the annular spacebetween the walls 9 of the sealing cap 7 and the outer wall 6' ofthe annular cup. This electrode element has been described in detail because it constitutes one of the main features of the invention. The ideal surface from which to secure a soft, un1form,non-arc1ng, high-tenof which points'lie in a plane. ofthepoints extends appreciably beyond this surface, beyond the other points, it esand. form an arc. tube 4, I start with, a smooth cyli drical plane surface, which, when roughene contains an innumerable number of fine in-.

dentations. The roughening need be only slight but should be uniform. The mercury or other conducting materialwhich is highly mobile when poured into the annular, cylindrical space 1 takesthe form ofrthe indented sion electrical discharge is one containing an innumerable number of very fine points, all

If any one surface 13 and forms an electrode with a discharging surface consisting of an innumerable number-of fine points, all of which lie' in a plane, flator cylindrical, with respect do, each other. .Theopposing surfaces of, the

electrode and the dielectr c are in intimate contact at euery point. -This intimate con- .tact at every poiut'betweenthe surfaces of the electrode and the dielectric, so as to provide the electrode with a plurality of fine ,discharge points, has never. to the knowledge of the inyentor, been employed before and is of greatimportance, as the finely pointed surface, maintains a uniform electrio tension at all parts of the. electrode.

,In Fig. 5 an inner electrode element of 1 similar construction is shown. In this case the outer tube 4 of the two concentric tubes becomes. the dielectric tube and is etched on its inner surface, or surface" of smallest diameter 13. The inner or smaller tube 6" is contracted cencentrically at the topso as to form an enlarged, concentric, cylindrical cup 6*, which acts. with the fluid electrode, as a liquid seal, in the same manner as already described for the outer electrode i tube, at 6'. A c'ylindrically shaped cap,

-. element.

which willbe described below, is inserted r into this space 8 and the electrode material 1 is brought up to apoint-which incloses the .lower edge of; the cap 7", thus hermetically closing the interior ofthe inner. electrode .Fig. 5 shows a highly desirable-method of construction and assembling of the inner and ,.oute'r. electrode elements, of their top sealing vcaps and also of the electrical connections. Inregard to the electrical connections, it

will-be noted that the wire or strip connection into the outerelectrode is separated thus separated from contact with the roughened wallpf the dielectric tube. The two .higlrtension, wire connections are thus sepa rated from each other by the glass walls of :the caps and the pointed. ends of the wire connections are kept-from contact with the dielectricwalls. The danger ofafree' diseharging pointbeing formed by the. end of thewire or other connector is thus avoided. M The outer electrode element an d its. sealing .capis similar to the form shown in Fig. 3, -.exeepting for the method of joining the lower edges of the two concentric tubes, and

the method of roughening. In Fig. 3 the two concentric glass tubes are both closed at the bottom ends and then, afterinserting the dielectric tube into the outer tube, the space at thebottom between the tubes up to the .lowerlineofgthe electrode material is filled. with a non-conducting cement or lute 2,

joined hermetically by a cap 18 of hard .adhesive material. 'trode element is shown whose tubesl9 and thepurpose of holding the tubes relative .the lower edge 14 at the point or linecorre-,

sponding to line 3 in Fig. 8 by'fusing the glass edges and uniting them in a solid glass joint. The dielectric tube andthe corresponding or complementary tube constituti1 1g the dielectric portion of the electrode element thus become one integral part. In-

stead of previously roughening the surface of the electrode tube before assembling, it is preferably roughened by filling the annular space 1 with a suitable etching acid until duced. This method of forming a vsolid union. at the bottom between the two tubes of an electrode element is shown also at 14: in Fig. 5, and at 15 and 15" in Fig. 6.

In Fig. 4 another form of the method of joining the lower ends of the tubes of the outer electrode element is shown. The bottom end of the inner tube, or dielectric tube 16, is closed in hemispherical form, but the outer inclosing tube 17 endsin open cylindrical form at the lower line of the mercury electrode: The tubes are then spaced and rubber, fiber or other non-conducting material, which serves to hold the tubes in con centric relation. This cap follows the contourof the tubes. forming a shoulder at the bottom edge of the outer tube with a vertically projecting ring. portion around the edge of thetube, and is held in permanent position by a rubber, water-glass, or other In Fig. 2 an outer elec- 20 end in straight cylindrical open form and are sealed or joined by being embedded in a non-conducting matrix or bed 44, such as may be produced by melting shellac or gilsonite, which enters the space between the tubes and closes said space. A conductor 44 extends into the body of electrolyte betweenthe tubes 19, 20, through the bed 44 .and thematerial sealing the space between the bottom of the tubes, said conductor entering the .jar 32 througha-pl ug:.44 in an .opening in'the jar, and being mcased in. an insulating jacket ofglass- 44.

The cap 7 or sealing top for. the outer electrode element has been .partially..described invrefere'nce to Fig.3. .Av fulLvertical section of this cap is shownin -Fig. 1. It consists of the already described main part pr cylindrical body 9015 such a diameter and depth .asto enter the liquid seal cup 8 .or annular spaceinthe top ofvthe electrode element, and to rest-on the shoulder 10 of the latter. This cap is closed bye dome-shaped top, atthe center of-whichis the proper roughening or frosting is pro a vertical tubular extension oropeningQl. -At oneside of'the center is. another .opening to which is permanently attached, preferably as an integral part of the cap, a curved tube 22 which is bent into asemi-circle so that its outer end 23 is perpendicular to the horizontal. This end23 is expanded to a greater diameter than that of the main part of the tube so as to enter the annular space of a small liquid seal cup 24. This small sealing cup 24 is shown in Fig. 1 as being attached to a receiving vessel. Its construction is that usually employed for similarpurposes in chemical or physical apparatus. In Fig. 6 this small liquid seal 24 is shown in connection with a pipe distributing device This cap, by virtue of the fact that the lower edge of the cap itself andthe pipe connection 22 therefrom enter liquid seal cups freely in a-vertical and parallel direction, can be easily removed at any time from position. The central tubulure or neck 21 is of somewhat larger internal diameter than the neck 25 extending from the inner electrode element and passes freely over such neck or tube 25. The small annular space between such neck 25 and the tubu-v lure 21 is closed to the atmosphere by a washer 26 of suitable material, such as cork, felt, fiber, or asbestos cord. This washer 26 is held in place, and the cap 7 is firmly.

attached to the neck 25 by means of the split metallic ring or clamp 27 surrounding the tubulure, andrwhich-also servesas a binding clamp for the electrical conductor leading to the inner electrode element. This cap may be practically the same in every form of the apparatus illustrated, and is thus shown in Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6. A,

In Fig. ,5 a second, inner cap '7" for the inner electrode element is shown. This cap,

like the large outer cap, consistsof an enlarged" cylindrical portlon 9 which dips into the'annular electrode space 8 of the inner electrode element and thus hermeti cally'sa'ls the upper end of the inner tubular part of the electrodeelement. This vertical cylindrical portion- 9 is contracted into a central, smaller, vertical, tubular ortion or neck 25' which extends upward't rough the neck 21' on the larger outer cap 7, and

is sealed thereto and firmly held by the,

washer 26', and clamp 27. Electrical connection is made to the inner mercury electrode by passing a-wire through a small ori- .fice26 in neck 25, and said wire extending downward through the interiorof the neck into electrical connection with the electrode element. The outer end .Of this wire is clamped in place on the neck 25' by thesplit" pointed plane surface, to prevent arcing,

been described, but in the case of the inner within the tube in a ball or. spherical basket ter at 33 and, passing around the electrode are shown in the drawings and that in Fig. 5 has already been described. In Fig. 6

the inner electrode elementconsists of ble concentric glass tubes, as in Fig. 5, but

instead of ending at the top in an annular space for use as a liquid seal the inner of the two tubes is drawn out into a small tube or neck 25 which passes upward through the neck or tubulure 21 of the cap 7, and is firmly united therewith by the washers 26, 26 and the split metallic clamp 27.

Another form of inner electrode element is shown in Figs. 1 and 2, and inbroken section in Fig. 4. This consists of a straight cylindrical glass tube 28 contracted at the top into a small tubular neck 25which neck enters the neck or tubulure 21 of the cap 7 andis attached thereto by washers 26, and clamp 27. .This tube 28 is lined on its inner surface with a metallic foil 29 attached thereto by means of an adhesive, such as lue, water-glass, or egg albumen. This orm of construction is made possible because I have found that the use 'of one roughened liquid electrode element is Eactically sufl icient with its uniform ely and therefore, only the surface of the wall 4 away from the air or gas space need be roughened, as clearly shown in Fig. 4. This form ofconstruction is not so desirable as that in which the mercury electrode elements are used in pairs, but is cheaper to construct, although not so'safe and reliable in use. l i The method of making electrical connection to the-mercury electrodes has already electrode elements 28 contact ishad by means of a wire 30' introduced through an aperture in the neck of the inner tube and ending of wire 31, whose sides are in spring contact with the metallic foil 29 on the inner wall of the tube 28. In-Fig. 2. this wire- 30 is shown entering through the shellac or other non-conducting seal or matrix 44 at the bottom of the tube.

In Figs. 1 and 2 is shown an outer heavy glass cylinder 32 which serves for support andprotection of the electrode elements and is also designed to be used-in connection with a current of airfor cooling the ozone tubes proper.v For this purpose the cylinder 32 has an opening or tubulure 33 at 1ts base and openings or vents 34-near its top. Air.

from any convement source is caused to enelements, it tends to carry ofi any'hea't that may be generated by the electrical resistance passes through the outin the tubes and lets-34.

The preferable method of supporting the electrode elements is shown in Fig. 6 in which 35 is a cylindrical, hollow base or support of any suitable, non-conducting material, such as insulating fiber, porcelain or glass. A plan view is shown in Fig. 9. The lower, inner cylindrical portion of this base is of a slightly larger diameter than the inner electrode element, which it is intended to receive. As it is not possible to obtain blown glass parts of exact dimensions, washers 36 of cork, fiber, or other suitable material are inserted within this space for the purpose of adjusting the height of the inner electrode element and to serve as a support for it. Immediately under the electrode element is placed a special disk 37 which is radially slotted on the outer periphery so as to provide' openings 38 under the edge of the inner electrode element ,or tube. In addition to this slotted disk 37 the walls of the cylindrical space are grooved vertically so as to provide air passages 39. The upper inner portion of the base is also of cylindrical, hollow form of a diameter slightly larger than that of the outer electrode element. On account of this opening being of larger diameter than the lower space, a shoulder or ledge 40 is formed which serves to receive the lower end of the outer electrode element and to support it. To adjust this outer tube v to height, washers 41 are inserted under the tube resting upon theledge 40. On account of the 'factthat the cylindrical openings in the base are concentric it will be seen that they serve .to center the electrode elements so that the annularozonizing space 42will be of uniform thickness.

In Fig. 6 is shown a complete unit or ozonizing set the parts of which have been already described. It consists of an inner and an outer electrode element, each of which consists of two concentric glass tubes sealed by fusion at their lower ends so as to close the annular space. The interior space or walls of these double glass tubes is roughened by an acid etching so that when the annular cylindrical spaces in the electrode elements are filled with mercury or other conducting material the opposing electrode surfaces will assume the shape of the roughened glass surfaces with which the electrode material is in contact. The inner electrode tube is concentrically inserted within the outer larger electrode tube and the tubes are held in this concentric position by the centering action of the base 35 and the cap 7..

It will be noted that the lower edge 15 of the inner electrode element extends below the lower edge 15 of the outer electrode element; also that the lengths of the two tubes or electrode elements are such that when properly'adjus'ted the top edge of the electrode material'in the inner electrode tube is higher than the top edge of the electrode in the outer electrode tube. Although I have removed all danger of sharp concentrated discharges by the use of the finely pointed electrode surfaces and by the fact that the upper and lower edges in the case of mercury are naturally of rounded meniscus, this placing of the edges of the electrodes, not in opposition to the edge of the other electrode, but opposite to the plane surface, insures a softer discharge than if the discharge was from edge to opposite edge.

The inner and outer electrode tubes are supported by the base 35 and are adjustable as to absolute and relative height by the washers 36 and 41. A conducting liquid having been filled into the electrode spaces to a sufiicient height to engage the edges of the cap 7 or caps 7 and 7 in Fig. 5, and mercury, oil or water having been placed in the small mercury or liquid seal 24, the apparatus is sealed from the atmosphere bymeans of the caps with their connections. The washers 41 are preferably made of some soft material, such as cork, so that, when the bottom edge of the outer electrode element rests upon it, the washer willv accommodate itself-to any irregularities in the glass and thus make a tight joint. This object is furthered by the fact that when mercury is used as an electrode it is heavy and exerts considerable downward pressure. Electrical connection having been made by wires 12 and 12, dipping into the liquid electrodes of the inner and outer electrode elements respectively and by cutting such wires into circuit with a source of high-tension, interrupted electrical energy, air or oxygen, in case it is desired to generate ozone, are admitted to v the inner tube 25 under pressure. The gas passes down and through the tubular interior of the inner electrode element and passes under its lower edge through the openings 38 in the disk 37-, thence upward through the vertical grooves .39 in the walls of the base 35 to the annular ozonizing space 42. In this annular cylindrical space, which is preferably about of an inch wide, there is produced a silent electrical discharge which is manifested by its ultra-violet color. Unlike the discharge in other ozonizing apparatus, this high tension discharge or eifluvia is so finely and uniformly diffused that no trace whatever of disruptiveor stringy discharge can be detected. The

means of the curved pipe 22, passes through the liquid seal cdnnection 24 to a receiving vessel or to a system of distributing pipes 25.

The apparatus as shown fully in Fig. 6 and the separate electrode elements, as shown in Figs. 3 and 5, if used entirely without the roughening of the dielectric surface, will serve for the purpose specified and forms a modified form which it is unnecessary to illustrate in the drawings, as this modified form is the same in every other respect as that shown excepting in the omission of the roughening. This style is not,

however, the preferable form.

The inventor does not limit himself tothe exact construction shown, as other forms than cylindrical tubes may be desirable, as, for example, flat etched glass trays 'filled with a liquid electrode in contact with the glass'surface and a series of such trays ar- -ranged or assembled horizontally in pairs and connected alternatelywith the positive and negative sides of a high-tension electrical source of energy, or fiattenedbox-shaped glassvvessels etched on the interior surfaces and filled with mercury or other conducting liquid may constitute the electrode elements and such electrode elements be arranged in vertical parallel position. Likewise, in Figs.

1, 2 and .4, are shown etched fluid-electrode outer elements with'inner electrode elements within the base and the top caps then beoffa single glass tube coated with a metallic foil. This arrangement is equally effective if the foil-coated electrode element is used as the outer one and the etched fluid-electrode element is employed as the inner one, and this arrangement is employed by the inventor.

In the drawings the inlet and outlet for.

the-air or gas and the ozonized product are shown only at the top. It is sometimes pref erable to put both openings at the bottom come merely plain sealing caps. It is also sometimes convenient'to place one opening at the top, and one at the bottom with suitable arrangement for distributing the air or gas. The preferable arrangement is shown in the drawings .but these alternate me hods are within the scope of the invention.- Y

If mercury is used as the electrode material, it is not necessaryto have it extend entirely to the top in the sealing cup but a par-aflin oil -or glycerinv or other non-conducting, difiicultly oxidizable fluid may be employed to form the sealing fluid, as shown at 45 in Fig. 1. r

' While I have described the electrode partasconsisting of mercury or other con-'1 ducting liquid, it may consi'stof an dasily fusible metal cast'in contact with the finely indented surface of the dielectric, or of an amalgam composition. the use of a conducting liquid as the electrode other than mercury I preferably employ water acidulated with sulfuric acid.

What I claim and desire, to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is 1. Anelectrode element consisting 'of two concentrically positioned glass tubes separated by an annular space closed at one end, one of which tubes is roughened on the inner surface, and a liquid electrode contained within the annular space, and in contact with the roughened surface.

2. An electrode element consisting of an annular double walled cylindrical glass vessel, and a liquid conductor within the annular spacing, one of said walls constituting a dielectric part and the liquid conductor the electrode part.

3. An electrode element consisting of an annular double walled cylindrical glass vessel, and a body of mercury within the ann'ular spacing, one of said walls constituting the dielectric part and the mercury the electrode part.

4. An electrode element consisting of a roughened dielectric plate, a parallel inclosing part and an inclosed fiuidelectrode part in contact with the roughened surface of the, dielectric, said electrode part entering the indentations of said roughened surface to provide said electrode with a plurality of fine discharge points.

5. A fluid-electrode containing vessel consisting of two concentrically positioned glass cylinders separated by an annular space closed at one -;end and having one of the inner annular-surfaces roughened.

6. An annular, cylindrical, fluid-electrode containing vessel, permanently closed at one end, made of dielectric material, and having itsinner annular surfaces roughened by acid 1 liquid conductive material confined within the said annular space and entering the indentationsof the roughened surface whereby said material is provided with a pluralityof fine discharge points.

9. an electrode lement comprising con? centric hollow dielectrics spalced from each other, a liquid conductive material 'eonfined in said space, the surface of one of the manna? 1 v electrics defining said space being roughened, whereby the said material is provided with a plurality of fine discharge points.

10. In an ozonizing apparatus, electrodes spaced fromeach other to provide an air gap, one of said electrodes comprising a di electric having its surface away from the air gap roughened to provide finely divided indentations, and a conducting body applied to said roughened surface and entering said indentations to form a discharge" surface containing a plurality of fine points directed toward said air ga 11. In an ozonizing apparatus, electrodes spaced from each other to provide an air gap, one of said'electrodes having a surface toward the air gap roughened to provide finely divided indentations, and a fluid conducting body applied to said roughened surface and entering saidindentations to form a discharge surface containing a plurality of fine points directed toward said air gap.

12. In an ozonizing apparatus, electrodes spaced apart from each other in parallel relation to provide an air gap, one of said electrodes having a surface toward the air gap roughened to provide finely divided indentations, and a fluid conducting body applied to said roughened surface and entering said indentations to form a discharge surface containing a plurality of fine points directed toward said air gap. 13. An ozonizing apparatus comprising concentric cylindrical dielectrics spaced by an annular space, the inner surface of the inner dielectric being roughened, and abody of liquid conducting material applied to said roughened surface and entering the'indentations thereof, whereby the said material is provided with a. plurality of fine discharge points directed toward the said annular space.

14. An ozonizing apparatus comprising inner and outer hollow electrodes spaced from each other, one of, said electrodes consisting of a doublewalled, dielectric vessel having one of its inner surfaces roughened, a liquid'conducting material in the space be tween said walls, and means for permitting air or gas to flow through the space between the electrode elements.

15. An annular cylindrical vessel .of a dielectric material for containing a fluid electrode, the annular walls of which are closed L at the bottom, and one of the inclosed surfaces being roughened.

16. In an ozonizing apparatus,-; tubular electrodes arranged one within the other and spaced from each other to form an air gap, one of said electrodes comprising a dielectric having its surface away from the air gap roughened to provide fine indentations, and a conducting body applied to said roughened surface and entering said indentations to form a discharge surface containing a plurality of fine points.

17. In an ozonizing apparatus, tubular concentric electrodes arranged one within the other and spaced from each other to form an air gap, one of said electrodes comprising a dielectric having its surface away from the air gap roughened to provide fine indentations, and a conducting bodyapplied to said roughened surface and entering said indentations to form a discharge surface containing a plurality of fine points.

18. An ozonizing apparatus comprising inner and outer hollow concentric electrodes spaced from each-other, and means for caus-' ing a current of air or gas to pass through the hollow inner electrode and the space between said electrodes, said means consisting of a base having passages connecting the interior of the inner electrode with said space.

19. An ozonizing apparatus comprising I inner and outer hollow concentric electrode elements spaced from each other, one of said electrode elements consisting of a double walled dielectric having one of its interior surfaces roughened, a liquid conductive material in the space between said walls, and means for causing a circulation of air or gas through said inner electrode and the space elements spaced from each other, one or said electrode elements consisting of I a double walled dielectric having one of its interior surfaces roughened, a liquid conductive material in the space between said walls, an inlet to the interior of the inner I electrode element, and an outlet from said space between the'electrode elements. p

22: An annular, cylindrical electrode ves sel of a dielectric material for containing a fiuid electrode, the annular walls of which are closed at the bottom by autogenous fusion ,and are roughened upon the annular inclosed surfaces. I 5.

23. An annular, cylindrical, fluid-electrode containing vessel, closed at the bot tom, with concentric opposing walls, roughened as to,one of their inner surfaces, and one of whose walls is expanded in a concentric cylindrical manner at the top to form an-annnlar cup.

- A tric vessel, one of the walls of which is walls, one of which Walls is roughened on its inner surface, and one of which walls is expanded at the top into an annular cup,

a liquid electrode within the annular space and extending into the annular cup and a non-conducting cap or cover dipping into the liquid in the cup.

25. A cylindrical, double Walled, dielectric vessel of annular shape, closed at the lower annular opening, and one of whose walls is concentrically expanded at the upper end into an annular cup, one of said walls being roughened on its inner surface, a liquid electrode within the roughened annular space and extending into the annular cup, a dome-shaped cap positioned within the annular cup and dipping into the liquid therein to form a liquid seal, said cap having a central tubular opening and an eccentric tubular opening. N

26. An ozonizing electrode element with .annular walls, one of which is roughened on its inner surface, an annular liquid sealing cup, a liquid electrode in contact with the roughened walls and extending into the annular cup, and a domeshaped sealing cap having a central tubulated opening and an eccentrically attached curved pipe connection ending in an expanded end portion, the cylindrical walls of the cap and of the expanded end portion being parallel and extending downwardly in a direction perpendicular to the horizontal.

27 An ozonizing electrode element with annular dielectric walls, one of which is roughened on its inner surface, an annular liquid-seal cup, a fluid electrode in contact with the roughened-wall and extending into the liquid-seal cup, and a dome-shaped sealingcap, having one central tubulated opening and an eccentrically attached curved pipe connection endingin an expanded end portion, and the cylindrical walls of the cap and of the expanded'endportion being parallel and extending downwardly in a direction perpendicular to the horizontal, and

- a' separate, annular-shaped, liquid-seal cup into the annular space of which, filled with 'llqu d, the expanded end of the curved pipe dips, and makes hermetic unionwith a distributing or collecting apparatus.

28. In combination, an ozonizing element, consisting'of an annular cylindrical dielecroughened on its inner surface, and'one of whose walls at the top is expanded concentrically to form an annular liquid-seal cup,

4 annular cup, a tubulated dome-shaped sealing cap of a non-conducting material positioned within the sealing cup and a metallicelectrical conductor inserted into the electrode part between the outer wall of the sealing cup and the wall of the sealing cap and separated from the dielectric discharging wall by the wall of said cap.

29. An ozonizing electrode containing vessel consisting of concentric, cylindrical dielectric walls, the inner surface of one of the walls of which is roughened, and which walls are closed or sealed with respect to the lower annular opening, and having the inner or smaller tubular wall contracted at its top portion into a central, vertically extending tube of smaller diameter.

30. An electrode element for an ozonizing apparatus consisting of an annular, cylindrical double walled dielectric vessel, one of the walls of which is roughened as to its inner surface, and having a contracted tubular vertical extension of the walls of the smaller inner tube, a fluid electrode part within the walls of the annular space and in intimate contact with the roughened surface, and a solid metallic electric conducting part held in position on the contracted tubular part of the dielectric tube by means of a binding clampand extending into the liquid elec trode. f

31. An inner electrode containing vessel consisting of cylindrical concentric dielectric walls one of which isroughened as to its inner surface, closed as to the annular opening at one end, and expanded into an annular, cup-shaped part at the other end by a cylindrical, concentric contraction of the inner wall.

32. An ozonizing electrode element consisting of 'an annular cylindrical dielectric vessel roughened as to the inner surface of one of its walls, expanded at its top by a concentric, cylindrical contraction of its wall of smaller diameter into a cup-shaped annular part and a liquid electrode part within the annular space and in intimate contact with the roughened dielectricwall.

33. In combination, an inner liquid-electrode element, consisting of an annular,

double-walled, cylindrical, dielectric vessel,

and fitting ,freely into the annular cupshaped part, a liquid-electrode part contained within the annular space and in 1n- -timate-contact with the roughened dielectric wall and extending into the annular cupshaped part and inclosing the lower edge of the sealing cap, and a metallic conducting part, attached to the contracted tubular part of the sealing cap, passing within the tubular part and extending downwardly within the tubulated cap and making electrical contact with the liquid electrode part at a 7 point separated from the discharging dielectric wall-by; theverticalwall of the sealing cap.

.341 An. ozonizing-electrodeelement consisting of a dielectric cylindrical part with a central contracted tubular extension, an electrode part consisting of a conducting body applied to one of the surfaces of the main cylindrical part, in combination with a roughened liquid-electrode containing element positioned concentrically with regard to first namedelectrbde element on the side opposite the latters dielectric part.

35. In combination with the inner and outer annular, cylindrical, liquid-electrode elements a base of non-conducting material in the form oi a vertical cup, having an interior bore oi vertical cylindrical shape of two diameters, the lower portion being of a diameter greater than the outer diameter of the inner electrode element and the upper portion of a diameter greater. than the outer diameter of the outer electrodeelement, the cylindrical portions having a: common cal axis, the concentric walls serving to position the electrode elements in concentric relation, grooves in the inner wall of the smaller cylindrical portion, disks of nonconducting material within the smaller cylindrical portion and a disk of non-conduct- 'ingvmaterial slotted at its periphery placed between the spacing" disks and under the edge of the inner electrode element, and

7 ring washers of non-conducting material ing downward into an annular positioned under the bottom edge of the outer electrode element serving to adjust it vertically and to seal the inner chamber of the electrode elements from the atmosphere.

36. An ozonizing apparatus or unit consisting of an outer annular-shaped, doublewalled dielectric vessel, roughened on-its inner surfaces, and expanded at its top into an annular cup, a dome-shaped cap with side walls positioned within the annular cup and with a vertical tubulure and an cecentrically placed curved tubular outlet whioh'ends in an expanded portion extendcup forming a seal device, a seal cup joining the curved tubular opening to a receiving device, a liquid-electrode part in the roughened annular space in the dielectric part and extending into said annular cupof said part to seal the edge of the dome-shaped cap, a metallic connecting part from a source of electrical energy extending into the liquidshaped, double-walled dielectric vessel positioned concentrically with regard to the outer electrode element and roughened as to one of its inner surfaces, and contracted and extended vertically upward with respect to its inner wall into a tubular part ing cap of the: outer dielectric part, a bind-,

ing' clamp uniting the cap to said neck, and

a metallic conducting part connecting the bindingclamp withthe inner electrode element, and an inner liquid electrode part filling the annular, roughened dielectric part and-in'intimate'contact with its roughened wall, and a non-conducting base centering the electrode elements in the'form of a cylindrical cup, thelower portion of the base having a diameter greater than the 'outer diameter of the inner electrode elementand the upper portion of the base having'a diameter greater than the outer diameter of the outer electrode element, both cylindrical portions having'a common vertical atria-grooves in the wall 05 the smaller cylindrical portion, spacing washers for adjusting the height'of the inner electrode ele+ ment, and a disk of non-conducting material under the bottom edge of the inner electrode element and having peripheral openings whereby afree passage is formed from the central tubular portion of the inner dielectric element under its edge to the vertical corrugations of the wall of the base and thence into the annular space between the inner and outer electrode elements, and ring Washers of soft non-conducting material under the edge of the outer electrode element to adjust it as to height and to seal the inner space from the atmosphere.

37. An apparatus for producing ozone comprising inner and outer electrode elements, concentrically positioned, the outer,

ened as to its inner surfaces, and expanded f as to its top into a sealing part and having in its annular space a liquid electrode part; a supporting and sealing base of a non-conducting material having a cylindrical interior portion of two diameters, the part of smaller diameter supporting the inner electrode element, and the part of greater diameter supporting the outer electrode element, grooved passages within the base from the inner tubular portion of the inner electrode element to the annular vertical space between the two electrode elements; a

cap of non-conducting material with an upweirdly-extending tubular opening and positioned in the annular sealing cup of the inner electrode element; a cap of non-conducting material positioned in the annular sealing cup of the outer electrode" element and having a tubulure engaging the tubular extension of the inner cap and being attached hermetically thereto and having a second tubular opening to connection with an external liquid-seal cup; :metallic conductors in electrical connection with the liquid-electrodes in the liquid seal parts of the electrode elements separated from the discharging dielectric wallsb'y the re spec' tive walls of the sealing caps.

38. An ozonizing apparatus comprising an annular, cylindrical dielectric vessel rough-- of a cylindrical dielectric part and a con- I ducting body applied to the dielectric part and an electrical connection therewith, and means for closing and assembling such electrode parts so that gas or airlinay be passed through. the annular space between'the electrode elements. & j a

39. In an ozoniz' g apparatus, the combination of concentric electrode elements, and means for separating the same from each other and from the atmosphere, consisting of a liquid seal inclosing said elements.

40. In an ozonizing'apparatus, the combination of concentric electrode. elements, and means for separating the same from each other and from the atmosphere, consisting of concentric liquid seals inclosing said elements.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto. signed my name in the presence of two subscribingwitnesses.

WILLIAM OI-IN KNOX.

US59501410A 1910-12-01 1910-12-01 Apparatus for generating ozone. Expired - Lifetime US1130827A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2862865A (en) * 1954-05-08 1958-12-02 Kerag Kesselschmiede App Und M Electrical glow discharge ozonizer
US2936279A (en) * 1952-04-08 1960-05-10 Bergwerksgesellschaft Hibernia Apparatus for ozonizing oxygen containing gases under pressure
US4877588A (en) * 1988-06-17 1989-10-31 Trineos Method and apparatus for generating ozone by corona discharge
EP3205623A4 (en) * 2014-11-27 2018-05-30 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Ozone generator

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2936279A (en) * 1952-04-08 1960-05-10 Bergwerksgesellschaft Hibernia Apparatus for ozonizing oxygen containing gases under pressure
US2862865A (en) * 1954-05-08 1958-12-02 Kerag Kesselschmiede App Und M Electrical glow discharge ozonizer
US4877588A (en) * 1988-06-17 1989-10-31 Trineos Method and apparatus for generating ozone by corona discharge
EP3205623A4 (en) * 2014-11-27 2018-05-30 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Ozone generator
US10112832B2 (en) 2014-11-27 2018-10-30 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Ozone generator

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