US1080655A - Centrifugal pump. - Google Patents

Centrifugal pump. Download PDF


Publication number
US1080655A US71834212A US1912718342A US1080655A US 1080655 A US1080655 A US 1080655A US 71834212 A US71834212 A US 71834212A US 1912718342 A US1912718342 A US 1912718342A US 1080655 A US1080655 A US 1080655A
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low speed
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William King Richardson
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William King Richardson
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    • F02B71/00Free-piston engines; Engines without rotary main shaft
    • F02B71/04Adaptations of such engines for special use; Combinations of such engines with apparatus driven thereby
    • F04D25/00Pumping installations or systems
    • F04D25/02Units comprising pumps and their driving means
    • F04D25/024Units comprising pumps and their driving means the driving means being assisted by a power recovery turbine





f Z ,.r. .nw m dnl Nx .nn. 9, uw NM. 8 n E IH l .8.. .w d u B .m 4 O O QN. mC/w VK N\ M. a A P M ,o O Nv@ Z m V 6, H O., :MMI r QN.. PQM 1 W. K. RICHARDSON.



1,080,655. Patented Dec. 9, 1913.




APPLICATION FILED SEPT. s, 1912 Patented Dec. 9, 1913.





Patented Dec. 9, 1913.





Application filed September 3, 1912.

Specicaton of Letters Patent.

Pm @n t mi Doc. 9,1913.

Serial. No. 718,342.

.lire it known ihnt, I. Wimrmr Ricimunmy. n iiifwn of ih@ Unitml States, residing zu. lie-ivmuvorfliy in ilu', (bounty of Leuven- Q worth1 #hun nl' Knusns, have invented a. new

fir-l uwtiii improxrnient in Centrifugal luuziins, of liirh tlm following is n spvcificzv iiou.

The ohiig-t of my invention is to eliminato tho liouiil l'rit'i'ioi of the 'iinpellen `Whelher the pump if. of voluto type or cmploys litlusiou vinnen., liquid frirtion is a source of' loss in lioih huw! :unl linuxfr, :infl when high velwzitiwj :me euiirlowrl. the loss lmcomes exmssiw. lfm wurm of loss is due to the film rhiu thu .oluto or whirlptxil chamber uns! :he Litl'uiun minus are stationary, and tliili'tfoa'w iiiuw'i mul if'floi'fty of flow of this To overcome this de tho principle that two rotary :um rind coclicivnt of fricho hum direction, but :it

hau-iure i lef-:k1 (inni-gy.

iwi. l milioni' i" f .gn mail disk will incur no imw'i due to friction of the, tluitl, Ilmo llu imprima tlm fluid will impart to the lou .uuml :lil lluough its friotionnl Contact. 'lhrfi inn ot the. high spenti (lick imparts lundi@ @www to tho witter, and the flow of :uur hrhr ihn surface of the low speed u *o flriw, it ahead with the sumo 1 ihrem@ ii oilferu to the high ihm-:r r-,itifin t The :311. root. of oneY iatures of lhsy velocity lisltfi, equals the Yormwl lwfinwetn tho i :het inonwiits 0l" friction L .-iwwl li l-z :intl the, iin- .hiouggh friiftionnl @intacty 0f 'wing wr tlv low sprawl (lisli, it 'lh-vw Th@ wir ot ihr velocity oi' the gli. Of the Ve f1 ille .low @peril digli'. giro found lo he equiil. f infifrumn in either n ...his diiwlmrggvsf. ut its pafripher-y, ifi'ilcrs; :in adjacent'. low Speed fihery. and discharges :it the @he kinetic nrgy of the lnivinp; a. perfect. fluid in- Jff pufnin rho high;

water duo to ihn high speml runner is thus checked, und the energy absorbed by the, low speed runner through impact anni friotiou of the Watm conveyed hack to thol driving Shaft, by suitul'ile moins. The rclzitiw Vw locity of tlm high mul low sperl runners will vary according to the` type und fwrvico of the, pump. li' [wing umlei',\:10 nl th(l lower the. spoed of the4 low spool runnti; the hifjher the. efficiency of the pump, heraus@ the waiter is under hiss centrifugal force due to theI rotary motion of the low speed runner. Illustration: Should the high spend runnin' make live revolutionf: to one revolution of the low Speed runner. the, losg in Qi'wtive head will be 4%. If their spemlfi :iri two to one. the los#r will hv 25122;, for tho rintritu gal @fleet of this runners :are :is tho squares of their reupaoliru velocities or nuiulier of revolutions.

in my oonsirurtion A revolving rinsing e11- ooinpuvfses thi*` runners and is prcferuhly zitathetl to the louifiirwlorliiilim'.

The object of this invuntion is to produce a rentrilllgal pump ot high eiliviuuoy,

thrtrwtugo centrifukgml pump embodying th(l priiiuiplvfi of nig' ini'vntion. Fig. 2 i- :iii @ntl View of tlu-l iutaltil Hille ,if Fig. l., thi,l intakt: und journal lwnringgj not being Shown in Fig. 1, hut; in fmistiucftion iS: ihr snuit* ns ilie (lis-- charge end. Fig, if is; :i Yr-rtiufil Crm@ svclion of a Singh, stuur pump showingr #he cohfitruc# rhin @niiojml in vaufz'yingg out4 niv iiiarnriou. Vig. l i, :in rml rima' of thiy inizilw :sulla of the single mg@ hump. i is n your of u s0;}`i'iuiii`3 of tim roller (faire th(L rollt-r; 30 umnnzurl lhiirtiu Fig t plan View of th@ iiiliutiyttl rui-,v i3, 'iifj. 'T is a plan View of ih@ low spec-d runner '14, with i1 portion of thvy facie pluto 'l5 roinovml. Fia'. tl i5 :i phiu rino of tho iirh sporti run-` ,ner with :i portion of the i110. u' :lriving phil@ l() roniovrd,

l indicates n has@ plato to which holted standards 2 and 3.


4 indicates a journal bearing secured to each standard for the reception of shaft 5.

6, 7 and t5 indicate high speed runners, of which (3 and i are annular disks centrally perforated and key-seatetl to the shaft 5. They are turned to like diameters, and machined on fat-i and back, and 'on the face of each runner is east integral varies or tins 9, their radial length and pitch beingelearly shown in lfie'. tl. the bolt bess being omitted as therein shown.

10 indicates a driver, the saine. beingr an annular disk eentralliperforated and secured to shaft. 5, said driver being bolted to the ruimer The. ruimer S is an annular disk having a central hollow hub 11, the back ot' the runner being convex and on the face or concave side are cast integral vanes or webs 9 as shown iu Fig. 1.

12, 13 and 14 indicate low speed runners, having face plates 15. Runners 12 and 13 arc annular disks having' a central (mening of the. saine diameter as the. oliening in hub 1l. 0n one side is casty integral cui-wd valles or tins 1i). as shown in Fig. 'l'. and to the-.o vantav is bolted the tace plate lli, the. saine being an annular disk centrally perforated and journaled on 'liat't i. "l`he periphery of the runners l2 and 13, is o1 ,greater diameter than the vane 1t). and when the runners 12, 13 and 171 are bolted to the cylindrical runner 1T, the race chambers 1S, l!) and 2t) are formed. I

'l`he low speed ruimer 14V has Yanes and a face plaie similar to those of runners 12 and 123, excepting the),y do not so nearly approach the center, as .shown in Fig. 1, and "'hich will he ginat'ter be explained. 'lhe runner 1t performs the double function of a low speed runner and an end easingn to the impeller, beingr secured to the member 17 as eeeding the pressure of the water at the blt :shown in Fig. 1.

21 indicates a sleeve bolted to member 1G and provides a discharge passage from the impeller to the discharge port 22. The outer end of sleeve. 2l is provided with a stuffing box and gland 2li.

24 is an end casing of the impeller bolted to men'iber 17, and bolted to the inner side of member 2st, and surrounding hub 11 is a cup packing 25.

26 indicates a spur-wheel bolted to the member 24. 27 indicates a pinion secured to the hub 11.

28 indicates a liquid packing gland, of which a indicates a central perforated disk secured to the hubY 11, which rotates in the chamber b, formed by a casing c, attached to standard 2, the casing c belng provided with a cup packing D.

In the eye of each of tho high speed runners 6, 7 and 8, is placed a screw 29, said. screw consisting of a central web forming a sleeve of a, diai-neter sufiicient for the rcception of citati; To the sleeve is cast of crossseetion. 31 tutti s As the water enters the chamber o rejecting helical blades, theirI- ang'ular pitch )eingopposite to the direction of rotation. The purpose of these screws need not be particularly described in this specification, as this feature will form the subject matter 0f a separate application for patent.

3() indicates the intake, a portion of which is not shown. In construction it is the same as discharge port. 22 i t of greater area a standard for the. support of a gear shaft i12, one end of said shaft being fienrualed in shat't box 33 attached to standard lpon said shaft 32 are mounted and keyed spur heel 34V and pinion 35. t'l'hc gear 26, and pinion 35 should have twice the l'ace shown, and when the pump is designed for high heads the H. l. of the gear should be strong enough to transmit the power due to liquid friction upon the revolvingr casing and the low speed runners, and the impact of the water.) These tgears control the relative speeds of the rotors.

Having thus designated the several parts of this machine, the following is a description of the opeintion: `iVhen the suction pi e (net shown), which is provided with t e anual foot valve at the source of supply, is connected to the intake 30, and the, pump primed in the usual Way, the driving power is applied to shaft 5, the driving pulley or coupling (not shown) may be disposed at either end of the shaft. Ifo reduce the torque of the machine, the discharge should be throttled until the normal speed is at tained. The water under suction enters the intake 30 and is subjected to centrifugai force and the repulsive action of the screw 29. Before the water enters the chamber of the high speed runner 8, it has acquired rotary motion and an absolute pressure exot' the screw'. As the water enters the chamber of runner 8, it is subjected to a constant increasing centrifugal force in its radial tlow by the vanes 9, and is discharged into the race chamber 18, under the maximum or theoreticalhead. Some of the rotary velocity is here checked, due to friction but such loss of kinetic energy of the water is communicated to the slow revolvin casing. g the low speed runner 12, its rotary velocity is checked by the cycloidal vanes 16, the ener due to the impact of the water upon e vanes of this runner tending to rotate it at a velocity equal to the velocity of the impinging water, but owingl to thev speed reducing gear, the casin speed runner is attache makes but one revolation to ve revolutions of the high s runner. The spur wheel 26, attac t0 member 24 of the casing, transmits the anergy to the pinion 35, and this impulse is transmitted through the' medium of spur to which ,attire low wheel 34 to the pinion .27 which is attached l ner 12 to the adjacent high speed runner 12,

trifugal force the water is-suhjected to by to the hollow hub 11 of the* high speed driver 8, the.same.being rigidly attached to shaft 5 as'previously described. The loss of elective head, when the water reaches the eye of the .low speed runner, will be the centhe low speed impeller, andthe ratio of loss will be as the sq. of the number of its revo# lutions or angular velocity to the sq. of the number of revolutions or angular velocity of the high speed runner, and in the machine herein described iS as one to twenty-live, or 4%.

The space intervening between the face plate of the low speed and the high speed runners is occupied by a racing fluid, and as both plates rotate in the same direction there can be no loss of power due to friction because the frictional resistance of the fluid to the high speed disk just equals its velpcity friction impelling the low speed disx. Y

The slight rotary velocity'the water retains as it passes-from the low speed runis accelerated by the screw 29 and as the water enters the chamber of runner Z under hydraulic head,'it is again subjected to een trifugal force, and when discharged int/e race chamber 19, has a head twice that at the eye of the runner. It will be noted that the high speed runner 7 has no face plate. This construction avoids slippage that would take place if a face plate were used, for the di'erence in pressure between the eye and the discharge end of the runner could not be compensated or balanced by the rotary velocity of the Huid between the plates, anda back flow would take place from the race chamber to the eye or" the 'runner Abetween the plates, because the centriugalor'ce of the water between the plates will only slightly exceed one-half the centrifugal force within the chamber of the runner. Therefore, there would be an induced low betweenthe plates under a head equal to one-fourth the hydraulic head in chamber 19. In the construction sliown no slippage takes place, because the full cen trifugal forceof the water at any radial point exerts a corresponding lateral pressure upon J@he back of runner l2, and as previously described, any friction of the fluid that tends to retard the high speed runner, the same force must be communicated to the low speed runner rotating in the same direction.

l/Vhen the water has passed through all the runners constituting the stages of the pump, it is forced through discharge pas? sage 22. As thel machine shown and el Fig. 3 represents a structure embodyingl my invention as employed in a single stage from the multiple stage pump being in providing a suitable `iournal bearmg for the low speed runner 14, and the revolving cas# ing, and the employment of a friction drive. Referring to Fig. 3 and Fig. 5, 38 indi- Cates a roller cage, in which are mounted the frusta of cones 39, upon hollow journals 40. 4l indicates a thrust bearing journaled upo-n member 40, and interposed between the outer end of each cone and a bess cast integral with the cage 38 as clearly shown in Fig. 5. 42 indicates a driven wheel secured to member 11. 43 indicates a bifurcated driving race secured to standard 2. The cone 39 has three roller surfaces of which a indicates that portion of the rolling surface at the base of the frusturn. Z1 indicates the rolling surface'between the surfaces a,'and c', c desiguales the rolling surfaces next to the apex of the frustum. c and have the same face angle, that angle being determined by the radius of the race 43 upon which they run,

and the diameter of the rolling surface at the base of the frustum. The rolling surface b is of greater diameter than a or c and is determined by the relative speeds the high and the low speed runners are to maintain. Ll-(S indicates an annulus or pulley bolted to member 24 which encompasses the roller cage 38, said cage being provided with dowel pins 4? as shown in Fig. 5.' These pins extend through holes in the rim of the annulus 4G, said holes being large enough to permit or' some lfreedom of lateral motion. The face plate has a hub cast integral therewith to` `form a journal bearing, as shown in Fig. 3. Interposed between the low speed runner H and the high speed runner l2 is a thrust bearing 38, as the end thrust is imposed upon the low Speed runilc nl! a thrust bearing is i a drh-'ing pulley that i place of the 'friction reqinre may be i, drive hereto stood that when ployed, a smaller pulley will be attached to -the driving shaft 50 indicates ai compression spring interposed between a ball bearing 5l and a set collar mounted on shaft 5, and is used for the purpose of increasing A.7G pump. The ditierence 1n this construction the stress upon the friction rollers when this gear is employed, and especially, when the pumpjis operating against moderate heads but handling a larger volurncof water.

The-operation of the friction drive is as follows: lt being understood that vthe shaft scribed1 employs positive gear transini between the low speed casing and the .nigh

speed runner ordriving shaft. a thrust bean l fand high speed runner make five revolutions to one revhlutinn er the low speed runner and.

es shown in this construcionr ters Patent, is-

l. In a machine whose opera-tion involves a moving fluid,the combination with a high speed driven rotor and a 'lo,\v speed fluid actuated rotor operating in the same direction and arranged to'receive fluid delivered from said high speed rotor, said rotors hav ing a fluid interposedbetween them, ofv a rotary casing inclosing said'rotors and a-ttached to one of them, and means for maintaining, constant the relative speeds of said rotors. y y

In a machine whose operation involves a moving fluid, the combination with a driven element from which fluid in motion is delivered, of a structurally independent fluid actuated mechanism operated by the kinetic ene gy of the fluid due to. friction, and also y the fluid delivered from the driven element and from which fluid 'is delivered under pressure, means for transmitting power from said iuid actuated mechanism and for maintaining constant the relative speeds of said elements.

3. In a centrifugal machine, the combination With a high speed rotor .from Vlwhich Huid 'under motion and pressure is delivered, of a lo-w speed fluid actuated rotor operated by the fluid so delivered and from which fiuid is delivered under pressure, a rotary casing,r inclosing' said rotor elements and attached to one of' them, and positive means for transmitting power engendered by vthe kinetic energy of the fluid in contact with the fluid actuated rotor to the driving mechanism of the high speed rotor. n

4. In a machine Whose operation involves a moving fluid, the combination with a high speed driven rotor fixed upon a shaft, a low speed fluidA actuated 'rotor journaled upon said sl'iaft and operating in the same direction and arranged to receive fluid delivered from said high speed rotor and having a fluid interposed between them, a rotary casing inclosing said rotors and attached to one of them, and means for maintaining con stant their relative speeds.

5.- In a machine whose operation involves a moving fluid, the combination with a set of driven rotors from which fluid in motion is delivered, of set of fluid actuated ro'- tors alternately arranged with respect to the driven rotors, and operated by the 'Huid-so delivered, a rotary casing inclosing said sets of rotors and secured to one set of them, and means for connecting said casing and the other set of rotors to the driving mechanism of the driven rotors and maintaining constantthe relative speeds of Said sets of rotors.

6. In a machine whose operation involves a moving fiuid, the combination with a set of driven rotors from which fluid in inotion is delivered, of' a set of fluid actuated lrotors alternatel f arran ed with res )ecttothe driven'rotors and operated by the kinetic energy of the fluid due to friction, and,a.ls0 hy the fluid delivered froiix'-tiierl1'iven rotors and from which iuid is delivered under pressure, a rotarycasing inclosing said ro- Y

US71834212A 1912-09-03 1912-09-03 Centrifugal pump. Expired - Lifetime US1080655A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3124077A (en) * 1964-03-10 white
US3368494A (en) * 1966-11-14 1968-02-13 Reeves Packing Co Multi-stage centrifugal pump
US4097186A (en) * 1976-11-18 1978-06-27 Worthington Pump, Inc. Multi-stage ring type centrifugal pumps with inducer means

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3124077A (en) * 1964-03-10 white
US3368494A (en) * 1966-11-14 1968-02-13 Reeves Packing Co Multi-stage centrifugal pump
US4097186A (en) * 1976-11-18 1978-06-27 Worthington Pump, Inc. Multi-stage ring type centrifugal pumps with inducer means

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