US1074809A - Powder and propellant for use in firearms. - Google Patents

Powder and propellant for use in firearms. Download PDF

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Publication number
US1074809A
US1074809A US1911632821A US1074809A US 1074809 A US1074809 A US 1074809A US 1911632821 A US1911632821 A US 1911632821A US 1074809 A US1074809 A US 1074809A
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Prior art keywords
burning
kernel
colloid
propellant
colloids
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Charles Newton
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Charles Newton
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B5/00Cartridge ammunition, e.g. separately-loaded propellant charges
    • F42B5/02Cartridges, i.e. cases with charge and missile
    • F42B5/16Cartridges, i.e. cases with charge and missile characterised by composition or physical dimensions or form of propellant charge, with or without projectile, or powder

Description

o. NEWTQN. WEER N D PROP:

L vZAlST FOR USE IN EIREARM. MFMQATION FILED JUNE 1s, 1911.

19a 0st.

.al JU j inusual v placed in a firearm, ignited, 'sha-ll maintain,

a consta-nt pressure upon the said projectile, as'itmoves forwardat .anfa'ccelerated ve- UNlTED STAT@ S PATENT )Fniet;I

f CHARLESUNEWTON, or BUFFALOQNEWXoBK.'

POWDERAND rito r'iitlmsi'rr'Fonl USE 1N IREARMS, f' r To 'all i/:mmiz 11mg/ concern: I

- Be it 'known that 1I, l CHARM-.'l\lnw'roi ,'a citiien of the United States o'f Amer1ca, re-

siding at Buffalo, in thefcount-y of Erie/and State of New VYork, have 'invented certain new and us'etul Improvementsin `Powders and'Pr'opellants for Use in Firearms, of which the following-1s a full', ,cle-ar, andv exact description.

My invention relates 4generally to powders and propellants for fire arms, and nio're Iparticularly tojpowders and propellants which' present an increasing burning surface after they have lieenignitedv l' 011e of .the objects of my inventionA has been to proyidea propellant, Which when behind a 'projectile and as near as possible,

' Another object has vbeenftoprovide a propellant-,which shall produce 'a given velocf ity of of they projectile Without increasing the breeclrpressure.;

vAll' propellants now muse 1n lire arms,

'consist of substances so compounded as to burn freely and progressively, and are made .in various forms, such as cubes, cylinders,

disks, perforated disks, perforated cylin* ders, cords., strips and many other forms,

but all of the for1ns of propellants consist. Aofuniform substances throughout the' unit.

The action of a propellant 1n use 1n hre arms is obtained through transforming asolid into gas','through the agency of fire applied in 'the form of a priming. As is well known, the 'propellant is "placed withinachamber and 'securely inclosed except at one end, lby a bullet. shell or other. p L'ojectile, which rests 'ei-ther in the casev or Then the propellant is ignited, it burns, develops gas and when the gas thus developed has attained a suiiicient pressure to'oyerconie the' inertii of the projectile, itl seats the projectile intol the barrel. of the' fire varm and mores the f same forward under constantly accelerating` velocity. As the projectile movesforward along the bore 1t gives avvcongeneratedhy the combustion et the'propel'- the.' projectile at a reduced breech preSSure'Qi' the fire arm 1n which it is'used, A or .increase the Nelocity whichI said end is closed- .in the here of thel its pressure' at a',

j laut, Aare conined, and att-he 'saine tijme.the

propellant is burning and generating Still more gas whichtakes-up the space thusfurn1shedbut thegases' which are-generated by the burning -of the. kpropellant are'= not Patented Oct.' v,7 1913. lApplicationineaJane13,1911. seraniiofesfaszi. 'l

generated 'rapidly enough, to'keep up a constaht. pressurel at the basefof the', projectile, but malntains only a rapidly decreasing pressure thereon. Ina'sjniuch as the projet` ltile is. moving with a constantly increasing velocity, 1n order to'jinaintain a 'uniform -pressure against its -base it .is necessary that the. propellantburnand thus-,develop v gas ata correspondingly:'increasing rate 'to c maintain this uniform ,pressure upon said project-ile.

has not heretofore been obtained, but 'on' the in use, has been decreased Afrom the time 's the projectile starts on its for-ward.path` This increased ratefof burning` j-contra'ry, the rate of b urningof a propellant' j Vowing to. the inability of, tliopropellantftoj increase its rateof burning, the 'falling olf in the rateof burning -being A dueto 'the re pressure, than that now` furnished h v'll duction of pressure, which in i-urn,V isdue to the increased space inthe bore of the lire arm which it occupies, and also tofthedccreasing area of they burning surface 'exposed, vc'onsequently -the pressure on'the baseof the projectile falls rapidlyaefinthesaid projectile starts in vmotiuji. lIn' producing mynn'e'ntion, propellant -which, whenl ignited, shall inamt'ain a pressure upon thefbase of the projec- .i Y. .up tile far greater, 1n proportionto the initial known'propellant.y l accomplish thisb .iucreasing the rate -of burningof the' prdj'iell'ant as fthe forward increment of thefprojectileuncrcases th'e space o'ccnpiedhy the gas and thus imparts a, realerfreloritj"for 'a lgiven niaxnnuni breech"pressure- ':r'ihe' same yel'ocity vnow obtained at a' much lower;4

maximum pressure.

In this speciiication ali'dlin tl'ieappeniliul, claims, the term --coll'oid defines the basi*-A or substance from which'tlie unitsofy in v propellant are formed; the term kei-fuel defines a combination o ftwo or more `culkloids; the term multiple kernel defines :acombinatlon of apliualityfofkernels.

". My invention nvolwslthe use 'ofthe same 'substances as are now-.niuseas'propcllants.

with such modifications as may temido-'alter the rate of burning thereof,y as 'well as other substances which may be iliade to burn pro- 'gressively andA particularly; pertains tof-the.

composition ot the individual kernelfor grain of powder, 'a plurality of which, coniposed that the layers composed of the-slower burning colloids either Wholly or partially surround the layers of the quicker' burning colloids and, the outer layers of slower burning colloids being first exposed to the fiame off the primer, ignite rst and either Wholly prot-eet the inner layers of or nartiallv qui' bu the iaiiie a nd colloids from. the action of gas until such time asthe partially or .'vliolly burned away. The next layer, which isc'omposed of a quicker burning colloid, is then ignited and, burning. more freely, with less pressure than the slow burning outer colloids, generates gas, more rapidly than would be. possible with the slower burning colloids, and thus maintains a higher pressure upon. the bas-e of the projectile thanjc'an be done'bj,v usinga kernel composed of ,a single 'uniform colloid, in

quantities which would give a far higher.

Abreechpressure. VIt 'kernelslconiposed of a single uniform colloid were used in larger quant-ities, than at present, the breech pres. sure of the fire arm 1n which they were'v used would be greatly and dangerously increased. This is because there is no form of kernel which,l when burning, Will give` a burning surface which 'will increase as rapidlyas .the space to beoccupied vin the bore of the gun at the rear of the'projectile,

increases. This is also-because, as the projectileinoves forward, thus' increasing the space to be occupied by the gases generated, the pressure and temperature of the gases diminish, and, asa consequence, the rate o' burning of' the colloid in use, even with the surface unchanged, di-

arca of. burin increases. My invention niinishes instead o.

vmeets this dithculty by constantly providing dii'lerentcolloids. each quicker burning't-hanthe preceding one, so that the project-ile is started in inotionand passes along the bore -ot' the gun and is propelled bv the gases developed by the slower burning colloid,

with a yriniinuni chamber pressure,l and then is propelled by the action ot' the'v t uicker burnin@ colloids, as the Asuccessivel v n Y ignite and burn, thus progressively accelerating the. movement of the projectile far more than could be done "with the slower bur.-i 1g colloid used alone at ar vchamber pressure which would. not destro the firm arm. l'ntheprocess of manufacturing these" colloids, I prefer to use a base. substance lother progressively. burning substances.

outer layers of slower burning colloids are.l

Lenses .nitrated cellulose, although l may use any In the manufacture of powders having Ifor their base nitratedl cellulose, or similar substance, the colloid is capable of modification throughchemical admixicure or otherwise, so as to produce a propellant having different rates ot burning; that is some' colloidsA forming th` propellant, will burn at a given. rate under' a lless degree. of gas pressure and under` a less degree of heat 'than others, those burning under the. lesser degrees of pressure or of heat being termed quicker burning i than those which require a greater degreeof temperature or a greater degree of pressure to produce a giver degree of speed or burning, :.-ind the terms slow y burning, quick burning.77 and quicker burning used hereinafter, are used in this sense. v

Reference is to be had to the accompanying drawings formingpart of this specilication, in which like letters of reference indicate like collulfls, in the several views of which: y

Figure 1 is a cross-.sectional view of the simplestmfor'm of my invention and shows a kernel formed oi. two colloids, cach burning at a different rate of speed.' Fig. 2 is .a cross-sectional View of the form olf kernel shown in ,'Fig. l but has an'additional' layer around the outside, composed of a sloweil burning colloid.v F ig. 3 is a cross sectional view of a kernel formed of two colloids of different rates of burning and. iiioifided lon-4 gitudinally through the center with a perf foration. Fig. 1 isla cross-sectional view of a kernel provided with a central per- 'foration and is composed of 'fu'o colloids;

the inner'and outer colloid being Slow burning and between-these is a faster burning colloid. Fig. 5 is`a vert-ical elevation of a kernel with a portion broken away, formed as shown in Fig. 4 and shov's the ends oi. thesanie'closed by means 0i caps formed from the sloiverburning cotloid. Fig. G is a fragmental sectional `View showing a modified method o'lI cap'pin, ,'fl the ends of the kernels. Fig. P is across sectional view ot' a perforated kernel formed from aplnralit)v of colloids of ditterent rates -of burning; Fig. 8 is ja cross section-akuten? of a group of perforatedg kernels in conact at their peripheries, each formed of vdifferent burning colloids.' Fig. 9 is a conventional cross sectional View of a iiaultip'le kernel, composed of a plurality of single perforated kernels compressed together. Fig. 10 is a conventional `cross sectionalv View ofl a modied form of 'a multiple kernel, being composed of -a plurality ot" single. perforated kernelsv compressedvtogether and .a sloiv` burning colloid disposed about the whole. f-

In the c'lrawings the reference letter A represents av sloiv burning celloid; the letter B Ia quick burning colloid; and the lett-er C the q1iickest burningcolloid. While I Ahave shown1` and described -but three colloids of different rates of burnin-g, obviously Il'inay emploi7 i'any number of'colloids of different rates of .burning or vary the .proportions 'and thicknesse'sof each as may be'found'neces- "frei Figs. 4 and jT, the cutting isdonepreferably '.B'has I, the.l kernel. f l

.. kernel isv niucli` cheaper for the smaller or `sinipler foin'is'and it may sary or desirable.- Th'esekei'nels are preferablyffornied.by first drawing out the colloids, arranged 'as `desired into a. cord, tube, l

and; then 'cutting the 'kernels theref Intlie larger kernels'asgshown in at right "angles to the axes of the kernel and after being eut, each kernel is provided at.`

both ends with a' cap, made of a slow burir ingcolloid A as shown in Fig. 5. F or `use in smaller -ire'a iiiis.f where the forni of kernel' sliownfin Figs. l to 3 are preferable, the '20' I ing processinst-ead of a clean cut.

severing of thev kernels is done by a 'pinch- A kernel severed 'yin` this wayj'is'shown inFig. G where .it` will be seenV that the outer or slowy burning colloid' A has been closed at the end by pinching it'oliv and lthe quick burning colloid closed the central perforation through This method of' capping the by using roundA edged knives or dies which vwill operate periodically upon the cord or tubeas it leai'es'theinachine which forms it,

of the kernel.

. l In the multiple kernel 'sliownin Fig. 10,

each single kernel thereof is formed at its center i'ith a slow burning colloid A provided with .a central perforation. About --this is a quick burning colloid B which is in the colloid B, which turn surrounded by a quicker burning colloid C. Surrounding thisl colloid G and forming the outer colloid for each single kernel, is a quick burning colloid B. These single kernels are noiv compressed together and the whole surrounded by a slow burning colloid A. -lVlic-n this forni of multiple kei'- nel is ignited, the colloid A surrounding .the entirekernel and also the colloid A lining the perforations through the single kernels i} nite first and when this is burned through, i forms the outer layer of the-individual kernels and the second layer around the perforation ignites and the multiple kernel separates into itsv several constituent parts, thus greatly and rapidly increasing the burning surface. .In placing these single kernels together to make the be accomplished l Vof slowerburning.

ends with the slowl Atectcd until the outer "ality of layers of colloids multiple kernel lil that .shown lu Figs. 5'

and. l0, .a thin tilni olsoine: quick burning lsubstance inay'rbe' used between the single kernels where they are in coi'itaotto insure the prompt separation of the saine .as soon as `thcrouter surrounding..colloid A is consumed.'` c .l

For convenience in the drawings, I have pshown the kernels of cylindrical form, but, obviously, they -may beniade in any of the.

Various forins'such ascubes, cylinders, disks,

perforated disks, perforated cylinders,

cords, or strips or in any other combination of layers of colloids, `without departing from the spirit of my invention, and I do not wish tobe liniited tolhe'exact forms herein shown and described.

-Haiingthus described my invention, what l claiinis:v` j

.1. As' a new article of manufacture, a propellant I kernel consisting of a perforated quick burningfcolloid vprotected lon its eX- posed surfaces by one or more layers of slow burning colloids so disposed that each.

layer of slower lburning colloid. surrounds yone which is quicker burning than itself.'

v' 2. ,As a newv article of .niaiiufacture, a

posed surfacesby one oi' more layers of slow burning colloids so disposed that` each layer colloid .surrounds one which is quicker'burning than itself, and end closures formed of a slow burning substance, whereby the quick burning colloids are prolayer of slower' burn- .ingI colloid shall be partially ,or whollyv burned away. R i

As a new article of manufacture, a perforated propellant kernel comprising a pluliaving different rates of burning, said'layers being so disposed that those forming the. exterior sur? face of the kernel and the interior surface of the perforation are slowest burning and each successivelaier from such surfaces' toward the center of the webl of the kernel being composed of a more rapid burning colloid than the one which envelops it..

et.. As a new article ofinanufacture, a perforated propellant kernel comprising a plurality yof layers of colloids having different rates of burning, said layers being so disposed that those forming the exterior siii'- face of the kernel and the interior surface. of the perforation are slowest burning and each successive layer from such surfaces toward the center of the vweb of the kernel being composed of a more rapid burning colloid than they one. `which envelops it. and the whole protected attlie ends from the flame by the application of'asloiv burning substance to retard the rate of burning 'at the ends. v

5. As a new 'article of manufacture, a propropellant kernel consisting a perforated. lquick burning colloid protected on its eX- A V propellant kernel having Y rated 'slow .burning collold7 a quick burning .'loid, a slow burnlng oolloidl surrounding 'loid, 'a slow burning colloid surrounding said quick burning colloid, and a .cap of slow burning colloid secured to each end-of said kernel.'

-. 7. As.l anew article of manufacture, a

colloid surroundin sai-'d sl'ow burning colsaid quick burning colloid'and vthe Wholel protected at each end -by a closure offslow urning substance, toretard the' rate'lof burning. at the ends'.

8. As a new article of manufacture, a

"multiple propellant .kernel ycomposed of 'a plurality of 'single' kernels compressed ,together, each being composed of colloids :havnig different .rates of burning. ,arranged in layers, whereby the quicker burningcolloids will be protected from vtheflarneuntil the slower burning colloids have burned away.

9. Asaznewarticle of manufacture, a mul'- l tiple pro ellant kernel, composed of a plurality o single perforated kernels, leaeh comprisin a plurality of layers 'of colloidshaving di erentrates of burning, said layers being so disposed that Athose forming .the exterior-surface of the kernel. and theinterior v plurality a central perfoing 'co surface of the perforation are slowest .burn ing and successive layers 'rrnn such surfaces toward the center of the web of the kernel being composed of a more rapid burning colloid than lthe one which envelope it.

10. As a new article of manufacture, a

multiple propellantkernelgoomposed of a perforated kernels, eachy c omprisxn 4a pluraht'yfof/ layers ofcolloids hanng di 'erent rates of burning,- said layers of single being. so disposed that those forming theexterior surface of the kernel and the interiorl y `surface 'o the 'peroration are vslowestburnf ing andreach successive layer from such surfaces towardthe center of the web of the kernell being composed of a more rapid col- Whole' protected att-he ends 'from the Haine by the application er a slow lburning substance' to'retard the rate of burning at the ends.

' 17u-'As a'new varticle of manufacture, a multiple' propellant' kernel. having an outer .jacket Ao1" slow4 burning colloidv und aplurality vof single perfo-rated kernels Wit-hin said 'acket, each comprisinga quick burning -collold protected on lts exposed Asurfaces by so dis osed that-'each "layer of slower burn-v }lloid surrounds one which is 4quicker burning thantself.

j l In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set iny hand .in the presence 'of two Witnesses.l

CHASINEVVTON. l Witnesses: f I. vWM. ELLis,

WYALTER H.- KELLEY' loid' than the one which envelopeit andthe Gil ' onel or more layers of slow'burningcolloids' 65

US1074809A 1911-06-13 1911-06-13 Powder and propellant for use in firearms. Expired - Lifetime US1074809A (en)

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Cited By (29)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2446541A (en) * 1942-11-13 1948-08-10 Tennessee Products Corp Extraction of nitrocellulose from nitrating solution
US2600678A (en) * 1949-03-11 1952-06-17 Olin Ind Inc Rocket powder
US2939396A (en) * 1954-09-02 1960-06-07 Phillips Petroleum Co Rocket grain
US2986092A (en) * 1955-10-03 1961-05-30 Phillips Petroleum Co Rocket grain and process for making same
US3000317A (en) * 1955-09-29 1961-09-19 Werner R Kirchner Tapered tubular propellant grain
US3002459A (en) * 1955-11-09 1961-10-03 Ici Ltd Propellant charges
US3010354A (en) * 1955-08-15 1961-11-28 Phillips Petroleum Co Rocket grain and method for restricting same
US3010399A (en) * 1957-07-02 1961-11-28 Douglas Aircraft Co Inc Impulse generator
US3052092A (en) * 1959-03-30 1962-09-04 Boeing Co Solid propellant rocket motor
US3054353A (en) * 1958-09-23 1962-09-18 Norman L Rumpp Segment grain
US3069843A (en) * 1958-05-29 1962-12-25 Phillips Petroleum Co Ignition of solid propellants
US3073242A (en) * 1955-02-18 1963-01-15 Mini Of Supply Manufacture of propellant charges
US3086354A (en) * 1958-10-02 1963-04-23 Avir Res Corp Utilization of promoters in effecting reactions
US3135201A (en) * 1960-04-14 1964-06-02 Bofors Ab Tracer material for missiles
US3137127A (en) * 1961-03-28 1964-06-16 Res Inst Of Temple University Method of developing high energy thrust
US3165060A (en) * 1960-10-31 1965-01-12 James V Braun Multiple propellent grain for rocket motors
US3201936A (en) * 1960-11-29 1965-08-24 Bancelin Robert Victor Charge for solid propellent rocket
US3224191A (en) * 1963-05-20 1965-12-21 Thiokol Chemical Corp Rocket motor construction
US3300549A (en) * 1964-09-28 1967-01-24 Matsubara Hideo Methods of producing propellant grain adapted for single stage rockets
DE1241199B (en) * 1965-12-01 1967-05-24 Nitrochemie G M B H Solid rocket propellant
US3327582A (en) * 1965-10-23 1967-06-27 Trojan Powder Co Process and apparatus for preparing detonating and deflagrating fuse
US3352243A (en) * 1965-07-14 1967-11-14 Dynamit Nobel Ag Solid fuel propellant charge
US3382806A (en) * 1959-05-01 1968-05-14 Exxon Research Engineering Co Tubular packet
US4357795A (en) * 1980-04-14 1982-11-09 General Dynamics, Pomona Division Multi-burn solid fuel restartable rocket and method of use
US4729317A (en) * 1986-12-08 1988-03-08 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Concentric layer ramjet fuel
US5345873A (en) * 1992-08-24 1994-09-13 Morton International, Inc. Gas bag inflator containing inhibited generant
WO1997014169A3 (en) * 1995-09-28 1997-05-29 Alliant Techsystems Inc Propellant grain geometry for controlling ullage and increasing flame permeability
US5682013A (en) * 1992-08-24 1997-10-28 Morton International, Inc. Gas generant body having pressed-on burn inhibitor layer
RU2570991C1 (en) * 2014-06-26 2015-12-20 Николай Евгеньевич Староверов STAROVEROV'S ROCKET ENGINE-13a

Cited By (30)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2446541A (en) * 1942-11-13 1948-08-10 Tennessee Products Corp Extraction of nitrocellulose from nitrating solution
US2600678A (en) * 1949-03-11 1952-06-17 Olin Ind Inc Rocket powder
US2939396A (en) * 1954-09-02 1960-06-07 Phillips Petroleum Co Rocket grain
US3073242A (en) * 1955-02-18 1963-01-15 Mini Of Supply Manufacture of propellant charges
US3010354A (en) * 1955-08-15 1961-11-28 Phillips Petroleum Co Rocket grain and method for restricting same
US3000317A (en) * 1955-09-29 1961-09-19 Werner R Kirchner Tapered tubular propellant grain
US2986092A (en) * 1955-10-03 1961-05-30 Phillips Petroleum Co Rocket grain and process for making same
US3002459A (en) * 1955-11-09 1961-10-03 Ici Ltd Propellant charges
US3010399A (en) * 1957-07-02 1961-11-28 Douglas Aircraft Co Inc Impulse generator
US3069843A (en) * 1958-05-29 1962-12-25 Phillips Petroleum Co Ignition of solid propellants
US3054353A (en) * 1958-09-23 1962-09-18 Norman L Rumpp Segment grain
US3086354A (en) * 1958-10-02 1963-04-23 Avir Res Corp Utilization of promoters in effecting reactions
US3052092A (en) * 1959-03-30 1962-09-04 Boeing Co Solid propellant rocket motor
US3382806A (en) * 1959-05-01 1968-05-14 Exxon Research Engineering Co Tubular packet
US3135201A (en) * 1960-04-14 1964-06-02 Bofors Ab Tracer material for missiles
US3165060A (en) * 1960-10-31 1965-01-12 James V Braun Multiple propellent grain for rocket motors
US3201936A (en) * 1960-11-29 1965-08-24 Bancelin Robert Victor Charge for solid propellent rocket
US3137127A (en) * 1961-03-28 1964-06-16 Res Inst Of Temple University Method of developing high energy thrust
US3224191A (en) * 1963-05-20 1965-12-21 Thiokol Chemical Corp Rocket motor construction
US3300549A (en) * 1964-09-28 1967-01-24 Matsubara Hideo Methods of producing propellant grain adapted for single stage rockets
US3352243A (en) * 1965-07-14 1967-11-14 Dynamit Nobel Ag Solid fuel propellant charge
US3327582A (en) * 1965-10-23 1967-06-27 Trojan Powder Co Process and apparatus for preparing detonating and deflagrating fuse
DE1241199B (en) * 1965-12-01 1967-05-24 Nitrochemie G M B H Solid rocket propellant
US4357795A (en) * 1980-04-14 1982-11-09 General Dynamics, Pomona Division Multi-burn solid fuel restartable rocket and method of use
US4729317A (en) * 1986-12-08 1988-03-08 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Concentric layer ramjet fuel
US5345873A (en) * 1992-08-24 1994-09-13 Morton International, Inc. Gas bag inflator containing inhibited generant
US5682013A (en) * 1992-08-24 1997-10-28 Morton International, Inc. Gas generant body having pressed-on burn inhibitor layer
WO1997014169A3 (en) * 1995-09-28 1997-05-29 Alliant Techsystems Inc Propellant grain geometry for controlling ullage and increasing flame permeability
US5821449A (en) * 1995-09-28 1998-10-13 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Propellant grain geometry for controlling ullage and increasing flame permeability
RU2570991C1 (en) * 2014-06-26 2015-12-20 Николай Евгеньевич Староверов STAROVEROV'S ROCKET ENGINE-13a

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