US1064907A - Paper-tube shot-shell. - Google Patents

Paper-tube shot-shell. Download PDF

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Publication number
US1064907A
US1064907A US75877113A US1913758771A US1064907A US 1064907 A US1064907 A US 1064907A US 75877113 A US75877113 A US 75877113A US 1913758771 A US1913758771 A US 1913758771A US 1064907 A US1064907 A US 1064907A
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tube
paper
panel
head
zone
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US75877113A
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Frank O Hoagland
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UNION METALLIC CARTRIDGE CO
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UNION METALLIC CARTRIDGE CO
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B5/00Cartridge ammunition, e.g. separately-loaded propellant charges
    • F42B5/26Cartridge cases

Description

F. O. HOAGLAND.
PAPER TUBE SHOT SHELL. APPLICATION FILED APR.4, 1913.
1,6 1,907, Patented June 17, 1913.
@ Inventor: f
Hank Qfibayland \B m'ines sept- COLUMBIA PLANOGRAPH Co..wAs1-|1NGTON. n. c.
UN PATENT @FFEQE.
FRANK 0. HOAGLAND, OF BRIDGEL OET, CONNECTICUT, ASSIGNOR TO UNION METAL- LIC CARTRIDGE COMPANY, OF BRIDGEPORT, CONNECTICUT, A. CORPORATION OF CONNECTICUT.
PAPER-TUBE SHOT-SHELL.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Application filed April 4, 1913.
Patented June 17, 1913. Serial No. 758,771.
To all w/wm itmay concern: view through the center-line of the shell;
Be it known that I, FRANK O. HoaeLaND, F 3 is a cross-sectional view in the line In in, Fig. 1; Fig. iis a developed View of the forward portion of the metallic headtube, and is drawn in alinement with the name part in Figs. 1 and 2, for more clearly illustrating the two circumferentially dis posed depressed panels which are located, 'espectively, in separated longitudinal positions and are connected to form a circuit inclosing an undepressed zone of the metal shell, and for showing the location within said inclosed or intermediate Zone, of paperengaging inwardlyextending projections separated from such zone-inclosing panel; Fig. 5 is an enlarged sectional view (corresponding to a portion of Fig. 2) taken on the line Z Z, Fig. 4-; and, Fig. (3 is a fragmentary view (similar to Fig. 4 in arrangement) showing a portion of the paper tube and illustrating the manner in which the outer surface is molded by the corresponding shapes of the head-tube.
Referring to the drawing, two circumferenlially-disposed panel members, P P are shown located, respectively, in different positions longitiulinally of the metallic tube-portion B of the cartridge head H. In practice the head H may be of any usual or suitable construction, and I have therefore, for convenience, represented in the drawing. the construction shown in my aforesaid prior patent. The paper tube. T,
Bridgeport, in the county of Fairlield and State of Comiecticut, have invented certain Papering is new and useful Improvements in Tube Shot-Shells, of which the folloi a specification.
This invention relates to that special class of ieloadable shot-shells in which a metal head having a relatively short tubular portion is combined with a relatively long paper-tube extension, and a principal object of the invention is to furnish such shells having a more effective inter-engagement between the h id-tube and the paper-tube, and one by which the destructive action normally occurring in these shells shall be reduced and thereby secure an increased durability and a more extended period of serviceability.
For accomplishing those objects, I have devised a composite shot-shell having, as hereinafter explained, a depressed panel extending in a circuit and inclosing an undepressed Zone within which are located a considerable number of relatively abrupt or sharp paper-engaging devices for gripping the paper-tube within a zone thereof which is relatively segregated from the main portion of such tube by a compressive controlling action of the circuit-form panel of the metal head-tube, and in which this p-eculiar action is of a relatively non-destrucis shown located within the metal tube B, tive character. and the rearward end is shown firmly seated My present invention, therefore, is in part between the head ii and the lining ll, this in the nature of an improvement upon the being expanded outwardly by the usual. interlocking construction disclosed in Let baseavad lV. ln some cases the lining L ters Patent of the United States, No. may, if desired, be extended to a point for- ],OZUJJQ, granted to me March 12, 1012, wardly of the panel-member P or even befor paper shot shell, in which a non-ciryond the tube 13, as indicated, for instance, cuitous depressed panel is shown extending at l, Fig. t only partially around the shell, and only in in Figs. 1 and 4., the two circumferentlal a single position longitudinally of the shell, panel-members P and P ,-these being and vithout any supplemental metallic separated by a considerable distance, are paper-engaging projections, and with no shown connected by the relatively longitu- 1 aper-engaging faces or devices located ondmal panel-members P" and P", and thus an undepressed portion of the head-tube, the depressed panel becomes a circuit which and with no such faces or devices separated as a Whole extends around and incloses the from tl e depressed panel. uiulepressed tube zone N. F or convenience,
In the drawing accompanying and formthe panel, considered as a whole, is desiging a part of this specification, Figure l nated by P. The preferred construction of is a side view of a paper-tube shot-shell the panel P is indicated in Figs. 2 and 5,
particularly in Fig. 5, where it is shown made according to my present improvements; Fig. 2 is a longitudinal sectional composed of the depressed central portion 3,
l l a citizen of the United States, residing in 2 Leeann? connected by the two ogee-curves, at 3 and 8" with the undepressed tube wall, at 2 and 2", on either side. When the fibrous paper-tube T is forcibly expanded by the gas pressure, (see Fig. the depressed panel P is embedded into the paper tubewall, at 4, with the result of forming therein a channel as C, Fig. 6, and of reforming and molding the fibers in curvilinear directions, in a manner diagrammatically indicatcd at at, f", doing this wit-h a compressive action tending to control the sliding tendency of the tube T within the 'tube 13, and with a minimum of destructive action. In this class of reloadable shotshells, as I have discovered and experimentally ascertained, the fibrous material of which the paper-tube, T, is made, is adapted for being moderately compressed without injury in relatively narrow zones or areas, and into an interlocking engagement with inwardly-extending or depressed shellwall zones or panels when these have an ogee sectional forum-especially such as indicated in Fig. 5, he fibers being thereby molded or formed on curved lines in a peculiar manner which permits and secures the required yielding action of and within the body of the papertube material, and among the fibers thereof, while obtaining a suitable compressive and gripping interlock action, as between the metal tube and the paper tube for resisting both the longitudinal and the torsional stresses to which these tubes are liable, and to which they are normally subjected, first during the firing of the charge, and later, during the extraction of the shell. In this connection it will be re membered that on the firing of the powder charge, the earlier stages of the increasing gas-pressure operate to forcibly expand the paper tube T against the inner surface of the gun-barrel, (not shown), and thereby reby a firm adhesion any sliding of this siell-tube in the barrel; and that subsequently to such adhesion becoming effective, and when the increase of the gas-pressure comes to nearly its maximum, the metallic head of the shell is driven backwardly through a distance which in practice is permitted by the unavoidable yielding of the component members of the gun-mechanism under such maximum pressure, thereby forcibly drawing the head H rearwardly, and tending to tear the head away from the paper tube. This action, however, being resisted as above indicated, and the usual basewad being compressed into place for holding the rearward end of the paper tube T, firmly engaged with the headmember H,
results in applying an intense stress to all that rearward part is within the tube 13 of said head-member; and this act-ion appears to be especially severe throughout the length of the circumof the paper tube which l t l 1 l therefore, I have devised the ferential zone 97,, as from n to 12?, Fig. 2, within which zone the described gripping and interlocking features are located. It will now be evident how the panel-circuit l, by being embedded in the tube T, forms therein a compressed zone, as C, also in the form of a circuit, and thus divides off and partially separates from the surrounding tube-surface, an inclosed interlock-zone or area, as hi t which is thus brought under a positive yet slightly yielding control by the described compressive action. li ithin that relatively segregated area, N, I locate in the tube 13, a considerable number of variously arranged and separated paperengaging projections,'such for instance as l ),-which project inwardly from the un-' depressed part, N, of the metal tube, and are separated from the panel P, so that these supplemental tube-gripping devices have a direct engagement in and with the chanuel-inclosed full-thickness part. N, Fig. (3, of the paper-tube T. In cross-sectional form these gripping members, D, are preferably formed with relatively sharp or abrupt side surfaces, see Fig. 5,-for readily entering the firm fiber-stock of which the tube '1 should, in practice, be made and, preferably, also those projections I) should be of a greater height inwardly from the tube-wall B, than is the panel P.
The side faces of the said paper-engaging projections D are preferably of an ogee form, but having these of a sharper curvature than the ogee outer and inner side-boundaries at 3 and 3, respectively, of the panel P. Thus the circuit-forn'i panel P of ogee-sectional form is .ipplemented by a plurality of non-circuitform ogee paper-gripping projections located within the circuit of the panel P, bu separated therefrom;
In the composite arrangement as above set forth, the fibers of the paper are in part pressed more firmly together and in part remoldcd or shifted to conform the paper wall to the curved metal surfaces, especially to the double-ogee form of the compressive panel P. In this way I avoid any forcing outwardly of the paper into recesses or grooves as heretofore sometimes attempted, because I find that such forced-out paper projections are not of the desired strength and stability. In the present improvement,
different and more effective compound interlock-construction herein illustrated and described, in which the interlocking engagement lai ly effected by the narrow ogee-members, as i), which project inwardly directly from the head-tube itself, (and not from any non-- alined portion or panel thereof) and which engage with molded surfaces which are lo cated wholly within the cylindrical boundary surfaces of the paper tube. This construction has the advantage of forming a ill continuous and ;unbroken bearing-line, or line of demarcation as between the inclosed interlock-Zone areas of the paper-tube, as N and the surrounding plain cylindrical surfaces, as clearly indicated .in Fig. 6. Thus the group D of said paper-gripping members all actupon an area of the papertube which is alreaty inclosed within a circuit-Zone which is under compression, and consequently the effect of these inclosed members, D, is also restricted within such circuit, so that a relatively large number of those non-circuit form of ogee members may be used, suflicient for securing the necessary aggregate extent of the interlocking action and to prevent undue longitudinal or torsional dislocation, and without thereby materially impairing the strength of the tube T.
The manner above described of combining together or grouping a plurality of the noncircuit-form members within a circuit-form ogee-member,-the forms being arranged or included within the circuit ofthe latter, hasthe further advantage of permitting the Zone P of the metal shell B, to be so proportioned as to be able to successfully resist deformation from being repeatedly subjected from within to the gas-pressures of highpower explosives. The several non-circuit ogee-members, as I), should all be made, in practice, of a narrow width, the inclosed area N of said metal shell being made with the major portion of its exterior surface coincident with the exterior cylindrical surface of the member B, so that the said inclosed area when the cartridge is fired will bear normally and directly against the barrel of the gun. By thus avoiding the use of any non-alined form of panel for carrying the ogee-form of curved paper-engaging faces, the desired aggregate amount of interlocking is readily obtained, and in a manner least destructive to the paper-tube, since the carved metal surfaces act by molding rather than by incising the surface fibers 01' the paper, while the avoidance of sharp angles further provide for the required amount of mobility, with a minimum of wear in the interlock-Zone due to such action or mobility.
In Fig. 5, I have indicated a peculiar feature of the operation or coaction of the inter-engaging faces of the two tubes B and T, during the time when the inner tube is subjected to gas-pressure and is also subjected to strain longitudinally by the rear wardly yielding movement of the outer tube B. The paper-tube T being held in place by the pressure within the forward part thereof, is resistant to rearward movement in the gun-barrel (not shown) as indicated by the arrow (3, while the same pressure drives the metal tube B rearwardly, as indicated by the arrow 7. This action results, of course, in putting the paper-tube T under a longitudinal tension (as also indicated by said arrows 6 and 7), and in forcing the ogee-member P rearwardly against the paper at r where the increased density thereby momentarily created is indicated in Fig. 5 by the darker shading at that point. But a further and peculiar act-ion also takes place at that location, since the concave curve 6 of the ogee-wall 3 new acts to guide or defiect the fibers inwardly toward the convexcurve 6 of such ogee-surfaces, and so reduces the force of the interlock-engagement as between the two tubes, to a point or amount sufficient to prevent any substantial impairment of the stability of the paper tube T at that location therein, and thereby maintaining an effective interlock while avoiding the high ratio of destructive action and consequent rapid deterioration heretofore usual in this general class of shot cartridges.
A further and immediate effect of the foregoing actions is to cause the ogee-walls, as 3, 3 Fig. 5, to bear against and tend to crowd or ride over the opposing bearing faces, as l, 4*; but these latter faces being fibrous and though curved having a surface continuity, the forces thus applied operate to compress the fibers, (as approximately indicated by the shading) in one of said locations, as 4;, while relieving or reducing such pressure on the opposite walls or faces as indicated by the lighter shading at 4 Thus the operations here set forth have the normal effect of causing a sliding tendency of the interlocking zone of the paper-tube with an accompanying modification in the actual locations in the tube-wall of the described areas of high compression and of relatively low conipression. By reason of the continuity of the paper tube-surface, and the ogee form of the opposing interlocking faces, the bended fibers in said pressure areas are nat urally subjected, during the period of the said stresses and sliding action, to a shifting of form and relative positions, these results being facilitated, also, by the qualities of toughness and resiliency of the fiber-stock of which the tube T should be formed.
until the relatively incipient gripping action,-or, more properly, compressive action,resulting from the panel section with its ogee curvature pressed only a moderate depth into the paper, yet sutiicient to firmly engage the paper tube; and with the numerous engaging members located within the described panel-inclosed or intermediate zone, as N, and shaped for more positively gripping into the paper of the tube T, this tube may be said to have a progressive engagement with the head-tube B while under the gas-pressure, first, the direct frictional engagement outside of the circuit of the panel, second, a moderate compressive-engagement in the circuit of the panel, and, third, the more positive additional engagement of the numerous interlock or gripping devices located and distributed within the panel-inclosed zone. The said fibers and pressure areas are thus shifted. in the tube wall T in one direction during the period of increasing gas-pressure, and on the reduction of this pressure, those shifted parts are restored to substantially their original locations by av forward movement of the head ll, while the forward portion of the papertube remains in its original position in lirm adhesion with the bore-surface of the tirearm. That forward movement of the headmember H, will, of course, be substantially the amount ot the preceding rearward moren'ient thereof due to any flexing of this head member plus the amount of the yielding oi the ln'eech-blocl: or other parts of the gun, which thus operate for the moment as an actuator for so restoring the shell members to their original positions, the one relatively to the other, and without any considerable or material injury to the surface-fibers of the paper-tube, so that the reloadable shells may now be used a large number of times before becoming so greatly worn as to be unserviceable.
Having thus described my invention, I claim 1. in a paper-tube shot-shell, the combination with a head having a metal tube eX- tension tor inclosing the paper-tube, of the papertube fixed at one end in the head and extending within and beyond the head-tube, and a compound interlocking construction comprising a continuous circuit-form depressed panel formed in and extending around the head tube less than one circumference thereof, and inclosing an undepressed zone of the head tube located between two circumterentially-disposed panel-portions which are located in different positions lon ;;itudinally of the head-tube, and also comprising a plurality of paper-engaging projections extending inwardly from said inclosed head-tube zone and located in posi tions separated from each other and also separated troln said depressed panel, whereby said projections engage in and interlock with the paper-tube within a zone of the papentubc which is inclosed within a compressed circuit-torm zone which engages with said depressed circuit-form panel of the head-tube, and whereby this panel ha."
two circumterentially-disposed zones of compressive engagement with the papertube located, respectively, at two difierent and separate positions longitudinally of the head-tube, substantially as described.
2. In a paper-tube shot-shell, the combination with a head having a metal tube eX- tension for inclosing one end of the papertube, of the paper-tube fixed in the head and extending within and beyond the head-tube, and a compound interlocking construction comprising a depressed zone-inclosing paper-compressing panel formed in the head tube and inclosing an undepressed zone of the head tube between two circumferentially-disposed panel-portions which are lo cated in ditterent positions longitudinally of the head-tube, and also comprising a pluralit-y of paper-gripping interlocking-projeetions extending inwardly from said inelosed head-tube zone and located in distribut ed positions separate from each other and also separate from said depressed panel, for engaging in an d. positively interlocking with the paper-tube within one zone which is located between two circumfercntiallydisposed zones of compressive engagement located, respectively. at two different and separated positions longitudinally oi? the paper-tube and within the head-tube, substantially as described.
3. In a shot shell, the combination with a paper-tube, of a head having fixed therein one end of the paper tube, and having a tubular extension surrounding the paper tube and having a depressed panel formed in and extending around the said head tube than one circumference thereof, and having an undepressed intermediate zone of the head tube located between two circumterentially disposed panel portions which are located in ditterent positions longitudinally of the head-tube, and also lar ng a plurality of paper-:engagrng pro-- ertions extending inwardly trom said headtube intermediate zone and located in distribut ad positions separated from each other and also separated l'rom said panel, substantially as described.
FRANK (l). llOiiGlntNl).
i i itnesses Enwann ll. ALLEN,
lituuacs E. CARROLL.
Copies of this patent may be obtained for five cents each, by addressing the Commissioner of latents,
Washington, D. C.
US75877113A 1913-04-04 1913-04-04 Paper-tube shot-shell. Expired - Lifetime US1064907A (en)

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US10704878B2 (en) 2010-11-10 2020-07-07 True Velocity Ip Holdings, Llc One piece polymer ammunition cartridge having a primer insert and method of making the same
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US10704878B2 (en) 2010-11-10 2020-07-07 True Velocity Ip Holdings, Llc One piece polymer ammunition cartridge having a primer insert and method of making the same
US10859352B2 (en) 2010-11-10 2020-12-08 True Velocity Ip Holdings, Llc Polymer ammunition having a primer insert with a primer pocket groove
US10302404B2 (en) * 2016-03-09 2019-05-28 True Vilocity IP Holdings, LLC Method of making polymer ammunition cartridge having a two-piece primer insert
US10415943B2 (en) 2016-03-09 2019-09-17 True Velocity Ip Holdings, Llc Polymer ammunition cartridge having a three-piece primer insert
US10302403B2 (en) * 2016-03-09 2019-05-28 True Velocity Ip Holdings, Llc Method of making polymer ammunition cartridge having a two-piece primer insert
US10852108B2 (en) 2017-11-09 2020-12-01 True Velocity Ip Holdings, Llc Multi-piece polymer ammunition cartridge
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