US1054760A - Pneumatic action for musical instruments. - Google Patents

Pneumatic action for musical instruments. Download PDF

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US1054760A
US1054760A US20587704A US1904205877A US1054760A US 1054760 A US1054760 A US 1054760A US 20587704 A US20587704 A US 20587704A US 1904205877 A US1904205877 A US 1904205877A US 1054760 A US1054760 A US 1054760A
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air
key
valve
keys
pneumatic
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Rufus B Fowler
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Rufus B Fowler
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10FAUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
    • G10F1/00Automatic musical instruments
    • G10F1/02Pianofortes with keyboard

Description

R. B. FOWLER. PNEUMATIC ACTION FOB. MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. APPLICATION FILED MAY 2, 1904.
Patented Mar. 4, 1913.
SSHEETS-SHEET L men 01 R. B. FOWLER.
PNEUMATIC AGTIODLPOB. MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.
APPLICATION FILED MAY 2, 1904.
Patented Mar. 4, 1913.
, 5 SHEBTS-BHEET 2.
ITIUETI CC R. B. FOWLER. PNEUMATIC ACTION FOR MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.
APPLICATI ON FILED MAY 2,1904. V Patented Mar. 4, 191d.
5 BEEBTBBHEET 3.
R. B. FOWLER PNEUMATIC ACTION FOR MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.
APPLIOATION FILED MAY 2, 1904.
1,054,766 ?atented Mar.4,1913.
5 SHEETS-SHEET 4.
L'Uhllllll!IIUUUIJKIUNIILIWLIBUUUUUUUDUUUUUUIJUUUUUUUUUUUU UUUUUIIBUUUUUUUUU /Utne sses R. B. FOWLER.
PNEUMATIC ACTION FOR MUSIGAL INSTRUMENTS.
APPLICATION rum) MAY 2, 1904.
Patented ar. 4, 1913 5 SHEETS-SHEET 5.
. 26d G H Fig/11;
W nes ses Inwen 01" #301 D TOP 1%.
i much of a pneumatic action for musical ini resented by broken lines.
' a top view of, the accenting keys and per- .to valve RUFUS 'IB. FOWLER, 0F WORCES TED STATES PA TENT: OFFICE.
TER, MASSACHUSETTS.
PNEUMATIC ACTION FOR MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Mar. 4, 1 91' 3.
Application filedMay 2, 1904. Serial No. 205,877.
To all whom it may concern I Be it known that I, RI'FLS B Fownsn, a citizen of the United States, residing at Viorcesten in the county of Worcester and Commonwealth of Massachusetts, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Pneumatic Actions for Musical Instruments, of which the following is a, specification, accompanied by drawings forming a part of the same, in which- Figure 1 represents an end view of so struments as .is necessary to illustrate the character and mode of operation of my present invention with the inclosing case shown in sectional View. Fig. 2 is a front view. Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view through that portion" of the action comprising the valve and motor pneumatics. Fig. 4 is a top view of a detached portion of the action showing the sliding valves for controlling air passages leading to the bellows. Fig. a sectional view on line Fig. 4, showing a front view of an air passage with the position of the closing valve rep- Fig. 6 is a sectional view of the ventchambers. Fig. 7 is forated music sheet. Fig. 8 is a view of the upper ends of the key controlled pipes. Fig. 9 isa top view ofa portion of the accenting keys and rocking lever actuated thereby for varying thefforce of an ac cented'note. Fig. 10 is a side view of the suction bellows and connected wind chests, shown in sectional view, and Fig. 11 is a view of the rear end of one of the accenting keys with valves attached thereto.
Similar reference letters and figures refer to simiiar parts in the different views. My present invention relates to a pneumatic mechanism employing a perforated music sheet for actuating' a series of key strikers for depressing ,thekeys of ajmusical instrument. such for example as a piano, and the object of my inventionis to enable the operator to control at will the force applied to any individual key striker for the purpose of acce-nting any one or'more of the tones produced.
In the embodiment of my inyention I employ a perforated moving music sheet for opening and closing the ducts of a tracker musical instruments board, by which air is periodically admitted actuating pneumatics for the purpose of controlling air passages between a 1 vacuum chamber and motor pneumatics winch are operatlvely connected with the key strikers as The object of my present invention is to provide means by which' any one of the tones sounded by the piano may be increased in force or accented and I accomplish this result by providing an auxiliary vacuum chamber having a greater air exhaustion than the main vacuum chamber, and connected by a valve controlled air passage with each of the motor pneumatics, and providing means comprising a series of keys or is common in that class of known as piano players.
manuals for cont-rolling said air passages at thewill of the operator.
By the mechanism hereinafter described thrt motor pneumatics are individually connected with a main vacuum chamber by'the movement of the perforated music sheet over the tracker strikers to be individually operated with a force (letermined'by the alr'exhaustion in" the mam vacuum chamber as in piano players now in use, but by the use of'a series of keys .or manuals corresponding to the key strikers, I enable the performer to connect atwvill anyone of the motor pneumatics with an auxiliary vacuum chamber, a greaterair Jexhaustion than the main vacuum chamber, so that the force of the board, causingthe key having key striker actuated by said motor pneumatic will be increased and the tone sounded thereby accented.
In order to facilitate the accenting of desired tones I arrange a series of keys or manuals in the-instrument corresponding to keys of the piano which are acted upon by the key strikers, and I place upon or contiguous to each of the natural or white keys.
a letter to indicate the note corresponding to the tone of the piano in each of the octaves, and I print upon the music sheet contiguous to the perforations of those notes which are to be accented, a letter indicating the ecu-responding tones of the piano, thereby enabling the operator without any knowledge of music to correct-1y accent any of the marked notes by depressing the key in any particular octave marked with a letter corresponding to that upon the music sheet. v
In carrying out my invention I do not wish to confine myself strictly to the minor details of construction as hereinafter set forth, but I believe it to be broadly new in 'my invention, 2 and 3 denote music rolls .from which a perforated music sheet 4 1s unwound from roll 2 and wound uponroll'3 during the operation of the mechanism, roll 3 being rotated by a motor, not shown. which may be of any known form of construction now employed in pneumatic ac tions of this class. 5 denotes a tracker board containing a series of ducts 6 which are closed by the music sheet and are opened to the admission of air during the passage of the perforations over the ducts 6. Communicating with each of the ducts 6 are pipes 7 leading to a series of valve pneumatics 8 by which valve controlled passages are opened and closed connecting motor pneumatics 9 alternately with a vacuum chamber and with the outer air. The motor pneumatics 9 are operatively connected with levers 10 piv-- oted' atone end to brackets 11 and having their free ends connected by links 12 with pivoted key strikers 13 which extend over eys14, 14 of a piano and are arranged tot depress the piano keys by the action of the. motor pneumatics 9 as the latter are controlled by the action of the valve pneumatics 8, said valvepneumatics 8 being in turn controlled by the opening and closing of the openings 6 in the tracker board by the perforated music sheet 4. By the operation of the valve pneumatics 8 when air is admitted to the openings 6, the interior of the motor pneumatics 9 is closed to the outside air, and connected with vacuum chambers 15 from which air has been exl'ia'usted by any suitable means, such for example as a foot bellows, causing the motor pneumatics to be collapsed by the atmospheric pressure upon the outside, thereby actuating the key strikers 13 to depress the piano keys 11 with a force proportioned to the amount of air ex haustion from the vacuum chambers 15, and thereby causing av tone to bc souuded'pianis simo or fortissimo or with any intermediate force. The construction and arrangement of key strikers 13 motor pneumatics 9, valve pneumatics 8, tracker board 5. and perforated music sheet -lare substantially the same as the comparable parts inpiano players now in use. i
The object of my present invention is to enable any one of the tones soinded upon the piano to be accented at the will of the performer and independently of the air exacted upon by a spring 23 to depress the end of the key and normally hold the valve 20 in contact with the open end 19 of the air ipe 18 leading to the valve pneumatics 17.
Eor convenience in construction the vacuum chambers 15 and 16 are arranged one above the other in a vertical plane with their ed es in cont-act thereby forming a support or each other and above the vacuum chambers 15 and 16 are placed two vent chambers 19 and 20" The-ventchamber 19 and vacuum chambers 15 are connected to and communicats with a vertical pipe 15 leading to an air chest.15" and the vent chamber 20" and vacuum chambers 16 are connected to and communicate with, avertical pipe 16 leading to an air chest 16". i
he air chest-s 15 and 16" communicate with the opposite ends of a common air chest 25 from which air is exhausted by a bellows 26, and operated by a foot pedal 26 in the usual manner in instruments of this class. The air exhaustion in the vent chanfr bcr 19 and vacuum chambers 15 will be uniform as they all communicate with a common pipe 15", and the air exhaustion in the vent chamber 20 and vacuum chambers 16 will also be uniform as they communicate with a common air pipe 16. The pipes 7 leading from the tracker board to the primary pneumatics 8 will pass throu h the vent chamber 19 and are provide with vent holes 27. Fig; 6, to allow air to be'exhausted from the pipe 7 when the ducts of the tracker board are closed; The pipes 18 leading to the auxiliary valve pneumatics 1T likewise pass through the vent chamber 20 and are provided with vent holes 28 to allow the pipes 18 to beexhausfted when their open ends 19 are closed by the key valves 20. An
opening 29 between the air chest-s 15 and 25. Fig. 4, is controlled by a sliding valve 30 having a valve' stem 31 connected 'with one end of a lever, 82 pivoted at 33,-and having its opposite end connected by a link 3t with a vertical lever 35, arranged to be operated by the performer to'control the size of the opening 29 and regulate the movement of air from the'air chest 15 into the air chest 25, and thereby controlithe air exhaustion in .the vacuum chambers 15 and vent chamber 19. The air chest 16 communicates with the air chest 25 through an opening 86 whose 55 .n'iotor pncimiatic.
Size is determined by a sliding valve 37 having a ,valve stem 38 connected to one endof a lever 39 pivoted at 40 and connected at its opposite end with a vertical lever 41 arranged tobe operated by the performer and thereby control the air pressure in the vacuum chambers 1t; and ventclmittber 20. The openings v 29 and 36 are normally closed by the valves 30 and. 37. which are 'held in their closed positions by springs 42 and 43- and the communication between the air chests 16 'means of an opening 4t having a sliding valved?) connected by a link 46 with the hinged leaf of a regulating bellows 47. The bellows 47 is normally held open by a spring 48 attached to the case of the machine. Air
is exhausted by the foot bellows :26 from the air chest 25 and also through the opening 44 from the air chest 16", pipe 16. vacuum- 1 chambers 16 and vent chamber-19. until the air exhaustion in the air chest. is sutl'icient to allow atmospheric pressure upon the regulating bellows 47 to counteract the 25 tension of the spring 48 and close the openinglet, by the sliding valve 45. The amount of air exhaustion therefore fromthe vacuum chambers 16 and vent chamber 19 will be determined by the tension of the spring 48. The air chest 15 is likewise provided with ,a similar valvecontrolled opening 49. regulating bellows 50 and spring 51 having a suitable tension to give'the desired air e.\'- haustion in the air chest 15 amt conse- 'quently in the vacuum chambers 15 amt vent chamberitl I make the tension'ot' the spring 48 greater than the tension of the spring sothat the air exhaustion in the vacuum chambers 16 and vent chamber will be greater than the air exhaustion from the vacuum chambers 15 and vent. chamber, 19. If any one of the motor pneumatics 9 be'connect'cd with a vacuum chamber'16 instead of a vacuum chamber 15. the
air exhaustion produced within the motor pneumatic will correspond with the air exhaustion 'from the vacuum chamber lti and the force exerted by the motor pneumatic through thelever 10. link 12. amt key striker 13 will be correspomlingly increased over the force excited when said motor pneumatic is connected with a vacuum chamber 15, thereby accenting t'lietone produced by the particular key striker actuated by said The method of connecting at will a motor pneumatic with either a 'acuum chamber to or a vacuum chamber 15 is illustrated in the sectional iew shown in Fig, 3. Themotor.pneumatic E) 60 consists of a cup sha' 'it-d shell 52 having a flexiblediapl'u'agm 5!, on which is supported al'ollowcr 5i conucctcd bv a link 53 'with the pivoted hncr it). The ililcl'iol rihanibcr 56 of thc motor pneumatic com- 65 inuni ates with an air spa e 57 in a horiand-25 is accomplished by thcreby sliding the zontal tube 58 from which the shell 52 is supported. The air space 57 communicates with the outside air through an opening arranged to be closed by a valve 60 carried on a valve stem 61, but normally held open by a spiral spring 62 so as to admit air to the chamber 56 of the motor pneumatic. The air space 57 is also connected with an air space (53 by means of an opening (it which is normally closed 1) a valve 65 carried on the valve stem 61. The air space 63 is also connected with an air space 66 through an opening 67 arranged to be opened and closed by a check valve 68 capable of sliding on the valve stem (31. but having its movement. limited by the spurs (58. The air space 66 communicates with the vacuum chamber 15' through openings (59 and is separated by a flexible diaphragm 70 from an air chamber 71. which is connected by .1 pipe 7 with one of the openings 6 in the tracker board. Pressing against the diaphragm 71) by the tension of the spiral spring 62 is a follower 72 in which is mounted the valve stem il. The air space 63 communicates by an air passage 73 with an air space 74 which communicates by an opening 75 with an air space 76 communicating by an opening 77 with a' vacuum chamber 16. The air space To is separated by a flexible diaphragm 78 from an air space it) which communicates with a pipe 18. the opposite end of which is normally closed by a valve 20 attached toa pivoted key 21. The opening 75 between the air spaces H amt To is normally closed by a alve 8O attached to. a valve stem 81 aml normally held against its valve seat by a spiral spring82. The valve stem 81 is mounted in a follower 83 which is held against the flexible diaphragm T8 by the tension of the spring 82;
The operation of the valve mechanism shown in Fig. 3 is as follows hcnever a perforation in the musicsheet passes over an opening in the tracker board, air is admitted through the pipe 7 to an air space 71 upon one side of the flexible diaphragm 70 and as a partial vacuum exists in the air space no on the opposite side oft-he flexible diaphragm 7o owing to its communication with the vacuum chamber 15, from which air has been exhausted by the bellows 26, the flexible diaphragm is moved to the right. valve stem (31 against tle tension oi the spiral spring (32, until the valve (it) has clcsed the opening 59, thereby cutting otl thc connnunication between the chamber 5b of the motor-pncumatic and the outside air. -Simultaneously with the closing of the valve (it), thc valvc U5 is opened,
making a direct connnnnication between the chamber 5b oijthe motor pm-umatic and the vacuum chamber 15. into which air rushes from the motor pneumatic 9, allowing the diaphragm 53 to be raised by the atmosios - pushed to the right, 20 81 against the tension of the spiral spring l place upon the (I. r, j, and o, to denote the corresponding 5 determined by the amount of air exhaustion fr: the vacuum chamber 15. If it is desired to accent a note sounded by the piano key when struck by the key striker 13, one,
or" the keys 21, cor-res endingv to the piano key to be struck, is epressed by former, thereby lifting one of the valves and opening one of the pipes 18 through which air rushes to the air space 79 upon one side of the lexible diaphragm 78, and as the airin the space 76 is partially exhausted by its communication through the opening 77 with the vacuum-chamber 16, the flexible diaphragm 78 will be at once sliding the valve stem 82, and thereby opening a communication between the vacuum chamber 16 and the air space (33, and as the air exhaustion in the vacuum chamber 16 is greater -evhaustion in the vacuum chamber 15, the sliding check valve (38 will be moved on the valve stem (31 toward,the right,- thereby closing the opening 67 and preventing an inrush or air into the air space 63 from the air 0 space illl,-'\l'lllll would tend to equalize the air pressure in the two vacuum chambers l5 and 16. The connnunicution is thus es tablished between the air space 63 and the vacuum chamber to by the depression of the key il just before the perforation in the paper corresponding to the tone to be sounded reaches a duct of the tracker board. When the perforation in the music sheet reaches the tracker board. air is admitted through the pipe I to the air space 71, therebv sliding vthe valve stem bl to close the viilvc b0 and open the valve when the air from the chamber as of the motor pneumatic will rush through the opening lid upward through the air passage 73 and into the vacuum chamber l thereby causing the key striker 1 3 to be actuated with a force corresponding to the air exhaustion in the vacuuni chamber ll). it the keys are narrower than the keys of the piano, the open ends it) oi the pipes i will slightly converge as shown in Fig. 8. In order to enable the proper keys it to be depressed by a perforun-r unarrpiuintcd with the music played, keys Bl the letters (1,?2, 0,
notes of each octave as shown in Fig. 7, and at the l)0 llllllli10i each perforation required to be accented l place a corresponding letter upon the lllJSlJ sheet- -l as shown in Fig.
r. The lower letter 1' on said music sheet indicating that the key marked a of the middle octave is to be depressed as the perforation 54 i approaches one of the openings 6 in the tracker board. The next note at the rightthe per than the air marked (Z sharp indicates that the corresponding key in the middle octave is to be depressed as the perforation 85 approaches the opening 6 in the tracker board; In like manner the toys of g sharp and a sharp of the middle octave are to be depressed as the perforat ons 86 and 87 approach the tracker board", nd as the perforation 88 approaches the tracker board the key of 0 in the first octave above the middle is to be. depressed. If none of the keys are depressed during the movement of the perforated sheet over the tracker board, the key strikers will be actuated in the same manner as in pneumatic musical instruments of this class now in common use, and the p1'oper key-strikers will be selected by the perforatidns of the music sheet as it is moved over the tracker board, while the forceimparted to each striker can be controlled by the manipulation of the lever and valve 30, by which the communication between the air chests l5" and 25 can be varied by the performer independently of the regulating bellows 50; but whenever an additional force is required to be given any individual key striker'in order to accent a tone, one of the keys 21 is depressed by the performer before the correspruiding pcrloration in the music sheet reaches the tracker board, and any desired variation in the amount of accent or extra force in'iparted t0 the key striker may be controlled by the performer through the lever 41 and valve 37, thercby varying the communication between the air chests 16*- and independently of the regulating bellows l7. I
interposed between the wind chests 15 and 1G and the wind chest are openings 38 and 85h closed at will by sliding valves 90 and 91 having their valve stems connected with hand levers, not shown, in order to allow the openings 88 and S9 to be closed; and entirely shut, oil all commupication between toe vacuum tlltll-l lbtl'S l5 and 16" and the foot bellows, which is required during the rentiruliugot the music sheet upon the roll llcucuth the keys 21 is a bar 99, which 1 term a universal bar, attached at each end to the bent arms 93, which are pivoted at one end at l -l and connected at their free ends by links 95 and bell cranks 9G with the horizontally sliding bar 97. The bar 97 is provided with a spur 98 arranged to contact with the lever 39, Fig. l. The bar 92 is arranged to be depressed when any one of the keys 21 depressed, thereby sliding the bar 97 toward the left as shown in Fig. 2 and rocking the lever 39 to withdraw the valve 37. and increase the opening 56, there: by allowing the air to flow more freely from the wind chest 16'' into the Wind chest and increasing the air exhaustion from the vacuum chambers 16 and vent chamber wiiair exhaustion', by
- 3-; key strikers.
with aconsequent increase in the force 1 of the key-st'ri 21 r-whi'ch has been -depressed. "I am' aware that it has been proposed to accentroiie or more of by the action of the keystrikers by the em ployment ot a motor pneumatic, which may beconnected at will with either one'of two .va cuuin:ehainbers havingditi'ering states of means of valve controlled ,;--ou t -regardto the position of the mark on r1 thesheet. 3 I
v.1: IVhile I :contemplate the employment of ;,;as many. keys-or manuals as there are key .strikers .so that the force ot'each key striker in ay be controlled by its own corresponding 1 v,,I"do not wish to confine myself to such nllSegtIS a lesser number may be employed if 5. desired; Neither; do I wish to confine my- I to the.u s e=of-asingle key-for each of the .vfisclosing the ends of the air pipes 18, ;;36 ,3S, It .Wll l, be obvious that two or'more of i valves can be-attaehed to one key as nsh owniiin Fig. 11, where three of the valves 2Q are attached to a. single key 21. In the same iiiannerthe valves including an entire 40 octave canbei ttached to and raised by a single key. i-\lthough it has been proposed .to employ two vacuum chambers of differing air exhaustion, and to connect the motor to either by valve controlled passages,
no means have been employed, so far as I am aware, to maintain a uniform air exhaustion on opposite sides of the valve operating diaphragms, while said diaphragins were notin action. I accomplish this by maintaining two separate vent chambers in which the air exhaustion is the same as the air exhaustion in the corresponding vacuum chambers. and by placing a check valve (38 between the vacuumchambers 15 and 16,
thereby preventing the equalizing of the air pressures in the two vacuum chambers, and
causing the. pipes 7 and 18 to vent into said vent chambers having the same air exhaustion as the vacuum chambers 15 and 16. so
5 that the air pressure upon the opposite sides of the valve operating diaphragms. when the pipes T and 18 are closed. will always be the same.
Although I have shown and described a pneumatic inechanism in which a motor er corresponding to the key the tones produced l mechanisms and means for pneumatic for actuating a key striker is connected at willwith either one of two vacuum chambers having differing degrees of air exhaustion. I do not confine myself to this construction and I do not claim such an arrangement as new.
My present invention relates particularly to the employment of keys or manuals arranged to be depressed at will by the per former, whereby corresponding key strikers are actuated with an increased force, and I have illustrated this feature which, so far as .I am aware is broadly new, in connection ving differing a convenient of individual with two vacuum chambersha degrees of air exhaustion as means of illustrating the use keys or manuals corresponding with the key strikers for the purpose named.
I have shown my invention as applied to a pneumatic mechanism adapted to operate upon the keys of a musical instrument by means of motor pneumatics through the medium of pivoted levers or key strikers, but the employment of a series of keys or manuals corresponding with the series of motor pneumatics. whereby each individual tone may be plicable to a pneumatic the motor pneumatics mechanism in which ed with the note producing mechanism of.-
tlie instrument to be interior player.
\Vhat I claim as my invention and to secureby Letters Patentis 1. In a musical keyboard instrument. the combination with a series oftone producing actuating said tone producing mechanisms. "of means for varying the force of said actuating mechaplayed. as in a so called desire -nisms with reference to each of said tone tively connected with producing mechanisms individually and in-.
instrument operasaid force varying means.
2. In a musical keyboard instrument, a series of tone producing mechanisms, an actuating mechanism for each of said tone producing mechanisms. means for separately varying the actuating force of each of said tone producing mechanisms. a series of keys or manuals corresponding with said tone producing mechanismsindividually connected with said separate force varying means.
3. The combination witha series of motor pneumatics corresponding with the tones to be produced and means for actuating each of said motor pneumatics independently with ditt'crcnt degrees of force. of a series of keys or manuals corresponding to the keys of a keyboard instrument for indi vidually mntrolling'thc degree of force applied to each actuating means.
accented at will. is equally apare directly connect with the keys of a keyboard instrument.
a single tone producing mechanism, means for applying difi'erent degrees of force to each automatic mechanism, means for determining the degree of force to be applied to said automatic mechanism, and a separate key or manual arranged to operate each force determinin means, said keys or manuals arrange in series to correspond 6. The combination with a series of tone producing mechanisms, each arranged to produce a single tone, separate means for actuating each of said tone producing mechanisms with different degrees of force independently of the other tone producing mechanisms, and means for connecting each of said tone producing mechanisms with its separate actuating mechanisms, comprising a series of keys or manuals corresponding with the keys or manuals of the instrument. I
7. The combination ina keyboard musical instrument, with a series of automatic mechanisms each arranged to produce a single tone, means for actuating each of said tone producin mechanisms with different degrees of orce, and a separate key or manual operatively connected with each of said actuatin means, with said keys or manuals arrange to correspond with the keys or manuals of the instrument. I
8. The combination with a series of tone producing mechanisms, of individual automat-ic mechanisms for actuating each of said tone producing mechanisms, with different degrees of force, means for connecting said tone producing mechanisms with each of said actuating mechanisms at will, comprising a key or manual corresponding to each of said tone producing mechanisms.
'9. In a musical keyboard instrument, the combination with a series of pneumatic mechanisms, each adapted to produce a single tone, of a series of separate vacuum chambers having different de rees of vacuum arranged in pairs, means or connecting each of said pneumatic mechanisms alternately with veither vacuum chamber in said pairs of vacuunrchambers at will, comprising a key or manual corresponding to the in ividual tone producing mechanism.
10. In a musical instrument, the combination of a tone producing mechanism, comprising a motor pneumatic, a main vacuum chamber, an auxiliary vacuum chamber, valve controlled passages connecting said motor pneumatic with each of said vacuum chambers, a kev'or manual for controlling the connection bet-ween said motor pneumatic and said auxiliary vacuum chamber by the depression of the free end of said key, and means for restoring said key to its normal position.
11. In a musical instrument of the class described, the combination with a series of tone producing mechanisms, and means for actuating said tone producing mechanisms, of a series of keys or manuals corresponding with said tone producing mechanisms connected with said actuating mechanisms and arranged to be depressed by the performer, whereby the force applied to said tone producing mechanisms is varied.
RUFUS B. FOWLER.
\Vitnesses:
HENRY WOOD Fownaa, PENELOPE ConnnnnAcH.
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