Invention of hydraulics and hydraulics of bucket (free-jet) type, in which the supply and control of the flow rate is carried out with the aid of the axle and moving along the axis. Known designs are direct-free apparatus of free-flow hydraulic machines, which are a nozzle, comprising a housing with a nozzle, a capsule and a movable locking needle, mounted on the Sh1bk, the movement of which takes place with a piston drive. The rod is usually placed in the capsule inside the ramjet nozzle. At any opening of the guide apparatus, a considerable axial force acts on the needle, to overcome which a servo-driven servo drive is required. In the existing designs of nozzle guiding devices, three types of needle unloading are used to reduce the servo-drive force required; spring, hydraulic, using special discharge pistons and spring combined with hydraulic ones. In the well-known nozzle structures with hydraulic unloading on the needle rod, an additional piston is installed, which throughout the nozzle's operation is under constant pressure supplied by AND; 8 of the in-line pipeline, while the needle is affected by a variable pressure dependent element. in the flow part and the needle size is determined by the needle. Therefore, such discharge allows it to reduce the maximum servo force by about half. However, the servo drive in the areas from the upper needle position to the Fully closed position must overcome the unloading force due to the fact that in this area the hydraulic force is applied to the needle acting on the flow side. The spring unloading of the mocket ensures the balancing of the axial forces acting on the needle, however, the installation of several successively clearing springs is hampered for this, which increases the axial dimensions of the capsule and the nozzle in the whole. The combination of hydraulic and spring unloading complicates the design of the nozzle and impairs its energy performance. The purpose of the invention is to increase the energy qualities and reliable nozzles (the latter is especially important in designs with a servo drive, located in a capsule inside a flow nozzle, in which access to the servo drive is difficult), as well as a decrease in the metal intensity of the collector. For this, in the proposed device, the unloading cavity of the needle is connected to the flow part of the nozzle, as a result of which the forces acting on the needle from the needle and from the inside, in any position of the needle are balanced and allow the servo drive of the needle to be almost completely unloaded mini mumu determined by the value of friction forces with the moving elements of the nozzle. The nozzle is provided with a valve for relieving pressure from the internal cavity of the needle to displace the latter from the fully closed position. The drawing shows the heat guide apparatus. The nozzle contains nozzles I with seed 2, housing 5, inside of which capsule 5 with a streamlined lid is rigidly fixed with ribs 4 using ribs 4 b. Inside the capsule, the displacement is moved to the needle 7, inside which it is carried out to the discharge cavity A, which is connected by means of the relief openings with the flow part b of the nozzle. The cylindrical surface of the needle vn loops in the capsule with the seal 9. The needle is driven from the oil servo 10, the piston of which is connected to the needle through the stem II, guided in the sleeves 12. G6jpoc from the inside of the needle is removed from the full cover position by means of a pressure gauge 14 and a relief valve 15. The extrusion operates the next time. In the closed position, the needle 7 of the adjusting device is pressed against the seat 2 by the pressure of the working medium, which steps into the unloading cavity of the NEEDLE through the discharge openings b. In this case, the pressure in servo ID de ff. To displace the needle from the fully closed pressure, the pressure from cavity A is discharged through valve 15 through channel 14. At the same time, the hydraulic forces acting on the needle are directed to the open side, which provides the minimum required force of the servo-water 10 to move the needle 7 Discharge valve 15 the pressure from the outside of the needle on the side of the flow (cavity B) and inside it (cavity A) is balanced with through the discharge openings 8, and the hydraulic force transferred from the needle 7 with the servo GO is minimized. Similarly, equilibrium occurs (hanging the pressure of the working medium on the needle (with valve 15 closed) in the fully open position, as well as in any partial opening of the guide. Closing and opening of the guide from the intermediate position, and closing from the fully open needle position It is produced by means of a servo-drive 10 with a needle unloaded from hydraulic forces, and the servo drive's required force is determined mainly by the frictional force in the moving elements of the nozzle. a turbine containing a needle with a stem and a servo drive placed in a housing with a cassette, in the body of which a discharge cavity is made, which, in order to increase the reliability of the nozzle operation, reduce the size of the needle connected to the flow part of the nozzle and provided with a drainage channel with a relief valve.
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