RU2664792C1 - Multi-beam combined non-axisymmetric mirror antenna - Google Patents

Multi-beam combined non-axisymmetric mirror antenna Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2664792C1
RU2664792C1 RU2017140174A RU2017140174A RU2664792C1 RU 2664792 C1 RU2664792 C1 RU 2664792C1 RU 2017140174 A RU2017140174 A RU 2017140174A RU 2017140174 A RU2017140174 A RU 2017140174A RU 2664792 C1 RU2664792 C1 RU 2664792C1
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Russia
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reflector
radio
axisymmetric
antenna
non
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RU2017140174A
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Russian (ru)
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Михаил Анатольевич Сомов
Константин Михайлович Волгаткин
Анатолий Михайлович Сомов
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Федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие Ордена Трудового Красного Знамени научно-исследовательский институт радио
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q5/00Arrangements for simultaneous operation of antennas on two or more different wavebands, e.g. dual-band or multi-band arrangements

Abstract

FIELD: antenna equipment.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to radio engineering, to the field of antenna technology in the SHF-EHF band and is intended for use in the radio communication systems, radio bearing, radio observing and radio monitoring, for use as part of radio engineering complexes of communication satellites operating in the artificial earth satellites AES at the geostationary earth orbit. Method for creating a multi-beam combined non-axisymmetric mirror antenna consisting of the main mirror (reflector) having the shape of a non-axisymmetric paraboloid cut-out, and of the auxiliary mirror (counter reflector) in the shape of a non-axisymmetric cut-out from the coaxial ellipsoid concave towards the reflector and irradiators that are inclined to the focal axis in the plane, which is orthogonal to this axis, passing through the focus of the counter-reflector, which is made close to the reflector. It contains an additional irradiator in the plane orthogonal to the focal axis and passing through the focus of the counter-reflector, which is made remote from the reflector.EFFECT: invention can be used in order to transmit and receive television, radio broadcasting and radio communications in the VHF, UHF and SHF bands.1 cl, 2 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the field of radio engineering and is intended for use as terrestrial antennas of satellite communication systems with microwave transmitters in a geostationary orbit for simultaneous operation with several satellites.

The invention is intended for use as part of radio engineering complexes using communication satellites located in a geostationary orbit, and can be used to transmit and receive television, broadcasting and radio communications in the VHF, UHF and microwave ranges.

Features of the organization of intercontinental communication through a satellite in a geostationary orbit consist in the arrangement of satellite relay clusters over the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans with an interval of several degrees. Each of these satellites operates in the frequency bands C, Ku and Ka. At the same time, it is advisable to use the same terrestrial antenna for simultaneously receiving and transmitting information from a satellite satellite cluster in several frequency ranges. Such an antenna is called multipath.

A multi-beam combined non-axisymmetric high-efficiency mirrored antenna is proposed.

The antenna consists of a main mirror (reflector), which is in the form of an axisymmetric notch from a paraboloid, and an auxiliary counterreflector mirror in the form of a non-axisymmetric notch from a coaxial ellipsoid, concave towards the reflector and irradiators tilted to the focal axis, placed in a plane orthogonal to this axis passing through the focus of the counter-reflector, close to the reflector, while in the plane orthogonal to the focal axis and passing through the focus of the counter-reflector, remote from the reflector, an additional irradiator.

Known two-axis axisymmetric antennas with a reflector in the form of a paraboloid, a counterreflector in the form of a part of a coaxial ellipsoid, one of the foci of which coincides with the focus of the paraboloid, and the second is the irradiator (Gregory scheme) [1]. The disadvantages of such an antenna are the formation of a single radiation pattern, and with the simultaneous reception of two frequency ranges, the need to use a frequency separation device [6], which causes additional losses and reduces the efficiency of the antenna.

Known multi-beam two-mirror antennas, consisting of a reflector in the form of a paraboloid, a counterreflector in the form of an ellipsoid and a system of irradiators located near the focus of the ellipsoid, close to the reflector. These antennas allow you to create a fan radiation pattern (DD) for simultaneous radio communication with several satellites in a geostationary orbit (GSO) in one of the operating frequency ranges or simultaneously multiple ranges using a frequency separation device. The disadvantages of such an antenna include a reduced utilization factor of the aperture area of the reflector due to its shadowing by the counter-reflector and the need to use a frequency separation device for simultaneous reception of several ranges on one irradiator. Also known are multi-beam hybrid mirror antennas [6], consisting of a main mirror (reflector) having the form of an axisymmetric cut from a paraboloid and an array of irradiators tilted to the focal axis, placed in a plane orthogonal to this axis passing through the focus of the reflector.

The technical result of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the antenna while maintaining fan radiation patterns in two or more frequency ranges.

For this, a multi-beam combined non-axisymmetric mirror antenna is proposed, consisting of a main mirror (reflector) having the shape of a non-axisymmetric cut from a paraboloid, and an auxiliary mirror (counter-reflector) in the form of a non-axisymmetric cut from a coaxial ellipsoid, concave towards the reflector and irradiators, inclined axis, placed in a plane orthogonal to this axis passing through the focus of the counterreflector close to the reflector, while in a plane orthogonal to the focal axis, p passing through the focus of the counterreflector, remote from the reflector, an additional irradiator is installed.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 - multi-beam combined non-axisymmetric mirror antenna, side view;

FIG. 2 - multi-beam combined non-axisymmetric mirror antenna, view from the side of the reflector;

- reflector - 1;

- counterreflector - 2;

- irradiator - 3;

- additional irradiator - 4, additional irradiators - one or more;

- beam direction of the partial radiation pattern - 5;

- GSO segments connecting the standing points of the satellite - 6.

- the focal axis is 7.

The number of antenna feeds is one or more.

The number of additional emitters of the antenna and the like is one or more.

A multi-beam, non-axisymmetric combined reflector antenna according to Gregory’s scheme with a reflector 1 in the form of a cut from a paraboloid of revolution and a counter-reflector 2 in the form of a cut from a rotation ellipsoid (Fig. 1) contains an irradiator 3 and the like in the first focus of the ellipsoid closest to the top of the reflector 1 by the number partial radiation patterns of the first frequency range. Irradiators 3 are located on a line consisting of segments of GSO connecting the standing points of the satellite 6, corresponding to the directions of the partial diagrams from the multi-beam antenna to the standing points of the satellite of the geostationary orbit of the first frequency range.

Irradiators 3 and the like due to the displacement, the orthogonal focal axis and the linear phase distributions of the field associated with this displacement, form a fan of partial radiation patterns in the antenna aperture according to the number of satellites served by the first frequency range.

The cross-section of the reflector 1 (Fig. 1) is the non-axisymmetric part of the rotation paraboloid with the focal axis 7, and the cross-section of the counter-reflector 2 is the non-axisymmetric part of the surface of the ellipsoid coaxial to it, one of the foci of which coincides with the focus location of the reflector paraboloid 1. In the region of the common focus of the reflector and the reflector in the plane orthogonal to the focal axis of the paraboloid at points for the angle of deviation of the partial diagrams given by the GSO form, there is an additional feed 4 (Fig. 2) according to the number of additional pairs special radiation patterns (rays) of other frequency ranges. Irradiators are located on a line consisting of segments of GSO connecting the standing points of the satellite 6, the corresponding broken line of the serviced segments of the geostationary orbit connecting the standing points of the same or other satellite of the second frequency range.

Additional irradiator 4 and the like, each of which can be paired with irradiators 3, are directed to the same multi-band communication satellite, and each pair of irradiators 3 and additional irradiator 4 can receive different operating frequency ranges without using a frequency separation device [6] used in known antennas and creating additional signal loss. No need to use a frequency separation device can increase the gain and reduce the noise temperature of the proposed antenna and increase its efficiency.

Multi-beam combined axisymmetric reflector antenna operates as follows.

Any of the irradiators 3 and the like located in a plane orthogonal to the focal axis at the focus of the counterreflector 2, closer to the reflector 1 on line segments similar to the GSO segments connecting the standing points of the satellite 6, being connected to a generator of high-frequency electromagnetic waves (not shown) is also a source of primary electromagnetic waves. These waves are alternately reflected first from the counterreflector 2, then from the reflector 1. In the approximation of geometric optics, the rays from the irradiators 3 after successive reflections from the counterreflector 2 and reflector 1 due to their relative position, as well as the properties of second-order curves (ellipse and parabola) and displacement irradiators with the focal axis of the antenna, form a fan of partial radiation patterns of the antenna, similar to the fan diagrams from the additional irradiator 4 and the like.

So the irradiator 3, located at the focus of the paraboloid, generates an antenna pattern that coincides in direction with the axis of symmetry of the antenna. Several irradiators 3, offset from the focal axis of the reflector in a plane orthogonal to the focal axis, form their partial radiation patterns deviated from the direction of the focal axis 7 all the more, the more they are offset from this focal axis 7. The displacement of the irradiators from the focal axis 7 in the orthogonal plane leads to linear phase distributions of the field in the aperture of the mirror antenna and a deviation of its radiation pattern from the focal axis 7. The deviation of the beam corresponds to the angular displacement of the line connecting the vertex of the parabolas oida with the location of the irradiator. So for the irradiators 3, the offset relative to the focal axis up and to the right will lead to the partial antenna beam shifting down and to the left relative to this axis. The displacement of the irradiators 3 is determined by the angular displacement of the point of placement of the serviced satellite on the GSO relative to the point of placement of the virtual satellite on the GSO in the direction of the axis of the partial beam formed by the irradiator 3 located at the focus of the paraboloid.

Additional irradiator 4 and the like when connected to a high-frequency generator of electromagnetic waves (not shown) are also a source of electromagnetic waves. These sources of electromagnetic waves in the form of diverging rays from additional irradiators 4 fall directly onto the reflector 1, and since these additional irradiators 4 are located in the focal region of the reflector 1, each additional irradiator 4 forms its own partial directional radiation pattern when reflected from it.

Since the additional irradiator 4 and the like are shifted relative to the focus of the parabola of the reflector 1, they are located on the segments of the GSO connecting the standing points of the satellite 6 corresponding to the directions of the partial satellite diagrams, which, formed by the irradiators 3, reflector 1 and additional irradiators 4, form a fan of partial radiation patterns of the additional frequency range, similar to a fan of partial diagrams of the first frequency range.

This extends the functionality of the antenna. Typically, for simultaneous operation in two or more frequency ranges of one satellite in known antennas, a common feed is used with a band separation device that introduces additional high-frequency losses and reduces the antenna gain and noise temperature [6].

In the proposed antenna, the separation of frequency ranges is carried out by the method of spatial separation by placing the irradiators in the area of two foci of the counter-reflector. The displacement of the irradiators in the plane orthogonal to the focal axis of the parabola, their angle of inclination to the focal axis when servicing a relatively small sector of the angles of the geostationary orbit and the absence of a frequency separation device allow for a high gain while maintaining fan radiation patterns in two or more frequency ranges. In this case, the removal of irradiators 3 and counterreflector 2 from the zone of the most intense field reflected by reflector 1 leads to weakening of the shading and reduces the response of multiple field reflections between reflector 1 and irradiators to their coordination. In addition, a positive angle of inclination of the additional irradiator 4 to the horizon with a non-axisymmetric shape of reflector 1 [7] leads to a decrease in the noise temperature of the antenna at small angles of its inclination to the horizon, which occur when the antenna is located in the middle latitudes typical of our country.

These factors lead to an increase in the efficiency of the proposed antenna while maintaining fan radiation patterns in two or more frequency ranges.

LITERATURE

1. Somov A.M. Propagation of radio waves and antennas of satellite communication systems: Textbook for universities. - M .: Hotline-Telecom, 2015 .-- 456 p.: Ill.

2. Somov A.M. Fragmentation method for calculating the noise temperature of antennas. - M .: Hotline-Telecom, 2009, p. 168-170.

3. Eisenberg G.Z., Yampolsky V.G., Tereshin O.N. VHF Antennas / Ed. G.Z. Eisenberg. In 2 hours, Part 2. - M .: Communication, 1977. - 288 pp., Ill.

4. Frolov O.P., Wald V.P. Mirror antennas for satellite earth stations. - M .: Hot line-Telecom, 2008 .-- 496 p.

5. Somov A.M. Multipath Hybrid Mirror Antenna. RF patent No. 255646 dated June 16, 2015

6. The cascade of the receiving device with the separation of orthogonal polarizations of the two frequency ranges. RF patent No. 2149484, 2000, authors Somov A.M., Tikhonyuk A.I.

7. A.M. Somov, R.V. Kabetov. Design of antenna-feeder devices. -M .: Hotline-Telecom, 2015

Claims (1)

  1. A multi-beam combined non-axisymmetric mirror antenna, consisting of a main mirror - a reflector having the form of a non-axisymmetric cut from a paraboloid and an auxiliary mirror - a counter-reflector, in the form of a non-axisymmetric cut from a coaxial ellipsoid, concave to the side of the reflector and irradiators inclined to the focal plane this axis passing through the focus of the counterreflector close to the reflector, characterized in that one or more additional irradiators are installed in a plane orthogonal to the focal axis extending through kontrreflektora focus remote from the reflector.
RU2017140174A 2017-11-20 2017-11-20 Multi-beam combined non-axisymmetric mirror antenna RU2664792C1 (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2694813C1 (en) * 2018-10-10 2019-07-17 Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение наук Институт проблем машиноведения Российской академии наук (ИПМаш РАН) Method of reflecting mirror surfaces formation of space radio telescope antenna

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3828352A (en) * 1971-08-09 1974-08-06 Thomson Csf Antenna system employing toroidal reflectors
RU2173496C1 (en) * 2000-07-10 2001-09-10 ВЕЙВФРОНТИЕР Ко., Лтд. Mirror antenna
RU2380802C1 (en) * 2008-11-17 2010-01-27 Джи-хо Ан Compact multibeam mirror antenna
RU2446524C1 (en) * 2011-02-28 2012-03-27 Федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие Ордена Трудового Красного Знамени научно-исследовательский институт радио Multibeam double-reflector antenna for receiving signals from satellites on edge of visible geostationary orbit sector

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3828352A (en) * 1971-08-09 1974-08-06 Thomson Csf Antenna system employing toroidal reflectors
RU2173496C1 (en) * 2000-07-10 2001-09-10 ВЕЙВФРОНТИЕР Ко., Лтд. Mirror antenna
RU2380802C1 (en) * 2008-11-17 2010-01-27 Джи-хо Ан Compact multibeam mirror antenna
RU2446524C1 (en) * 2011-02-28 2012-03-27 Федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие Ордена Трудового Красного Знамени научно-исследовательский институт радио Multibeam double-reflector antenna for receiving signals from satellites on edge of visible geostationary orbit sector

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2694813C1 (en) * 2018-10-10 2019-07-17 Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение наук Институт проблем машиноведения Российской академии наук (ИПМаш РАН) Method of reflecting mirror surfaces formation of space radio telescope antenna

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