RU2592582C1 - Method of hydraulic fracturing - Google Patents

Method of hydraulic fracturing Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2592582C1
RU2592582C1 RU2015136423/03A RU2015136423A RU2592582C1 RU 2592582 C1 RU2592582 C1 RU 2592582C1 RU 2015136423/03 A RU2015136423/03 A RU 2015136423/03A RU 2015136423 A RU2015136423 A RU 2015136423A RU 2592582 C1 RU2592582 C1 RU 2592582C1
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Russia
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well
formation
pipe string
perforator
pumping
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RU2015136423/03A
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Russian (ru)
Inventor
Венера Асгатовна Таипова
Булат Галиевич Ганиев
Олег Вячеславович Салимов
Радик Зяузятович Зиятдинов
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Публичное акционерное общество "Татнефть" имени В.Д. Шашина
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Priority to RU2015136423/03A priority Critical patent/RU2592582C1/en
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Abstract

FIELD: mining.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of hydraulic fracturing. Method involves drilling of formation of vertical well, in lowering string up to interval of formation and performance of hydraulic fracturing - HF by pumping fracturing fluid through pipe string. At wellhead lower end of pipe string is equipped with a slot perforator with check valve at bottom and is run in to interval of formation. Method includes reverse washing in one and a half times well volume. Then by means of the slot perforator with orientation on azimuth of maximum stress and flow column, are created in range of sole and bed roof at two opposite slots with diameter up to 1.5 m and height of slot 0.2-0.25 well diameter. After that, in formation between slots through slit perforator by pumping of fracturing fluid through pipe string is performed hydraulic fracturing with formation of fractures. After formation of fractures method includes reinforcing fractures with ultra-light proppant with density 1,200-1,250 kg/m3. Pumping of fracturing fluid through pipe string through slot perforator is continued and simultaneously in annular space of well, pumping of proppant ultra-light under pressure not exceeding permitted on well walls. After fixation of fractures of pipe string with a slot perforator and check valve is removed from well.
EFFECT: higher quality of payout bed secondary exposure and broader technological capabilities of implementation of method.
1 cl, 3 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the oil and gas industry, and in particular to methods of hydraulic fracturing, and helps to increase the productivity of wells.

A known method of hydraulic fracturing (hydraulic fracturing) (a reference guide to the design of the development and operation of oil fields. Ed. Sh.K. Gimatudinova. - M .: Nedra, 1983. - S.333-343), which consists in the primary opening of the formation by a well , secondly opening it with perforation, pumping the process fluid at a pressure exceeding the rock strength of the bottomhole zone of the well, and the formation of a crack, its filling with a highly permeable and mechanically strong filler material, which is compacted with a decrease in pressure and compression TII crack, the downhole depth of 1500 m above the vertical crack is formed, propagating in opposite directions from the barrel into the formation and vertically, its filling fluid mixture is carried out of the process fluid and the filler (sand, proppant). The pressure at the beginning of the formation fracture significantly exceeds the maximum permissible pressure in the well string, therefore, the production interval is isolated by a packer separating the annular space with low pressure, communicating tubing and bottom with high pressure, therefore, the created fracture passes through the reservoir and serves as the main drainage channel.

The disadvantages of this method are:

- firstly, the inability to control the stress state in the near-wellbore zone, since the rocks are under stress under the action of compressive forces, as a result of which the pores in the rock of the reservoir are compressed and the permeability of the reservoir is reduced;

- secondly, the inability to create more than one crack;

- thirdly, the difficulty of achieving uniform filling of the crack, the inevitability of its narrowing with a decrease in pressure and compression.

Also known is a method of hydraulic fracturing (patent RU No. 2311528, IPC ЕВВ 43/26, publ. 11/27/2007, bull. No. 33), which includes opening a reservoir with a vertical or inclined well, placing a hydraulic monitoring tool with a series of jet nozzles, injecting the working fluid through the jet nozzles of the hydraulic monitoring tool to form cavities in the formation, subsequent fracturing of the cavity from the cavities due to the braking pressure of the jet in them, using a hydraulic monitoring tool with a series of jet nozzles, located along the tool in two lines with a phasing of 180 ° and a distance between the nozzles in the line of no more than two casing diameters, the hydromonitor tool is rotated by a predetermined angle to change the direction of development of each subsequent crack, while cracks are formed at a pressure in the casing below the side rock pressure , and as a working fluid use a fluid related to the formation fluid.

The disadvantages of the method are:

- firstly, the inability to control the stress state in the near-wellbore zone, since the rocks are under stress under the action of compressive forces, as a result of which the pores in the rock of the reservoir are compressed and the permeability of the reservoir is reduced;

- secondly, the low quality of the opening of the reservoir due to its secondary mudding during the formation of caverns in the reservoir by jet nozzles of a hydraulic monitoring tool without first flushing the well;

- thirdly, the low reliability of hydraulic fracturing, due to the fact that during its implementation there is an uneven development of two cracks, due to the presence of jet nozzles located along the tool in two lines with a phasing of 180 °, this leads to the fact that the crack will mainly to develop only in one of the directions along the path of least resistance, and also in the process of hydraulic fracturing in a vertical well, the pipe string is stretched due to the absence of a packer in the well.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a method of hydraulic fracturing (patent RU No. 2538009, IPC ЕВВ 43/267, published January 10, 2015, bull. No. 1), which includes opening the formation with a vertical well, lowering into the well on the column pipes of a hydraulic monitoring tool with an even number of jet nozzles and placing it in a predetermined interval of the formation, pumping working fluid through the jet nozzles of a hydraulic monitoring tool to cut the production string in the well and form cavities in the formation, followed by a hole in the cavity from cavities due to the braking pressure of the jet in them, using a hydromonitor tool with a series of jet nozzles located along the instrument with a distance between the nozzles in the line of no more than two casing string diameters, the hydromonitor tool is rotated by a predetermined angle to change the direction of development of each subsequent cracks, while cracks form when the working fluid injection pressure in the casing is lower than the side rock pressure, before the pipe string is lowered into the borehole A hydraulic monitor tool is installed with a rotary device and a mechanical packer, the pipe string is lowered into the well until the hydraulic nozzle is placed opposite the specified interval of the formation to be hydraulically fractured, the mechanical packer is planted, the volume of the working fluid for creating and developing cracks is determined, and injection is performed working fluid along the pipe string through the jet nozzles of the hydraulic monitoring tool for the formation of caverns in the reservoir, while compensating for leaks and p wedging cracks in the formation during hydraulic fracturing apply acid in an amount equal to 20% of the volume of the working fluid, pump the working fluid through the pipe string through a hydraulic monitoring tool into the cavity to create a fracture fracture, after which acid is injected into the annulus of the well to compensation for leaks and wedging of the crack, while the fluid injection through the pipe string is continued, while the pressure of acid injection into the annulus of the well is 85% of the pressure at the end of the development of the crack and the crack is wedged out in one direction, raise the pipe string by 1 m, turn the pipe string by an angle corresponding to the direction of formation of the next crack, and lower it, then repeat the technological operations, starting with the injection of fluid through jet nozzles of a hydromonitor tool to form cavities in the formation, the number of turns of the pipe string corresponds to the number of directions of cracks created in this interval of the formation but.

The disadvantages of this method are:

- firstly, the inability to control the stress state in the near-wellbore zone, since the rocks are under stress under the action of compressive forces, as a result of which the pores in the rock of the reservoir are compressed and the permeability of the reservoir is reduced;

- secondly, the low quality of the opening of the reservoir due to its secondary mudding during the formation of caverns in the reservoir by jet nozzles of a hydraulic monitoring tool without first flushing the well;

- thirdly, the limited technological capabilities of the method (only in carbonate reservoirs), since it is impossible to fix the formed cracks with proppant.

The technical objectives of the proposal are to create conditions for controlling stress state management in the near-wellbore zone, to improve the quality of the secondary opening of the reservoir and to expand the technological capabilities of the method.

The tasks are solved by the method of hydraulic fracturing - hydraulic fracturing, including opening a formation by a vertical well, lowering the pipe string into the well to the interval of the formation, cutting the production casing of the well and conducting hydraulic fracturing by pumping the fracturing fluid along the pipe string.

What is new is that at the wellhead the lower end of the pipe string is equipped with a slotted perforator with a check valve from the bottom and lowered into the well in the interval of the formation, backwashed in one and a half times the volume of the well, then the production casing of the well is cut through the slotted puncher with an azimuth orientation of maximum voltage and in the interval between the sole and the roof of the formation, two opposed slots with a diameter of up to 1.5 m and a slit height of 0.2-0.25 of the diameter of the well are created, after which in the formation between the slits through a slotted perforation Rathore injection of fracturing fluid through the pipe string to operate the PIU formation fracture cracks after the formation fracture cracks produce cracks fastening ultralight proppant density 1200-1250 kg / m 3, wherein the injection fluid by rupture of a pipe string through slot perforator continued while wellbore annulus into the space ultralight proppant is injected under pressure not exceeding allowable on the well walls; upon completion of the crack attachment, the pipe string with a slotted perforator and non-return valve is removed from the well.

In FIG. 1 schematically depicts the proposed method in the process of performing opposed slots using a slotted punch.

In FIG. 2 schematically shows the proposed method in the process of hydraulic fracturing by means of a slotted perforator.

In FIG. 3 schematically shows the opposite slots made in the interval of the sole and roof of the formation.

The proposed method is implemented as follows.

The productive formation 1 is opened by a vertical well 2 (see Fig. 1). At the wellhead 2, the lower end of the pipe string 3 is equipped with a slotted perforator 4 with a check valve 5 from the bottom and lowered into the well 2 in the interval of the formation 1.

The backwash of the well is carried out in a volume of one and a half times, for example, 25 m 3 , while the flow of flushing fluid is carried out from the mouth into the annular space 6 of the well 2, and the flushing fluid is lifted through the check valve 5 and slotted perforator 4 along the pipe string 3.

The backwash of the well, carried out immediately before the slit perforation, eliminates the secondary mudding of the formation during the slotted perforation, which eliminates the deterioration of the reservoir properties of the formation in the bottomhole zone.

By means of a slotted perforator 4 with an orientation in the azimuth of the maximum stress - σ max, the production casing of the well 2 is cut through and in the interval of the sole 7 and the roof 8 of the formation 1, two opposed (diametrically opposite) slots 9 ′ and 9 ″, as well as 10 ′ and 10 ′ ′, respectively, with a diameter D up to 1.5 m (see Fig. 3) and a slit height d 2 = (0.2-0.25) · d 1 , where d 1 is the diameter of the well 2 (see Fig. 1 )

Box slots 9 ′, 9 ″ and 10 ′, 10 ″ are created by simultaneously supplying fluid to the pipe string 3 and reverse angular rotation from the wellhead 2 of the pipe string 3 with a slotted drill 4 equipped with two diametrically opposed nozzles (in FIG. 1 and 2 is shown conditionally), at a design angle, for example, 150 ° (see Fig. 3) with an angular speed of 5-10 rpm.

As a slotted perforator, any known device is used to cut the production casing of a well 2 followed by the creation of slots 9 ′ and 9 ″, as well as 10 ′ and 10 ″ in the rock of the formation 1 under the influence of fluid pressure up to a diameter of D = 1.5 m (see Fig. 1 and 3) and a slit height d 2 = (0.2-0.25) · d 1 .

The geometry of each gap is determined depending on the geological conditions and the direction of maximum stresses - σ max before opening the formation 1 by experiment.

With the simultaneous formation of two diametrically located slots 9 ′, 9 ″ and 10 ′, 10 ″, the annular compressive stresses of the metal of the production casing of the well 2 are removed, which completely eliminates the possibility of closing formed cracks.

The creation of two slots 9 ′, 9 ″ and 10 ′, 10 ″ parallel to each other leads to a redistribution of stresses, namely, to the transformation of compressive forces into tensile ones, as a result of which the pores in the rock of the reservoir in the borehole zone open and the permeability of the reservoir formation increases.

Conducting hydraulic fracturing in formation 1 between slots 9 ′, 9 ″ and 10 ′, 10 ″ leads both to an increase in well productivity and the duration of the effect of increasing well productivity from slotted unloading of the formation, and the permeability coefficient of the formation also increases due to a change in magnitude and direction shear stresses in the borehole zone. In addition, due to the creation of cracks in the near-wellbore zone, the coefficient of hydrodynamic perfection of the well increases.

The backwash of the well is carried out from the annular collimator settled in the well after creating slots 9 ′, 9 ′ ′ and 10 ′, 10 ′ ′, for example, in a double volume equal to 33 m 3 , while the flushing fluid is supplied from the mouth to the annular space 6 wells 2, and the rise of the washing fluid through the check valve 5 and slotted perforator 4 along the pipe string 3.

Further, in the formation 1 between the slots 9 ′, 9 ′ ′ and 10 ′, 10 ′ ′ (see Fig. 2), hydraulic fracturing is performed through the slotted perforator 4 by pumping the fracture fluid along the pipe string 3 with the formation of fracture cracks 11. The fracture fluid is supplied to the column The tubing 3 through the nozzles of the slotted perforator 4 cut through the production string and form a fracture gap 11 in the direction of the maximum stress - σ max . After the formation of rupture cracks 11, cracks 11 are fixed with proppant 12. An ultralight proppant with a density of 1200-1250 kg / m 3 is used as proppant.

Studies have shown that the conductivity of a partial monolayer of ultralight proppant with a density of 1200-1250 kg / m 3 exceeds the conductivity of five layers of quartz sand 20/40 mesh (fractional composition of sand). This fact allows us to establish that when injecting much smaller volumes of ultralight proppants, a crack with a higher conductivity can be created than if quartz sand were used as proppant. Smaller injection volumes of ultralight proppant to form a partial monolayer in the fracture can save on reagents needed for hydraulic fracturing, reduce injection speed, and reduce the duration of work.

The fracture fluid is injected along the pipe string 3 through the slotted perforator 4 and at the same time proppant is injected into the annular space 6 of the well 2 at a pressure not exceeding the allowable on the well walls, for example, 9.0 MPa.

After hydraulic fracturing with the formation of fracture fractures 11 and filling them with ultralight proppant 12 between the slots 9 ′, 9 ′ ′ and 10 ′, 10 ′ ′, the productivity of the well and the duration of the hydraulic fracturing effect increase, which is associated with slotted unloading of formation 1 in the near-wellbore zone and also increases the permeability coefficient of the reservoir 1 due to changes in the magnitude and direction of shear stresses in the near-wellbore zone.

In addition, by creating cracks 9 ′, 9 ″ and 10 ′, 10 ″ in the near-well zone, the coefficient of hydrodynamic perfection of the well increases.

At the end of the mounting of the cracks, the pipe string 3 with a slotted perforator 4 and a check valve 5 is removed from the well 2.

The proposed method of hydraulic fracturing allows you to:

- manage the stress state in the near-wellbore zone;

- improve the quality of the secondary opening of the reservoir;

- expand the technological capabilities of the method.

Claims (1)

  1. The method of hydraulic fracturing, including opening the formation with a vertical well, lowering the pipe string into the well to the interval of the formation and hydraulic fracturing - pumping the fracturing fluid along the pipe string, characterized in that at the wellhead the lower end of the pipe string is equipped with a slotted perforator with a check valve bottom and lower into the well in the interval of the reservoir, backwash in one and a half times the volume of the well, then by means of a slotted punch with the maximum azimuth orientation stresses cut through the production casing of the well and create in the interval of the sole and the roof of the formation two opposed slots with a diameter of up to 1.5 m and a slit height of 0.2-0.25 of the diameter of the well, after which in the formation between the slits through a slotted perforator by pumping a fracturing fluid along a pipe string operate fracturing to form tension cracks, cracking after rupture produce cracks fastening ultralight proppant density 1200-1250 kg / m 3, wherein the injection of fracturing fluid through the pipe string and continue slot perforator simultaneously h column-producing wellbore space download ultralight proppant at a pressure not exceeding the permissible on the borehole wall, at the end of the pipe string fastening cracks with a slotted hammer and the check valve removed from the well.
RU2015136423/03A 2015-08-27 2015-08-27 Method of hydraulic fracturing RU2592582C1 (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2667171C1 (en) * 2017-12-04 2018-09-17 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "НЕККО" Method of repair of oil and / or gas wells and device for its implementation (options)
RU187392U1 (en) * 2018-10-15 2019-03-04 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "РАИФ" The arrangement of underground equipment for hydraulic fracturing

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2007552C1 (en) * 1991-12-06 1994-02-15 Шеляго Владимир Викторович Method of seam hydraulic break and device for its realization
RU2180038C2 (en) * 2000-05-22 2002-02-27 Саркисов Николай Михайлович Gear for slot perforation of casing string
WO2006092628A1 (en) * 2005-03-04 2006-09-08 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Fracturing method providing simultaneous flow back
RU2311528C2 (en) * 2006-01-10 2007-11-27 Открытое акционерное общество "Сургутнефтегаз" Method for hydraulic reservoir fracturing
RU2452854C2 (en) * 2010-06-25 2012-06-10 Олег Павлович Турецкий Method of directed hydraulic fracturing of reservoir
RU2485296C1 (en) * 2011-12-14 2013-06-20 Открытое акционерное общество "Татнефть" имени В.Д. Шашина Method for improvement of hydrodynamic communication of well with productive formation

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2007552C1 (en) * 1991-12-06 1994-02-15 Шеляго Владимир Викторович Method of seam hydraulic break and device for its realization
RU2180038C2 (en) * 2000-05-22 2002-02-27 Саркисов Николай Михайлович Gear for slot perforation of casing string
WO2006092628A1 (en) * 2005-03-04 2006-09-08 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Fracturing method providing simultaneous flow back
RU2311528C2 (en) * 2006-01-10 2007-11-27 Открытое акционерное общество "Сургутнефтегаз" Method for hydraulic reservoir fracturing
RU2452854C2 (en) * 2010-06-25 2012-06-10 Олег Павлович Турецкий Method of directed hydraulic fracturing of reservoir
RU2485296C1 (en) * 2011-12-14 2013-06-20 Открытое акционерное общество "Татнефть" имени В.Д. Шашина Method for improvement of hydrodynamic communication of well with productive formation

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2667171C1 (en) * 2017-12-04 2018-09-17 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "НЕККО" Method of repair of oil and / or gas wells and device for its implementation (options)
RU187392U1 (en) * 2018-10-15 2019-03-04 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "РАИФ" The arrangement of underground equipment for hydraulic fracturing

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