RU2529664C1 - Calorimeter of alternating temperature (versions) - Google Patents

Calorimeter of alternating temperature (versions) Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2529664C1
RU2529664C1 RU2013132034/28A RU2013132034A RU2529664C1 RU 2529664 C1 RU2529664 C1 RU 2529664C1 RU 2013132034/28 A RU2013132034/28 A RU 2013132034/28A RU 2013132034 A RU2013132034 A RU 2013132034A RU 2529664 C1 RU2529664 C1 RU 2529664C1
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shell
calorimetric
temperature
vessel
calorimeter
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RU2013132034/28A
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Russian (ru)
Inventor
Ярослав Олегович Иноземцев
Алексей Вячеславович Иноземцев
Игорь Александрович Жильцов
Юрий Николаевич Матюшин
Алексей Борисович Воробьев
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Ярослав Олегович Иноземцев
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Abstract

FIELD: instrumentation.
SUBSTANCE: three versions of calorimeter of alternating temperature are proposed, comprising a calorimetric vessel filled with liquid with a chamber for performance of an investigated process, surrounded with a calorimetric shell, a temperature sensor of the calorimetric vessel and a computing unit to determine quantity of released heat by the method of thermal equivalent. In all versions of the calorimeter on the calorimetric shell there are temperature sensors additionally installed, which makes it possible to perform accurate measurement of shell temperature due to summation of readings of all thermometers on it. In the second version of the invention the calorimetric shell is made isothermal, in the third one - adiabatic, and the calorimeter is equipped with a shell heat controller.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of calorimetric measurements.
3 cl, 1 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the field of studying the properties of materials using calorimetric measurements and can be used in variable temperature calorimeters, in which the measure of the amount of heat is a change in the temperature of the calorimeter.

Variable temperature calorimeters consist of two main parts: a calorimetric vessel filled with liquid (in which a chamber is placed to conduct the process under study), and a calorimetric shell. The shell surrounds the calorimetric vessel and either provides certain conditions for the heat exchange of the calorimetric vessel with the medium - an isothermal shell (T a = const, where T a is the shell temperature), or eliminates heat transfer - the adiabatic shell (T a = T c , where T c is the temperature of the calorimetric vessel) (V. Kolesov. Fundamentals of Thermochemistry. M., Moscow State University Publishing House, 1996, 205 pp.).

The amount of heat released in the experiment is calculated by the method of thermal equivalent, according to which the change in temperature of the calorimetric vessel (adjusted for heat transfer of the vessel and shell) is directly proportional to the measured thermal energy, and the proportionality coefficient is the thermal equivalent, determined by the calibration of the calorimeter (Vasiliev Y.V. , Matskevich NI Thermal equivalent of linear calorimetric systems. - In the collection Calorimetry in adsorption and catalysis. Collection of scientific papers, Novosibirsk, IK SB AS SSSR. 1984, p.90).

When conducting calorimetric measurements require knowledge of the temperature T and the shell or to determine the correction for heat transfer receptacle and a cover that is used in the calculations, or for controlling the temperature of the shell.

Known for the purpose of the claimed invention and the result achieved is a variable-temperature bomb calorimeter for determining the calorific value of fuel (and its variants) containing a liquid-filled calorimetric vessel with a chamber (with a bomb) for conducting the process under study, surrounded by a calorimetric shell, and a temperature sensor of a calorimetric vessel ( in all variants of the prototype calorimeter), the temperature sensor of the calorimetric shell (2nd, 3rd and 5th version of the prototype calorimeter) and computational block for determining the amount of heat released by the method of thermal equivalent in a function either (in accordance with an option) only on the temperature of the calorimetric vessel, or in function of the temperature of the calorimetric vessel and the calorimetric shell. The calorimetric shell in the 4th version of the prototype calorimeter is isothermal, in the 5th version - adiabatic (RU 2334961, G01K 17/00, G01N 25/20, 09/27/2008).

The disadvantage of the calorimeter selected for the prototype is the lack of accuracy of calorimetric measurements, since individual parts of the calorimetric shell have different temperatures, although they are made of highly heat-conducting material. Particularly noticeable is the temperature deviation of the lid of the shell through which access to the calorimetric vessel is made.

The task of the invention is the development of a variable temperature calorimeter, which will improve the accuracy of calorimetric measurements.

The solution to this problem is achieved by the proposed variable temperature calorimeter containing a liquid-filled calorimetric vessel with a chamber for conducting the process under study, surrounded by a calorimetric shell, a temperature sensor of the calorimetric vessel, a temperature sensor of the calorimetric shell and a computing unit for determining the amount of heat as a function of the temperature of the calorimetric vessel and calorimetric shell according to the heat equivalent method, in which, according to the invention, alorimetricheskaya shell equipped with additional temperature sensors, and a computing unit configured for implementing the specified function of thermometer readings on calorimetric shell, which shell temperature T and calculated according to the formula

Figure 00000001
,

where T a is the shell temperature for calculating the measured amount of heat by the method of thermal equivalent;

T i - readings of the i-th shell thermometer;

S i - the surface area of the calorimetric vessel involved in heat transfer with the surface of the shell, the temperature of which is measured by a thermometer T i ;

α i - heat transfer coefficient of the surface S i .

The solution of this problem is also achieved by the proposed variable temperature calorimeter, containing a liquid-filled calorimetric vessel with a chamber for conducting the process under study, surrounded by an isothermal calorimetric shell, a temperature sensor of the calorimetric vessel and a computing unit for determining the amount of heat as a function of the temperature of the calorimetric vessel by the method of thermal equivalent, in which, according to the invention, is installed on an isometric calorimetric shell s thermometers in an amount of not less than two, wherein the calorimeter is fitted with a thermostat sheath implementation T = const and control functions, and where T - temperature envelope calculated by the calorimeter readings of the thermometers shell by the formula

Figure 00000002
,

where T i - readings of the i-th shell thermometer;

S i - the surface area of the calorimetric vessel involved in heat transfer with the surface of the shell, the temperature of which is measured by a thermometer T i ;

α i - heat transfer coefficient of the surface S i .

The solution of this problem is also achieved by the proposed variable temperature calorimeter containing a liquid-filled calorimetric vessel with a chamber for carrying out the process under investigation, surrounded by an adiabatic calorimetric shell, a temperature sensor of the calorimetric vessel, an adiabatic calorimetric shell temperature sensor and a computing unit for determining the amount of released heat using the heat equivalent method, in which, according to the invention, adiabatic calorimetric Single hull equipped with additional temperature sensors, with a calorimeter fitted with a thermostat sheath adapted to control the implementation of the function T a = T c, where T c - calorimetric vessel temperature, T a - shell temperature calculated by the calorimeter readings of the thermometers shell by the formula

Figure 00000003
,

where T i - readings of the i-th shell thermometer;

S i - the surface area of the calorimetric vessel involved in heat transfer with the surface of the shell, the temperature of which is measured by a thermometer T i ;

α i - heat transfer coefficient of the surface S i ,

and the computing unit for determining the amount of released heat is made as a function of the temperature of the calorimetric vessel.

All proposed variants of the invention provide improved measurement accuracy by accurately measuring the temperature of the shell using additionally installed thermometers and summing up their readings according to the above formula. With sufficient accuracy for practice, it can be accepted that the value of the heat transfer coefficient α i of the surface S i is inversely proportional to the distance between the heat transfer surfaces, since according to the theory of heat transfer, the heat flux density vector is directed normal to the isothermal surface (S i ) and its positive direction coincides with the direction decrease in temperature (V.P. Isachenko, V.A. Osipova, A.S. Sukomel. Heat transfer M., Energy Publishing House, 1981, p.10). Thus, the coefficients α i for each thermometer is determined by the geometric dimensions of the calorimetric vessel and the shell.

In the first embodiment of the invention, the exact value of the temperature of the shell T a will be used directly in calculating the measured amount of heat. In the second embodiment of the invention, the exact value of the temperature of the shell T a will be used by the temperature controller to stabilize the temperature of the isothermal shell (to calculate the amount of heat using the heat equivalent method in a calorimeter with an isothermal shell at T a = const, the values of T a are not required). In the third embodiment of the invention, in the adiabatic shell calorimeter, the exact value of the shell temperature T a will be used to control its temperature so that the surface temperature of the calorimetric vessel T c and the shell surface temperature T a are equal, thereby eliminating heat transfer between them.

The figure schematically shows a bomb calorimeter according to the invention. In the calorimetric vessel 1, a chamber is placed for carrying out the investigated process 2 (for example, a calorimetric bomb). The calorimetric vessel 1 is filled with liquid 3 and provided with a stirrer 4 having a magnetic drive 5. A thermometer T c is installed on the surface 6 of the calorimetric vessel 3. The calorimetric vessel 1 is surrounded by a calorimetric shell 7 with a cover 8. Thermometers T 1 , T 2 and T 3 are installed on the calorimetric shell to measure its temperature. Computing unit 9 is used to calculate the released heat by the method of thermal equivalent according to the data on the temperature of the calorimetric vessel (according to the thermometer T c ) and according to the data on the temperature of the calorimetric shell - the value of T a , calculated according to the data of shell thermometers T 1 , T 2 and T 3 .

The calorimeter according to the invention operates as follows.

Conduct a calorimetric experiment in the usual way and record data on the temperature of the calorimetric vessel T c and the temperature of the calorimetric shell according to the thermometers T 1 , T 2 and T 3 . Then calculate the exact temperature of the shell T a according to the above formula. The computing unit in the first embodiment of the invention uses the temperature T c and T a to calculate the result of the calorimetric experiment. In the second and third embodiments of the invention, the exact value of the temperature of the shell T a is used by the temperature controller either to stabilize the temperature of the isothermal shell, or to equalize the surface temperatures of the calorimetric vessel T c and the surface of the adiabatic shell T a .

Thus, a variable temperature calorimeter (options) is proposed, which, due to the accurate measurement of the shell temperature using additionally installed thermometers and summing their readings, can significantly improve the accuracy of calorimetric measurements.

Claims (3)

1. A variable temperature calorimeter containing a liquid-filled calorimetric vessel with a chamber for carrying out the process under investigation, surrounded by a calorimetric shell, a calorimetric vessel temperature sensor, a calorimetric temperature sensor and a computing unit for determining the amount of released heat as a function of the temperature of the calorimetric vessel and calorimetric shell according to the method thermal equivalent, characterized in that the calorimetric shell is equipped with an additional temperature sensors, and a computing unit configured for implementing the specified function of thermometer readings calorimeter shell, which shell temperature is calculated by the formula
Figure 00000004
,
where T a is the shell temperature for calculating the measured amount of heat by the method of thermal equivalent;
T i - readings of the i-th shell thermometer;
S i - the surface area of the calorimetric vessel involved in heat transfer with the surface of the shell, the temperature of which is measured by a thermometer T i ;
α i - heat transfer coefficient of the surface S i .
2. A variable temperature calorimeter containing a liquid-filled calorimetric vessel with a chamber for carrying out the process under investigation, surrounded by an isothermal calorimetric shell, a temperature sensor of the calorimetric vessel and a computing unit for determining the amount of released heat as a function of the temperature of the calorimetric vessel by the thermal equivalent method, characterized in that at least two thermometers are installed on the isothermal calorimetric shell and the calorimeter is equipped the thermoregulator of the shell, made with the implementation of the control function T a = const, where T a is the temperature of the shell, calculated from the readings of all thermometers of the calorimetric shell according to the formula
Figure 00000004
,
where T i - readings of the i-th shell thermometer;
S i - the surface area of the calorimetric vessel involved in heat transfer with the surface of the shell, the temperature of which is measured by a thermometer T i ;
α i - heat transfer coefficient of the surface S i .
3. A variable temperature calorimeter containing a liquid-filled calorimetric vessel with a chamber for carrying out the process under investigation, surrounded by an adiabatic calorimetric shell, a temperature sensor of the calorimetric vessel, a temperature sensor of the adiabatic calorimetric shell and a computing unit for determining the amount of released heat using the thermal equivalent method, characterized in that the adiabatic calorimetric shell is equipped with additional temperature sensors, calorimet equipped with a thermostat sheath adapted to control the implementation of the function T a = T c, where T c - calorimetric vessel temperature, T a - shell temperature calculated by the calorimeter readings of the thermometers formula shell
Figure 00000004
,
where T i - readings of the i-th shell thermometer;
S i - the surface area of the calorimetric vessel involved in heat transfer with the surface of the shell, the temperature of which is measured by a thermometer T i ;
α i - heat transfer coefficient of the surface S i ,
and the computing unit for determining the amount of heat released by the thermal equivalent method is performed as a function of the temperature of the calorimetric vessel.
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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2620328C1 (en) * 2016-06-29 2017-05-24 Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки Институт физической химии и электрохимии им. А.Н. Фрумкина Российской академии наук (ИФХЭ РАН) Device for determining the parameters of gas-separation
RU182474U1 (en) * 2017-10-16 2018-08-20 Федеральное агентство по техническому регулированию и метрологии Calorimetric installation
RU2707981C1 (en) * 2019-05-16 2019-12-03 Дмитрий Владимирович Лебедев Calorimeter
RU2713001C1 (en) * 2019-04-23 2020-02-03 Алексей Вячеславович Иноземцев Variable-temperature bomb calorimeter for determining specific volumetric combustion heat of combustible gas
RU2717141C1 (en) * 2019-10-17 2020-03-18 Дмитрий Владимирович Лебедев Calorimeter
RU2717140C1 (en) * 2019-10-17 2020-03-18 Дмитрий Владимирович Лебедев Calorimeter

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SU901852A1 (en) * 1979-05-21 1982-01-30 Институт Белка Ан Ссср Differential scanning microcalorimeter
US5322360A (en) * 1993-03-05 1994-06-21 Leco Corporation Isothermal calorimeter
US20030058918A1 (en) * 2000-09-04 2003-03-27 Ulrich Fischer Calorimeter
RU2334961C1 (en) * 2007-03-28 2008-09-27 Ярослав Олегович Иноземцев Bomb calorimeter for determination of fuel heating power (versions)
RU2371685C1 (en) * 2008-07-02 2009-10-27 Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Воронежская государственная технологическая академия" Variable temperature calorimetre with isothermal jacket
RU118749U1 (en) * 2012-03-27 2012-07-27 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Озерский приборный завод" Calorimeter for measuring thermophysical values

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
SU901852A1 (en) * 1979-05-21 1982-01-30 Институт Белка Ан Ссср Differential scanning microcalorimeter
US5322360A (en) * 1993-03-05 1994-06-21 Leco Corporation Isothermal calorimeter
US20030058918A1 (en) * 2000-09-04 2003-03-27 Ulrich Fischer Calorimeter
RU2334961C1 (en) * 2007-03-28 2008-09-27 Ярослав Олегович Иноземцев Bomb calorimeter for determination of fuel heating power (versions)
RU2371685C1 (en) * 2008-07-02 2009-10-27 Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Воронежская государственная технологическая академия" Variable temperature calorimetre with isothermal jacket
RU118749U1 (en) * 2012-03-27 2012-07-27 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Озерский приборный завод" Calorimeter for measuring thermophysical values

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2620328C1 (en) * 2016-06-29 2017-05-24 Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки Институт физической химии и электрохимии им. А.Н. Фрумкина Российской академии наук (ИФХЭ РАН) Device for determining the parameters of gas-separation
RU182474U1 (en) * 2017-10-16 2018-08-20 Федеральное агентство по техническому регулированию и метрологии Calorimetric installation
RU2713001C1 (en) * 2019-04-23 2020-02-03 Алексей Вячеславович Иноземцев Variable-temperature bomb calorimeter for determining specific volumetric combustion heat of combustible gas
RU2707981C1 (en) * 2019-05-16 2019-12-03 Дмитрий Владимирович Лебедев Calorimeter
RU2717141C1 (en) * 2019-10-17 2020-03-18 Дмитрий Владимирович Лебедев Calorimeter
RU2717140C1 (en) * 2019-10-17 2020-03-18 Дмитрий Владимирович Лебедев Calorimeter

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