RU2485618C1 - Microwave electrovacuum generator with electron stream reflection - Google Patents

Microwave electrovacuum generator with electron stream reflection Download PDF

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RU2485618C1
RU2485618C1 RU2011152844/07A RU2011152844A RU2485618C1 RU 2485618 C1 RU2485618 C1 RU 2485618C1 RU 2011152844/07 A RU2011152844/07 A RU 2011152844/07A RU 2011152844 A RU2011152844 A RU 2011152844A RU 2485618 C1 RU2485618 C1 RU 2485618C1
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electrons
matrix
gap
channels
electron
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RU2011152844/07A
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Владислав Алексеевич Царев
Алексей Юрьевич Мирошниченко
Наталья Александровна Акафьева
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Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Саратовский государственный технический университет имени Ю.А. Гагарина" (СГТУ имени Ю.А. Гагарина)
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Abstract

FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: microwave electrovacuum generator with electron stream reflection contains a substrate (with a matrix of autoemissive primary electrons sources placed thereon), a control grid with electron transit channels, the first and the second fine structure grids (positioned in a longitudinal direction in the electrons travel direction and forming the cavity resonator capacitative gap and a reflector with a film positioned on its surface and representing the secondary electrons source. The matrix of autoemissive primary electrons sources is divided into several groups of matrices, the side matrices symmetrically positioned on the substrate relative to the central matrix. The electron transit channels within the control grid have a cross section that is less on the side of the first fine structure grid that on the side of the matrix of autoemissive primary electrons sources; the shape of the cross section at the input and at the output of each channel replicates that of an individual matrix. The channels side surfaces are covered with film made of a material with a high secondary electron emission coefficient, representing an additional source of secondary electrons. The cavity resonator capacitative gap is non-uniform in the radial direction so that the capacitative gap magnitude in the centre exceeds the magnitude of gap in the capacitative gap centre.
EFFECT: enhancement of performance coefficient and power output of the generator by way of total electron current density increase.
5 cl, 6 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the field of electronic technology, in particular to microelectronic electro-vacuum generators with reflection of the electron beam, operating in the short-wave part of the microwave range.

The prior art in this area is characterized by publications in the public literature, including the information below.

A known design of an electrovacuum generator with reflection of an electron stream, for example a reflective klystron [Lebedev I.V. Technique and instruments of superhigh frequencies. T.II. M .: publishing house "Higher School", 1972, p.172].

This device consists of a source of primary electrons — a thermal cathode, an accelerating electrode — anode, a cavity resonator with a grid gap, and a reflector onto which primary electrons do not fall. Moreover, the influence of secondary electrons knocked out by the primary electrons from the grid on the total current of the electron beam is small. Such devices can generate oscillations of the decimeter and centimeter ranges and make it possible to obtain power on the order of fractions of a watt with an electronic efficiency of up to 2-3%.

However, when operating in the short-wave part of the microwave range, the output power of such devices decreases in proportion to the square of the operating frequency, and the electronic efficiency in the range of 10-100 GHz usually does not exceed one percent.

With such a low electronic efficiency, the thermal cathode glow power becomes comparable to the output power. Therefore, such designs are not widely used.

To a certain extent, this drawback can be eliminated by performing a reflective klystron using vacuum integrated circuit technology (VIS). VIS are microelectronic vacuum tubes with dimensions close to those of semiconductor transistors. Due to the higher electron velocity (10 6 ... 10 7 m / s), they have better frequency properties than silicon transistors and are characterized by higher radiation resistance.

VIS uses cold cathode arrays operating on the principle of electrostatic (field emission) emission.

Known VIS-microelectronic reflective klystron with a matrix field emission source of primary electrons, called "nanoclistron" (Design and fadrication of a THZ nanoklystron, Harish M. Manohara, Peter H. Siegel, Colleen Marrese Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA Baohe Chang, Jimmy Xu Brown University, Division of Engineering, Providence, RI, USA). This device is designed to generate electromagnetic waves in the terahertz range. Nanoclistron consists of a matrix field emission source of primary electrons, a control grid, a cavity resonator with grids, a special-shaped reflector, and a communication device with a load equipped with a communication diaphragm. All these nodes are placed monolithically on two silicon wafers.

However, despite the matrix design, the field emission source of such a device does not allow to obtain a high cathode current density, which limits the output power of the microwave device.

It is known that it is possible to increase the field emission current due to the secondary emission current. In the patent (US No. 201045158 A1, publ. February 25, 2010 Electron density controllable field emission devices), an electronic emitter device with field emission and controlled electron density is described. The device includes a field emission source of primary electrons, a source of secondary electrons, which is a film of material with a large coefficient of secondary electron emission located on the inner surface of the dielectric tube, a control electrode, an anode. The field emission source of primary electrons in this device is made of carbon nanotubes. Behind it is a cone-shaped dielectric pipe, the cross section of the outlet end of the span pipe being smaller than the cross section of the inlet end of the span pipe. A control electrode made of a conductive material is located on the outer surface of the span pipe. The disadvantage of this device is that it emits a single-beam electron stream, which limits the output power of the device.

Known VIS microtriode with field emission source of primary electrons (Microscale vacuum tube device and method for making the same Patent No. US 6987027 B2, publ. Jan. 17.01.2006). This device contains a field emission source of primary electrons and an additional source of secondary electrons, made in the form of a plate with holes for the passage of the primary electron stream located between the control grid and the anode. The walls of the hole are covered with a film of material having a large coefficient of secondary electron emission. This provides a significant increase in current density compared to existing field emission sources. However, such a device is not intended to operate as a microwave electrovacuum generator.

Closest to the proposed device is a VIS-microwave electric vacuum generator with reflection of the electron beam. [Patent WO 2007/142419 A1, Jeon, Seok Gy, Klystron oscillator using cold cathode electron gun, and oscillation method, publ. December 13, 2007] containing a substrate with a matrix field emission source of primary electrons located on it, a control fine-grained grid with channels for the passage of electrons, the first and second fine-grained grids, which are located in the longitudinal direction along the direction of the electrons and form the capacitive gap of the cavity; a reflector with a source of secondary electrons located on its surface in the form of a thin film of material with a large coefficient of secondary electron emission.

However, the effect of increasing current in this device is relatively small, since only the fastest electrons that pass the RF gap in the positive half-period of the modulating voltage fall on the secondary-emission coating on the reflector (the electron source for the nanoclistron must provide a current density of at least 100 A / cm 2 ). In addition, this device, when operating in the terahertz wavelength range, has a reduced efficiency. The decrease in efficiency is largely due to the violation of the so-called “quasi-stationary” conditions of the resonator, since the transverse dimensions of the resonator grids are comparable to the wavelength. In this case, the strength of the HF electric field acting in the capacitive gap of the resonator between the first and second grids decreases in the radial direction when moving from the center of the capacitive gap to its edge.

As a result, electrons passing through the center of the capacitive gap experience greater velocity modulation than electrons passing through the capacitive gap along its edge. As a result of the “stratification” effect of electrons, the grouping worsens and the electronic efficiency decreases.

This microwave electrovacuum generator is taken by us as a prototype.

The objective of the proposed technical solution is to increase the efficiency and output power of the microwave electro-vacuum generator with reflection of the electron beam by significantly increasing the density of the total electron current in the device. The task is achieved by creating an additional source of secondary electrons, as well as by making the capacitive gap in the radial direction non-uniform, so that the gap in its center is larger than the gap at its edge.

The microwave electron vacuum generator with reflection of the electron flux contains a substrate with a matrix of field emission sources of primary electrons located on it, a control grid with channels for the passage of electrons, the first and second fine-structure grids, which are located in the longitudinal direction along the direction of the electrons and form a capacitive gap of the volume resonator; reflector with a film located on its surface, which is a source of secondary electrons. What is new is that the matrix of field emission sources of primary electrons is divided into several groups of matrices, while the side matrices are symmetrically located on the substrate relative to the central matrix; the channels for the passage of electrons in the control grid have a cross section from the side of the first fine-structure grid smaller than from the side of the matrix of field emission sources of primary electrons, while the shape of the cross section at the input and output of each channel repeats the shape of a separate matrix; the lateral surfaces of the channels are covered with a film of material with a high coefficient of secondary electron emission and represent an additional source of secondary electrons; the capacitive gap of the cavity resonator is non-uniform in the radial direction, so that the magnitude of the capacitive gap in the center is greater than the gap in the center of the capacitive gap.

In addition, each individual matrix can have a square shape in cross section, while the channels for the passage of electrons in the control grid have the shape of a tetrahedral truncated pyramid, the edges of which are inclined to the substrate at an angle.

In addition, each individual matrix can have a circle shape in cross section, and the channels for the passage of electrons in the control grid in this case have the shape of a truncated cone.

In addition, the side matrices may have a bean-shaped shape in cross section and the side channels for the passage of electrons in the control grid also have a bean-shaped shape.

The first fine-grained mesh is made in the radial direction stepwise uneven, while the gap in the center of the capacitive gap is selected from the condition:

d 1 = d 2 + δ

0 <δ / a <1,

where d 1 - the value of the gap in the center of the capacitive gap,

d 2 - the value of the gap at the edge of the capacitive gap,

δ is the value of the stepped recess in the center of the capacitive gap, microns.

and - the radial size of the stepped recess, microns.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, in which Fig. 1 shows the design of a microwave electrovacuum generator, Fig. 2 shows the construction of a control grid with channels for the passage of electrons in the form of a truncated cone, Fig. 3 shows the construction of a control grid with channels for the passage of electrons of a bean-shaped and central a truncated cone-shaped hole, FIG. 4 shows the construction of a control grid with channels for the passage of electrons in the form of a tetrahedral truncated pyramid, FIG. 5 shows a radial distribution e of the electric field in the resonator for three cases: a) δ = 0; b) δ = 0.5a; c) δ = a. Figure 6 shows the design of the channel in the control grid: a) for the channel in the form of a tetrahedral truncated pyramid and b) for the channel in the form of a truncated cone.

The positions in the drawings indicate: 1 - substrate, 2 - matrix of field emission sources of primary electrons, 3 - control grid, 4 - channels for the passage of electrons, 5 - first fine-grained grid, 6 - second fine-grained grid, 7 - capacitive gap of the cavity, 8 - volume resonator, 9 - reflector, 10 - film, which is the source of secondary electrons, 11 - upper silicon plate of the cavity resonator, 12 - communication device with external load, 13 - vacuum-tight window, 14 - lower silicon plate of the cavity resonator, 15 - first a power source, 16 is a second power source, 17 is a third power source, 18 is an internal coating of the cavity resonator, 19 is a film of material with a large secondary electron emission coefficient.

Microwave electric vacuum generator (figure 1), contains a substrate 1, with a matrix of field emission sources of primary electrons 2 located on it, a control grid 3 with channels for the passage of electrons 4, the first 5 and second 6 fine-grained grids that are located in the longitudinal direction in the direction of travel electrons and form the capacitive gap of the cavity resonator 8, a reflector 9 with a film 10 located on its surface, which is a source of secondary electrons. According to the invention, the matrix of field emission sources of primary electrons 2 is divided into several separate matrices, groups located on the substrate. The lateral matrices are located symmetrically at the same distance relative to the central matrix. Groups of side matrices of field emission sources of primary electrons 2 can also be combined into one bean-shaped matrix.

The channels for the passage of electrons 4 in the control grid 3 have a cross section from the side of the first fine-structure grid of the resonator 5 smaller than from the matrix side of the field emission sources of primary electrons 2, and the cross-sectional shape at the input and output of each channel repeats the shape of a separate matrix; the lateral surfaces of the channels are covered with a film of material with a large coefficient of secondary electron emission 19 and represent an additional source of secondary electrons. Depending on the shapes of the matrices used, the channels in the control grid may have the shape of a truncated cone (Figure 2), may be bean-shaped (Figure 3), or may be in the form of a tetrahedral truncated pyramid (Figure 4).

The capacitive gap of the cavity resonator 7 is non-uniform in the radial direction (FIG. 1), so that the gap d 1 in the center of the gap is larger than the gap d 2 at its edge.

This can be most simply realized in the design of the device in which the first fine-grained mesh 5 is made stepwise uneven in the radial direction, and the gap value d 1 in the center of the capacitive gap is selected from the relation

d 1 = d 2 + δ

0 <δ / a <1,

where δ is the value of the stepped recess in the center of the capacitive gap, μm,

and - the radial size of the stepped recess, microns.

The channels 4 in the control grid may have a cross-sectional shape of a tetrahedral truncated pyramid (Fig. 6a), the edges of which are inclined to the substrate at an angle, and each individual matrix has a square shape in cross section.

It is possible to execute channels in the control grid 4 in the form of a truncated cone (Fig.6b), while the diameter of each matrix 2 is equal to the minimum diameter of the channel in the control grid.

The first power source 15, connected between the control grid 3 and the matrix of field emission sources of primary electrons 2, provides field emission and the formation of a primary stream of electrons with energy corresponding to the maximum coefficient of secondary electron emission of an additional source of secondary electrons. The second power source 16, which provides additional acceleration of the electron beam before it enters the modulator zone, is connected between the matrix of field-emission sources of primary electrons 2 and the internal metallized coating of the resonator 18. The third power source 17 is connected between the internal metallized coating of the resonator 18 and the reflector 9 with surface by the source of secondary electrons 10 in the form of a thin film of material with large coefficients of secondary electron emission.

The inductive part of the cavity resonator 8 is formed by performing on the lower and upper silicon wafers 11, 14 a metallized coating 18, electrically connected to the first and second fine-grained networks 5, 6. The capacitive part of the cavity resonator 6 is determined by the magnitude of the high-frequency gap 7 between the first 5 and second 6 fine-grained meshes. The lower and upper silicon wafers, including the vacuum tight window 13, are hermetically connected, so that the entire device is in a vacuum shell. The output of microwave energy is carried out through a communication device with an external load 12.

The device operates as follows.

Accelerating voltage of the first power source 15 is applied between the matrix of field emission sources of primary electrons 2 and the control grid 3, as a result of which field emission is carried out with the matrix of field emission sources of primary electrons 2. The electron beam emitted from the matrix of field emission sources of primary electrons 2 is accelerated by the control grid 3, also playing the role of electron multiplier-hub. The channels for the passage of electrons 4 in the control grid 3 are narrowed in the direction of motion of the electron beam. Since the channel walls are coated with a polycrystalline conductive diamond film 19 or another type of material with a high secondary electron emission coefficient, secondary electron emission occurs when primary electrons enter the channel walls. The primary stream of electrons, which penetrates from each matrix of the field emission source of primary electrons 2 into the hole of the control grid 3 from the wide part, enters the walls of the hole 4 and generates secondary electrons in the secondary emission film. The same processes occur in other holes made in the control grid 3. For example, for a diamond film the multiplication coefficient of primary electrons is at least 7, and the current density at the output of the electron multiplier-concentrator can increase by almost 30 times, at an anode voltage of about 20 V The total multiplication coefficient depends on the number of rays determined by the number of matrices of the field emission source of primary electrons 2.

Further, after passing through the holes of the first fine-structure grid 5 of the cavity resonator 8, the electron beam is accelerated by the voltage of the second power source 16.

When the electron beam passes through the first and second fine-structured grids 5 and 6 of the cavity resonator 8 in the forward direction, the electrons are modulated in velocity, which then passes in the space between the second fine-grained grid 6 and the reflector 9 into density modulation.

A negative potential is applied to the reflector 9 with respect to the metallized coating 18 of the cavity resonator 8 with the help of a third power source 17, as a result of which, after the passage of the second meleostructure grid, the electrons move first towards the reflector 9, then return to the cavity of the resonator 8. Moreover, to the secondary emission coating, Only the fastest electrons that have passed the RF gap into the positive half-period of the modulating voltage fall into the reflector 10. These electrons cause secondary electron emission, increasing the total flux of reflected electrons.

During the second passage of the gap of the cavity resonator 8, the electrons, interacting with the field of the high-frequency gap 7, give part of the energy to the microwave field at the moments when there is a braking high-frequency electric field at the cavity gap.

Since the capacitive gap 7 of the volume resonator 8 is non-uniform in the radial direction, due to the fact that the gap d 1 in the center of the gap is larger than the gap d 2 at its edge, the difference between them determines the height of the capacitive protrusion δ, the value of which determines the degree field heterogeneity. At δ = 0, the field is inhomogeneous and has a maximum value in the center of the capacitive gap 7, decreasing at the edges. At δ = a, a decrease in tension is observed in the center of the capacitive gap 7. At δ = 0.5а, the field has the most uniform shape in the capacitive gap 7.

Due to the fact that the strength of the RF electric field acting in the capacitive gap of the resonator between the first and second grids becomes the same in magnitude both in the center and on the edge of the gap (Figure 5), the electrons passing through the center of the capacitive gap experience this the same high-speed modulation as electrons passing a capacitive gap along its edge. As a result, the “stratification” effect disappears and the electronic efficiency increases.

Thus, the use of a field emission source of primary electrons in the form of separate matrices, a control grid with the function of an electron multiplier-concentrator, and a stepwise inhomogeneous first fine-grained grid makes it possible to increase the cathode current density, which in turn increases the efficiency and output power of the device.

The output of microwave energy from the device to the load is carried out by a waveguide communication device with an external load 12.

Claims (5)

1. A microwave electron vacuum generator with reflection of the electron flux, comprising a substrate with a matrix of field emission sources of primary electrons located on it, a control grid with channels for the passage of electrons, the first and second fine-structure grids, which are located in the longitudinal direction along the direction of the electrons and form a capacitive gap resonator; a reflector with a film located on its surface, which is a source of secondary electrons, characterized in that the matrix of field-emission sources of primary electrons is divided into several groups of matrices, while the side matrices are symmetrically located on the substrate relative to the central matrix; the channels for the passage of electrons in the control grid have a cross section from the side of the first fine-structure grid smaller than from the side of the matrix of field emission sources of primary electrons, while the shape of the cross section at the input and output of each channel repeats the shape of a separate matrix; the lateral surfaces of the channels are covered with a film of material with a high coefficient of secondary electron emission and represent an additional source of secondary electrons; the first fine-grained mesh is made uneven in the radial direction, so that the magnitude of the capacitive gap in the center exceeds the magnitude of the capacitive gap at its edge.
2. The microwave electric vacuum generator with reflection of the electron beam according to claim 1, characterized in that each individual matrix has a square shape in cross section, and the channels for the passage of electrons in the control grid are in the form of a tetrahedral truncated pyramid, the edges of which are inclined to the substrate at an angle.
3. The microwave electric vacuum generator with reflection of the electron beam according to claim 1, characterized in that each individual matrix has a circular shape in cross section, and the channels for the passage of electrons in the control grid have the shape of a truncated cone.
4. A microwave electrovacuum generator with electron beam reflection according to claim 3, characterized in that the side arrays have a bean-shaped shape in cross section and the side channels for the passage of electrons in the control grid also have a bean-like shape.
5. A microwave electrovacuum generator with reflection of the electron stream according to claim 1, characterized in that the first fine-grained mesh is made stepwise uneven in the radial direction, and the gap in the center is selected from the condition:
d 1 = d 2 + δ,
0 <δ / a <1,
where d 1 - the value of the gap in the center of the capacitive gap,
d 2 - the value of the gap at the edge of the capacitive gap,
δ is the value of the stepped recess in the center of the capacitive gap, μm,
and - the radial size of the stepped recess, microns.
RU2011152844/07A 2011-12-23 2011-12-23 Microwave electrovacuum generator with electron stream reflection RU2485618C1 (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2607462C1 (en) * 2015-07-06 2017-01-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Саратовский государственный технический университет имени Гагарина Ю.А." (СГТУ имени Гагарина Ю.А.) Monotron microwave generator with matrix field emitter cathode
RU2656707C1 (en) * 2016-12-19 2018-06-06 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Саратовский государственный технический университет имени Гагарина Ю.А." (СГТУ имени Гагарина Ю.А.) Klystron type electrovacuum microwave master oscillator

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US20040100484A1 (en) * 2002-11-25 2004-05-27 Barrett Peter T. Three-dimensional television viewing environment
WO2007142419A1 (en) * 2006-06-02 2007-12-13 Korea Electro Technology Research Institute Klystron oscillator using cold cathode electron gun, and oscillation method
RU2340032C2 (en) * 2003-07-22 2008-11-27 Йеда Рисеч Энд Девелопмент Компани Лтд. Device for production of electronic emission
WO2010151458A1 (en) * 2009-06-23 2010-12-29 L-3 Communications Corporation Magnetically insulated cold-cathode electron gun

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040100484A1 (en) * 2002-11-25 2004-05-27 Barrett Peter T. Three-dimensional television viewing environment
RU2340032C2 (en) * 2003-07-22 2008-11-27 Йеда Рисеч Энд Девелопмент Компани Лтд. Device for production of electronic emission
WO2007142419A1 (en) * 2006-06-02 2007-12-13 Korea Electro Technology Research Institute Klystron oscillator using cold cathode electron gun, and oscillation method
WO2010151458A1 (en) * 2009-06-23 2010-12-29 L-3 Communications Corporation Magnetically insulated cold-cathode electron gun

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2607462C1 (en) * 2015-07-06 2017-01-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Саратовский государственный технический университет имени Гагарина Ю.А." (СГТУ имени Гагарина Ю.А.) Monotron microwave generator with matrix field emitter cathode
RU2656707C1 (en) * 2016-12-19 2018-06-06 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Саратовский государственный технический университет имени Гагарина Ю.А." (СГТУ имени Гагарина Ю.А.) Klystron type electrovacuum microwave master oscillator

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