RU2607462C1 - Monotron microwave generator with matrix field emitter cathode - Google Patents

Monotron microwave generator with matrix field emitter cathode Download PDF

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RU2607462C1
RU2607462C1 RU2015127176A RU2015127176A RU2607462C1 RU 2607462 C1 RU2607462 C1 RU 2607462C1 RU 2015127176 A RU2015127176 A RU 2015127176A RU 2015127176 A RU2015127176 A RU 2015127176A RU 2607462 C1 RU2607462 C1 RU 2607462C1
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gap
resonator
capacitive electrode
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Владислав Алексеевич Царев
Алексей Юрьевич Мирошниченко
Наталья Александровна Акафьева
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Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Саратовский государственный технический университет имени Гагарина Ю.А." (СГТУ имени Гагарина Ю.А.)
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J1/00Details of electrodes, of magnetic control means, of screens, or of the mounting or spacing thereof, common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps
    • H01J1/52Screens for shielding; Guides for influencing the discharge; Masks interposed in the electron stream
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J25/00Transit-time tubes, e.g. klystrons, travelling-wave tubes, magnetrons
    • H01J25/02Tubes with electron stream modulated in velocity or density in a modulator zone and thereafter giving up energy in an inducing zone, the zones being associated with one or more resonators
    • H01J25/22Reflex klystrons, i.e. tubes having one or more resonators, with a single reflection of the electron stream, and in which the stream is modulated mainly by velocity in the modulator zone

Abstract

FIELD: electronics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electronic equipment, in particular, to miniature electromagnetic oscillations vacuum generators of SHF range short-wave part, for example to monotrons. Monotron microwave generator with matrix field-emission cathode comprises electrons source, single-gap resonator, reflector, insulator, power supply sourses, SHF energy output device. Source of electrons is made in form of group of separate field emission matrices, arranged on common cathode base. In space between second capacitive electrode and reflecting electrode included two-gap resonator with central and third capacitive electrodes, provided with holes for passage of electron flow, arranged coaxially to span holes in single-gap resonator first and second capacitive electrodes. Central capacitive electrode is installed on ceramic substrate, suspended between second and third capacitive electrodes, and connected to two-gap resonator housing by resonator three strip conductors, two of which are located on single-gap resonator second capacitive electrode side and together with the second capacitive electrode forms half-wave resonant circuit, and third strip conductor is on guide on side of two-gap resonator third capacitive electrode and together with said electrode forms quarter-wave resonant circuit. Second capacitive electrode of resonator contains communication holes providing electromagnetic communication between single-gap and two-gap resonators. Single-gap resonator is made with gap by high frequency via locking capacitance, formed between first capacitive electrode side part and resonator housing.
EFFECT: technical result is increase in efficiency and output power.
6 cl, 7 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the field of electronic technology, in particular to miniature vacuum generators of electromagnetic oscillations of the short-wave part of the microwave range, for example, monotrons.

The prior art in this area is characterized by publications in the public literature, including the information below.

An urgent problem is the development of generators operating in the short-wave part of the microwave range. In this case, it is necessary that such devices have small dimensions and weight and sufficient output power. One of the simplest devices for generating oscillations is a monotron generator, but conventional monotron generators have low efficiency, and they have a very large flight angle, at which the interaction coefficient

Figure 00000001
where
Figure 00000002
, E m is the maximum value of the amplitude of the field strength in the interaction region; γ = ω / ν 0 is the propagation constant; ν 0 is the electron flow velocity; d is the interaction gap length), is small and the efficiency of the device, determined by the value of the efficiency is small. For example, the design of a single-beam monotron is known [Müller JJ Un générateur à temps de transit utilisant un seul résonateur de volume / JJ Müller, E. Rostas // Helv. Phys. Acta. 1940. Vol. 13. No. 3. P. 435-450], the interaction space of which is a flat grid gap with a uniform distribution of the electric field in the direction of electron flow from the gun to the collector. The generator has one hollow single-gap resonator with a flat two-grid gap. However, such a device, despite the simplicity of design, did not find application in view of the low value of electronic efficiency (1-2%) and low output power.

The known design of a single-beam microwave generator - monotron [Patent No. 2,269,456 US. Electron beam oscillator / W.W. Hansen. R.H. Variant. Priority 01/22/1938. Publ. 01/13/1942], consisting of an electron gun, a single-gap resonator, the gap of which is formed by two grids, an electron collector, coaxial energy output. The resonator of such a device is made with a variable cross section, increasing towards the collector. This ensures an uneven distribution of the electric field in the interaction space of the monotron resonator and improves the efficiency of the interaction of the electron beam with the microwave field of the resonator. However, in this case, too, the field distribution in the cavity remains suboptimal, which also does not significantly increase the efficiency.

A known design of an electrovacuum generator with reflection of an electron stream, for example a reflective klystron [Lebedev I.V. Technique and devices of superhigh frequencies / I.V. Lebedev. M.: Higher School, 1972. T. 2. S. 172].

This device consists of a source of primary electrons - a thermal cathode, an accelerating electrode - anode, a cavity resonator with a grid gap and a reflector on which primary electrons do not fall. Moreover, the influence of secondary electrons knocked out by the primary electrons from the grid on the total current of the electron beam is small. Such devices can generate oscillations of the decimeter and centimeter ranges and make it possible to obtain power on the order of fractions of a watt with an electronic efficiency of up to 2-3%.

However, when operating in the short-wave part of the microwave range, the output power of such devices decreases in proportion to the square of the operating frequency, and the electronic efficiency usually does not exceed one percent.

With such a low electronic efficiency, the thermal cathode glow power becomes comparable to the output power. Therefore, such designs are not widely used in the short-wave part of the microwave range.

Known diode generator monotron type with field emission cathode [Yokoo K. Field Emission Monotron for THz Emission / K. Yokoo, T. lshihara // Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves. 1997. Vol. 18. No. 6. P. 1151-1159]. The generator consists of a matrix field emission cathode, anode, and a resonance system. Such a generator has advantages over devices with a thermal cathode, since it does not require an additional power source. However, such a generator also has a sufficiently low efficiency and low output power in the short-wave part of the microwave range.

Known reflective klystron, which includes a system of matrix field emission cathodes, an accelerating electrode with holes for the passage of the primary electron stream, a single-gap cavity, a first grid electrode, a second grid electrode, a reflector, on the inner surface of which a secondary emission coating is applied [Patent WO 2007/142419 A1 . Klystron oscillator using cold cathode electron gun, and oscillation method / Jeon Seok Gy [et al.]. Priority 06/02/2006. Publ. 12/13/2007]. In this design of the device, the primary electron stream is obtained by field emission from the matrix field emission cathode. In this case, part of the electrons that passed through the rf gap of the single-gap resonator at a positive moment in time have a large kinetic energy, so they can overcome the inhibitory effect of the reflector and fall on its surface, which is coated with a high secondary electron emission coefficient. The reverse electron stream consists of electrons formed by secondary electron emission and reflected electrons. The total flux will have a higher current density than the direct electron flux. When the reverse flow moves in the cavity gap, the grouped electron clusters interact with the rf field of the single-gap resonator.

However, in this microwave generator a single-gap resonator is used, which does not allow to obtain a sufficiently high efficiency of interaction of the electron beam with the electromagnetic wave field and limits the range of applications of such devices.

To increase the efficiency and output power of oscillators operating in the upper part of the microwave range, you can use a hybrid device in which the first part of the device is a monotron, the second is a reflective klystron.

Closest to the proposed technical solution is a monotron-type microwave electric vacuum generator with a reflective electrode [Patent US 3339149 A. Reflector augmented monotron oscillator for microwave generator / C.E. Ward, D.R. Zangrando. Priority 12/01/1965. Publ. 08/29/1967]. The device is a hybrid of a monotron and a reflective klystron and operates in the millimeter wavelength range.

A monotron type microwave generator with a reflective electrode includes an electron source that generates an electron stream, a single-gap resonator with a first and second capacitive electrode, a reflective electrode, an insulator that provides direct current isolation between the resonator and the reflector. Electromagnetic energy is removed through a vacuum-tight dielectric window. The first power source is used to heat the heater, the second power source is connected between the cathode and the resonator body and used to obtain accelerating voltage, the third power source is connected between the cathode and the reflector and provides a negative potential to the reflector. The distance between the grids in the device is selected so that the angle of flight of electrons corresponds to the angle of flight of the classical monotron 2π (n + 1/4), where n = 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.

Unlike the classic reflective klystron, the device is able to work in the millimeter range. The enlarged cavity dimensions inherent to the device and the large length of the interaction gap improve the frequency stability during possible vibrations and changes in the ambient temperature. In addition, the starting current density and the load on the cathode are reduced.

However, such devices, despite the hybrid mechanism of operation at very short wavelengths, also work inefficiently. The output power of such devices is small, in addition, the presence of a filament cathode leads to the fact that the power of the filament becomes comparable with the output power of the device.

One of the ways to increase the output power and efficiency of such devices is to switch to multi-beam structures and replace the thermally shielded cathode with a field emission cathode. But known field emission devices have a significant drawback, they have a low beam current. Devices are known in which, to increase the current of the electron beam, a secondary-emission coating is applied to the reflective electrode. However, this method of increasing the beam current is implemented only for reflective klystron.

In order for such devices to work in the short-wave part of the microwave range, the effective characteristic resonator resistance R eff should be close to unity, i.e. the condition [Khaikov A.Z. Klystron amplifiers / A.Z. Khaikov. M .: Communication, 1974. 392 p.]:

Figure 00000003
where ρ is the characteristic resistance of the resonator; M is the interaction coefficient; Q n - loaded Q-factor of the resonator; R 0 is the resistance of the electron beam.

Since currents and voltages in such devices are small, a very large value of ρM 2 is needed, which is not realized for ordinary single-gap resonators. Therefore, in the short-wave part of the microwave range, the use of multi-gap resonators with the number of gaps N> 2, in which ρM 2 increases proportionally to the square of the number of gaps, is promising.

At N = 3, it is possible to increase the beam resistance R 0 = U 0 / I 0 3 times. Therefore, with the selected value of the accelerating voltage, the current can be reduced by an appropriate number of times. In this case, the accelerating voltage U 0 is determined from the theory of klystron:

Figure 00000004
,

where ω = 2πf 0 is the circular frequency; γ = ω / ν 0 , ν 0 is the electron flow velocity; a is the radius; U 0 is the accelerating voltage.

Moreover, the radius a is specified from the condition of technical implementation at the selected operating frequency. Therefore, there is a limitation associated with the technical implementation of the radius of the passage channel a and the choice of the angle of flight from this condition. Therefore, an increase in the parameter ρM 2 by a factor of 9 makes it possible to reduce the beam current by a corresponding number of times. Therefore, the transition from classical monotrons operating in the short-wave part of the microwave range to monotrons with a field emission cathode is relevant. Moreover, to obtain high efficiency, the field distribution in the three gaps should be increasing along the direction of the electron beam [Patent No. 2474914. RF, IPC 7 H01J 25/74. Powerful monotron-type microwave generator / V.A. Tsarev, N.A. Akafiev, A.Yu. Miroshnichenko. Claim 08/11/2011; publ. 02/10/2013], and the low beam current can be compensated for by secondary emission from the surface of the reflector.

The objective of the proposed technical solution is to develop a hybrid multi-beam monotron microwave generator with a multi-channel distributed resonator capable of operating in the terahertz range in the mode of high efficiency and output power.

The technical result of the invention is to increase the efficiency and output power of a monotron microwave generator.

The problem is solved in that in a monotron microwave generator, including an electron source, a single-gap resonator, the interaction space in which is formed by the first and second capacitive electrodes with holes for the passage of the electron beam, a reflector, an insulator, power sources, a microwave energy output device, according to the proposed technical to solving the electron source is made in the form of a group of individual field emission matrices located on a common cathode base; In the space between the second capacitive electrode and the reflective electrode, a two-gap resonator is introduced with a central and third capacitive electrodes provided with holes for the passage of the electron flow, made coaxially with the passage holes in the first and second capacitive electrodes of the single-gap resonator, while the central capacitive electrode is located on a ceramic substrate suspended between the second and third capacitive electrodes, and connected to the housing of the dual-gap resonator by three tape conductors and, two of which are located symmetrically with respect to the central capacitive electrode on the surface of the ceramic substrate, from the side of the second capacitive electrode of the single-gap resonator and together with this electrode form a half-wave resonant circuit, and the third ribbon conductor is located on the surface of the ceramic substrate from the side of the third capacitive electrode of the double-gap resonator and forms a quarter-wave resonant circuit with this electrode; the second capacitive electrode of the resonator contains communication holes that provide electromagnetic coupling between single-gap and double-gap resonators; a single-gap resonator is designed with a high frequency break through a blocking capacitance formed between the side of the first capacitive electrode and the resonator body.

In one of the private options, the reflective electrode is coated with secondary emission material from the side of the third capacitive electrode.

In one of the private options, the housing of the device is made of dielectric material and has a metallized coating on its inner side.

In one of the private options, the holes for the passage of the electron flow in the capacitive electrodes are a coarse mesh with diameters corresponding to the diameter of the field emission matrices.

In one particular embodiment, the passage openings of the first capacitive electrode, the second capacitive electrode, the third capacitive electrode, and the central capacitive electrode are closed by a fine mesh.

In one of the private options, the number of communication holes in the second capacitive electrode is chosen equal to two, while they are located symmetrically with respect to the holes for the passage of the electron stream and are made in a bean-like shape.

Thus, the proposed technical solution uses a distributed resonant system in which an increasing high-frequency field is realized. In this case, to realize a small increasing field, a single-gap resonator with a high-frequency gap formed by the first and second capacitive electrodes is used. A single gap cavity is a so-called cathode cavity.

The installation of an additional two-gap resonator with a suspended dielectric substrate located inside it and ribbon conductors located on it on two sides, makes it possible to enhance the field inhomogeneity in the resonator.

As a result, a three-stage modulation of the electron beam is carried out in this monotron: the first stage is a single-gap resonator; the second stage is a double-gap resonator, and the primary excitation of monotron oscillations occurs in a single-gap resonator, then these oscillations are amplified in the double-gap resonator; the third stage is a reflective mechanism implemented using the reflective electrode of the device.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where in FIG. 1 is a diagram of a monotron microwave generator with a matrix field-emission cathode; FIG. 2 shows a central capacitive electrode and a ribbon conductor placed on a suspended ceramic substrate (a is a quarter-wave resonant circuit, b is a half-wave resonant circuit), FIG. 3 shows a second capacitive electrode with holes for the passage of electrons in the form of a coarse mesh and bean-shaped communication holes between a single-gap resonator and a double-gap resonator, in FIG. 4. shows, as an option, a second capacitive electrode with holes for the passage of electrons in the form of a fine mesh, in FIG. 5 shows, as an option, a central capacitive electrode covered by a fine mesh.

In FIG. Figure 6 shows the relative dependences of the electric field strength (E zm / E m ) in the antiphase mode of oscillations in the gaps of the single-gap and double-gap resonators on the relative longitudinal coordinate Z / Z m , where E m is the maximum amplitude of the electric field in the cavity, Z m - the maximum coordinate in the space of interaction of the resonators in the longitudinal direction.

In FIG. Figure 7 shows the relative dependences of the electric field strength (E zm / E m ) on the in-phase mode of vibrations in the gaps of single-gap and double-gap resonators on the relative longitudinal coordinate Z / Z m .

The positions in the drawings indicate:

1 - cathode base, 2 - matrix field emission cathode system, 3 - first capacitive electrode, 4 - blocking capacitance, 5 - single-gap resonator, 6 - second capacitive electrode, 7 - communication holes, 8 - double-gap resonator, 9 - first tape conductor, 10 - suspended ceramic substrate, 11 - third tape conductor, 12 - central capacitive electrode, 13 - third capacitive electrode, 14 - insulator, 15 - reflective electrode (reflector), 16 - field emission coating of the reflector, 17 - communication device with external load, 18 - power source reflector, 19 - source of accelerating voltage, 20 - second tape conductor, 21 - source of pulling voltage, 22 - fine mesh.

The microwave generator includes an electron source, made in the form of a system of matrix field emission cathodes located on the cathode base 1, with the number of field emission cathodes corresponding to the number of channels for the passage of electrons. The matrix field emission cathode system is connected to a power source 21, which is a source of pulling voltage.

The high-frequency gap of the single-gap resonator 5 is formed by the first 3 and second 6 capacitive electrodes. Single gap resonator 5 by means of locking capacitance 4 is separated from the substrate 1 and the first capacitive electrode 3.

One of the conclusions of the source of the pulling voltage 21 is connected to the first capacitive electrode 3, which has channels for the passage of the electron beam, for example, in the form of a coarse mesh. The accelerating voltage source 19, which provides additional acceleration of the electron beam before it enters the dual-gap resonator 8, is connected between the first capacitive electrode 3 and the housing of the dual-gap resonator 8. The output of the accelerating voltage source 19 connected to the resonator 8 is grounded. The power source 18 of the reflector 15 is connected between the housing of the dual-gap resonator 8 and the reflector 15 and provides a braking field for electrons. The insulator 14 divides the direct reflector 15 and the housing of the dual-gap resonator 8. In the second capacitive electrode 6 there are holes 7 arranged symmetrically relative to the channels for the passage of electrons, having a bean-like shape and serving as communication elements between the single-gap resonator 5 and the dual-gap resonator 8. In the second capacitive the electrode 6 also has channels for the passage of the electron stream, which are, for example, a coarse mesh. Between the second capacitive electrode 6 and the third capacitive electrode 13, a suspended ceramic substrate 10 is mounted, which is fixed to the housing of the dual-gap resonator 8. On the suspended ceramic substrate 10 is a central capacitive electrode 12, which is connected to the housing of the dual-gap resonator 8 by means of three tape conductors 9, 11, 20. In this case, the ribbon conductors 9, 20 are located symmetrically with respect to the central capacitive electrode 12 on the surface of the dielectric substrate facing the second capacitive 6, the electrode gap resonators and form a half-wave resonant circuit. The third tape conductor 11 is located on the surface of the dielectric substrate facing the third capacitive electrode 13 of the dual-gap resonator 8, which forms a quarter-wave resonant circuit. The Central capacitive electrode 12 also has channels for the passage of electrons, for example, in the form of a coarse mesh. Between the central capacitive electrode and the reflector there is a third capacitive electrode 13 connected to the housing of the dual gap resonator and having channels for the passage of electrons in the form of a coarse mesh.

The casing of the device can be made of dielectric material and provided with a metallized coating on its inner side.

The surface of the reflective electrode 15 from the side of the third grid electrode may be provided with a secondary emission coating 16, which has a high coefficient of secondary emission of electrons, for example a diamond film.

The holes for the passage of the electron stream made in the first, second, third and central capacitive electrodes can be a coarse mesh with hole diameters corresponding to the diameters of individual field emission cathodes.

Span openings of the first capacitive electrode, the second capacitive electrode, the third capacitive electrode and the central capacitive electrode can be closed with a fine mesh.

The whole device is in a vacuum shell. The output of microwave energy in the device is carried out through a communication device with an external load 17, which is a vacuum-tight dielectric window in the housing of a dual-gap resonator 8.

The device operates as follows.

Between the system of matrix field emission cathodes 2 and the first capacitive electrode 3, a pulling voltage is applied, which results in field emission from the system of matrix field emission cathodes 2. The electron stream emitted by the system of matrix field emission cathodes 2 is accelerated by the pulling voltage.

In this design of the device, the primary electron stream is obtained by field emission from matrix field emission cathodes. A cold cathode device has the important advantage of low power consumption. This device does not require heating of the cathode, and thus, this simplifies its design.

When the electron beam passes through the single-gap resonator 5 in the forward direction, the primary excitation of monotron oscillations occurs, then these oscillations are amplified in the double-gap resonator 8.

In this case, the initial excitation of the single-gap resonator 5 by the electron beam is due to chaotic self-oscillations of electrons that excite the single-gap resonator 5 in the 2π-mode of oscillations.

Electromagnetic coupling between a single-gap resonator 5 and a dual-gap resonator 8 is carried out through the bean-shaped communication holes 7.

The modulated electron beam, passing further through the openings for the passage of the electron beam of the second capacitive electrode 6, is accelerated by the accelerating voltage of the power source 19, which is connected between the first capacitive electrode 3 and the housing of the dual-gap resonator 8. When the electron beam passes through the dual-gap resonator 8, it interacts with the fields of two high-frequency gaps.

A negative potential is applied to the reflective electrode 15 of the device relative to the housing of the dual-gap resonator 8 using the power source of the reflector 18, as a result of which the electrons after the passage of the third capacitive electrode 13 move first towards the reflector 15, then return to the gaps of the dual-gap resonator 8. The reflector 15 provides a high negative potential relative to the voltage at the double-gap resonator 8, which contributes to the mechanism of grouping of the electron beam, which is added to the mechanism monotron grouping leads to an increase in efficiency of the microwave generator. A secondary emission coating 16 is applied to the reflector 15. Only the fastest electrons fall onto the secondary emission coating of the reflector 16. These electrons cause secondary electron emission, increasing the total flux of reflected electrons. Thus, the surface of the reflector 16 plays the role of a secondary cathode emitting secondary electrons. Due to the presence of secondary electron emission from the reflector 15, the “beam” effect of the electron beam is present in this generator, that is, secondary electrons are accelerated in the region between the reflector 15 and the double-gap resonator 8, amplifying the electron beam of primary electrons. The electron bunches formed in the region of the reflector 15 fall into the interaction region of the double-gap resonator in the corresponding phase of the high-frequency field for optimal interaction and energy transfer of the electron beam to the microwave field of the resonator.

The optimal phase angle is determined for each generation zone by adjusting the reflector voltage to the maximum power in each generation zone. For optimal energy transfer of the electron beam to the microwave field, the relative electron conductivity should be negative.

In the double-gap resonator 8, the interaction of the electric high-frequency field of the cavity resonator with the electron beam is possible either on the π-type of oscillations (antiphase form) or on the 2π-form of oscillations (in-phase form). Located on the ceramic substrate, the half-wave and quarter-wave resonant circuits in the form of tape conductors 9, 11, 20 provide an inhomogeneous electric field in the double-gap resonator. In this case, the maximum amplitudes of the electric field intensities in the corresponding high-frequency gaps increase from the gap of the single-gap resonator to the second gap of the double-gap resonator (Fig. 6, 7).

The inhomogeneous distribution of the high-frequency electric field in the interaction space of the generator improves the efficiency of the interaction of the electron beam with the microwave field of the resonators compared to the classical monotron based on a single-gap resonator with a uniform high-frequency field in the gap.

Thus, the use of a single-gap and a double-gap resonator in a device allows one to obtain a distributed three-gap system with an increasing high-frequency electric field, with a small amplitude in a single-gap resonator and a large one in a two-gap, and the use of strip strip conductors forming a half-wave and quarter-wave resonant system allows to obtain more distribution of a high-frequency electric field in antiphase mode of oscillation (Fig. 6) and an oscillation-phase (Fig. 7) and, in turn, a higher efficiency at reduced weight and size characteristics.

A device design is also possible (Fig. 4, 5), in which, for more effective operation in the terahertz range, the span openings of the first capacitive electrode, the second capacitive electrode, the third capacitive electrode, and the central capacitive electrode are coated with a fine-grained mesh.

Claims (6)

1. A monotron microwave generator, including an electron source located inside the device’s body, a single-gap resonator, in which the interaction space is formed by the first and second, in the direction of the primary electron flow, capacitive electrodes with holes for the passage of electrons, a reflective electrode, an insulator, power sources, a microwave energy output device, characterized in that the electron source is made in the form of a group of field emission matrices located on a common cathode base; In the space between the second capacitive electrode and the reflective electrode, a two-gap resonator is introduced with a central and third capacitive electrodes provided with openings for the passage of electron flow, located coaxially with the passage openings in the first and second capacitive electrodes of the single-gap resonator, while the central capacitive electrode is located on a ceramic substrate suspended between the second and third capacitive electrodes, and connected to the housing of the dual-gap resonator by three tape conductors two of which are located symmetrically with respect to the central capacitive electrode on the surface of the ceramic substrate from the side of the second capacitive electrode of the single-gap resonator and together with the second capacitive electrode form a half-wave resonant circuit, and the third ribbon conductor is located on the surface of the ceramic substrate from the side of the third capacitive electrode of the double-gap resonator and forms a quarter-wave resonant circuit with this electrode; the second capacitive electrode of the resonator contains communication holes that provide electromagnetic coupling between single-gap and double-gap resonators; a single-gap resonator is designed with a high frequency break through a blocking capacitance formed between the side of the first capacitive electrode and the resonator body.
2. A monotron microwave generator according to claim 1, characterized in that the reflective electrode is coated with secondary emission material from the side of the third capacitive electrode.
3. A monotron microwave generator according to claim 1, characterized in that the casing of the device is made of dielectric material and has a metallized coating on its inner side.
4. The monotron microwave generator according to claim 1, characterized in that the openings for the passage of the electron stream in the capacitive electrodes are a coarse mesh with diameters corresponding to the diameter of the field emission matrices.
5. The monotron microwave generator according to claim 1, characterized in that the span openings of the first capacitive electrode, the second capacitive electrode, the third capacitive electrode and the central capacitive electrode are closed by a fine mesh.
6. The monotron microwave generator according to claim 1, characterized in that the number of communication holes in the second capacitive electrode is chosen equal to two, while they are located symmetrically with respect to the holes for the passage of the electron stream and are made in a bean-like shape.
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WO2007142419A1 (en) * 2006-06-02 2007-12-13 Korea Electro Technology Research Institute Klystron oscillator using cold cathode electron gun, and oscillation method
WO2010151458A1 (en) * 2009-06-23 2010-12-29 L-3 Communications Corporation Magnetically insulated cold-cathode electron gun
RU2485618C1 (en) * 2011-12-23 2013-06-20 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Саратовский государственный технический университет имени Ю.А. Гагарина" (СГТУ имени Ю.А. Гагарина) Microwave electrovacuum generator with electron stream reflection

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US339149A (en) * 1886-04-06 Revolver
WO2007142419A1 (en) * 2006-06-02 2007-12-13 Korea Electro Technology Research Institute Klystron oscillator using cold cathode electron gun, and oscillation method
WO2010151458A1 (en) * 2009-06-23 2010-12-29 L-3 Communications Corporation Magnetically insulated cold-cathode electron gun
RU2485618C1 (en) * 2011-12-23 2013-06-20 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Саратовский государственный технический университет имени Ю.А. Гагарина" (СГТУ имени Ю.А. Гагарина) Microwave electrovacuum generator with electron stream reflection

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