RU2393936C1 - Method of producing ultra-fine-grain billets from metals and alloys - Google Patents

Method of producing ultra-fine-grain billets from metals and alloys Download PDF

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RU2393936C1
RU2393936C1 RU2009110937/02A RU2009110937A RU2393936C1 RU 2393936 C1 RU2393936 C1 RU 2393936C1 RU 2009110937/02 A RU2009110937/02 A RU 2009110937/02A RU 2009110937 A RU2009110937 A RU 2009110937A RU 2393936 C1 RU2393936 C1 RU 2393936C1
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Russia
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workpiece
forging
deformation
size
axis
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RU2009110937/02A
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Russian (ru)
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Владимир Алексеевич Шундалов (RU)
Владимир Алексеевич Шундалов
Владимир Юрьевич Иванов (RU)
Владимир Юрьевич Иванов
Владимир Валентинович Латыш (RU)
Владимир Валентинович Латыш
Игорь Николаевич Михайлов (RU)
Игорь Николаевич Михайлов
Сергей Петрович Павлинич (RU)
Сергей Петрович Павлинич
Альфред Васимович Шарафутдинов (RU)
Альфред Васимович Шарафутдинов
Original Assignee
Владимир Алексеевич Шундалов
Владимир Юрьевич Иванов
Владимир Валентинович Латыш
Игорь Николаевич Михайлов
Сергей Петрович Павлинич
Альфред Васимович Шарафутдинов
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Abstract

FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming designed to produce ultra-fine-grain structure increasing physical and mechanical properties of parts and can be used in machine building, aircraft engineering and medicine. Method comprises intensive plastic deformation by multiple all-around forging. At every forging stage, strain direction is successively changes along three axes of coordinates. Forging is started in billet material forging temperature range. Then temperature is decreased after every or several deformation stages to temperature below recrystallisation threshold. Forging is performed inside mold cavity in plain-strain condition. Biller size is reduced in direction of first axis of coordinates that complies with strain force direction. Billet size is increased in direction of second axis of coordinates on the biller free side. Billet size is maintained in direction of third axis of coordinates on billet fixed side. Billet size in direction of first axis of coordinates does not exceed that in direction of third axis of coordinates. Machining is made in several cycles to produced accumulated strain degree making at least 3.
EFFECT: improved physical and mechanical properties, higher process efficiency.
4 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg

Description

The invention relates to deformation-heat treatment of metals with the aim of forming an ultrafine-grained structure, which provides a significant increase in their physical and mechanical properties, and can be used in mechanical engineering, aircraft manufacturing, medicine.
Known methods of deformation processing of metals in order to obtain ultrafine-grained structure, combining plastic deformation and heat treatment.
For example, the method of deforming workpieces in intersecting vertical and horizontal channels of equal cross-section (V. M. Segal, V. I. Kopylov, V. I. Reznikov. The processes of plastic structure formation of metals. Minsk: Nauka i Tekhnika, 1994, p.24) allows harden the metal by achieving a high intensity of accumulated deformations.
A known method of forming a structure by forging (Formation of a submicrocrystalline structure in titanium alloys by intense plastic deformation. Zherebtsov SV, Galeev PM, Valiakhmetov OR, Malysheva SP, Salishchev GA, Myshlyaev NM / Forging and stamping production, No. 7, 1999, p.17 ... 22).
A known method of processing billets, including plastic deformation in intersecting channels followed by thermomechanical processing (RF patent No. 2175685, IPC C22F 1/18, B21J 5/100, publ. 10.11.01).
However, the known methods do not significantly increase the level of physical and mechanical properties and the uniformity of their distribution over the volume of the workpiece due to the instability of the structure formation process, in addition, they have low economic efficiency due to the low tool life and low material utilization.
Closest to the proposed one is a method for producing a nanostructure in metals and alloys by the method of intensive plastic deformation by comprehensive forging in an open die (RZ Valiev, IV Aleksandrov. Nanostructured materials obtained by intensive plastic deformation. - M .: Logos, 2000, p.17-19). The method includes heating the original billet and the stamp, its phased multi-cycle deformation in the stamp with a gradual decrease in temperature and with the change of the deformation axes in series in the direction of each of the three coordinate axes of the workpiece.
This method allows to obtain an ultrafine-grained structure in bulk and sufficiently massive blanks of various sizes using universal die tooling ("flat strikers").
The disadvantages of the method include the low productivity of the technological process of obtaining a given microstructure in the workpieces, the low technological plasticity of the deformable material, since during draft and drawing the workpiece experiences tensile stresses in the directions of two axes of the workpiece and compression stress in the direction of the third axis. In addition, this method is characterized by the heterogeneity of the deformation and its speed over the volume of the workpiece, which leads to heterogeneity and localization of the deformation, contributing to a decrease in the resource of technological plasticity of the deformable material.
The objective of the invention is to improve the physico-mechanical properties of the workpiece material, increasing processing productivity.
The problem is solved by a method involving intensive plastic deformation by multiple comprehensive forging with a change at each stage of the deformation direction sequentially along the three coordinate axes, which begins in the forging temperature range of the workpiece material with its subsequent decrease after each or several stages of deformation to a temperature below the recrystallization threshold, in which, unlike the prototype, forging is carried out in the cavity of the stamp according to the plan of a plane-deformed state, in which provide at each stage of deformation, reducing the size of the workpiece in the direction of the first coordinate axis, which coincides with the direction of application of the deforming force, increasing the size of the workpiece in the directions of the second coordinate axis - from the free side of the workpiece and maintaining the size of the workpiece in the direction of the third coordinate axis - from the agitated side of the workpiece, at the end of the deformation step, the size of the workpiece in the direction of the first coordinate axis does not exceed the size of the workpiece in the direction of the third coordinate axis, and The work is carried out in several cycles until the degree of accumulated deformation of at least 3 is reached.
According to the method, forging a workpiece can be carried out under conditions of creating back pressure from the free side of the workpiece.
According to the method, the forging of the workpiece can be carried out at the same temperature of the workpiece and the stamp.
According to the method, forging a workpiece can be carried out at different temperatures of the workpiece and the stamp.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a half-closed stamp placed in it, the workpiece, figure 2 shows a phased diagram of the deformation of the workpiece.
The stamp consists of a matrix 1, a punch 2 and an ejector 3, which form a cavity in the form of a parallelepiped at the lowermost position of the punch 2 (shown by a dotted line) on the workpiece 4.
The deformation of the workpiece is carried out in stages and cyclically. One cycle of deformation (Fig.2, a, b, c) consists of three stages: I, II, III.
In step I, a workpiece with sides A, B, C having a first, second, third coordinate axis, respectively Z, X, Y, is applied with a deforming force P in the direction of the Y axis (side C). During deformation, there is a decrease in the size of the workpiece in this direction and an increase in the size of the workpiece in the direction of the X axis (free side B of the workpiece in the stamp). In the direction of the Z axis (the worn side A of the workpiece in the stamp), the size of the workpiece does not change, because limited by the die cavity.
Then the workpiece is removed from the stamp, rotate 90 ° relative to the axes X and Z and again set in the cavity of the stamp. Next, stage II of deformation is performed with the application of force P along the X axis (side B). At the same time, the size of the workpiece along the X axis decreases, along the Z axis increases and remains unchanged along the Y axis. At the end of stage II, the workpiece is repeatedly removed from the stamp, rotated 90 ° relative to the Y and Z axes, and again installed in the die cavity. Then produce stage III deformation, with the application of force along the Z axis (side A). In this case, the size of the workpiece along the Z axis decreases, along the Y axis increases and remains unchanged along the X axis.
Thus, upon completion of stages I, II, III, the workpiece undergoes deformation along all three axes of coordinates X, Y, Z, which is one cycle of deformation. The number of cycles is determined by the achievement of the required degree of accumulated deformation.
The proposed method of deformation processing according to the plan of a plane-deformed state ensures the combination of upsetting and drawing at each stage. At the same time, multi-stage processing with a change in the deformation axes makes it possible to improve the physicomechanical properties of the material by ensuring uniform intense deformation in the volume of the workpiece. The combination at each stage of the operation of upsetting and drawing allows you to increase processing productivity
When processing some materials, for example, heat-resistant nickel-based alloys, refractory metals, to ensure uniform structure and technological plasticity over the entire volume of the workpiece, the process of intense plastic deformation according to the proposed scheme is carried out with the creation of back pressure, which is ensured by means of backwater placed in the die cavity with free side of the workpiece.
The process of processing metals and alloys in order to obtain ultrafine-grained workpieces according to the proposed method can be carried out at the same temperature of the workpiece and the stamp. This is acceptable, for example, for aluminum alloys for which the initial processing temperature does not exceed 520-530 ° C. In this case, relatively inexpensive heat-resistant die steels of the type 5KHNV, 5NNM, DI22 can be used as stamping material.
When deforming billets of metals and alloys requiring a higher temperature, for example, of titanium alloys, heat-resistant nickel-based alloys (type ZhS6) can be used as stamping material. In this case, it is also realistic to ensure that the temperature of the stamp and the workpiece is equal during deformation, which does not require intermediate heating of the workpiece in the furnace and can significantly increase the productivity of the process.
For deformation of refractory metals (tungsten, molybdenum and nickel-based alloys), treatment is started at a workpiece temperature of 1170-1190 ° C, and the working temperature of a stamp, for example, from ZhS6U alloy, cannot exceed 950-970 ° C. In these cases, heating the workpieces in the furnace between the deformation steps is necessary.
An example implementation of the method.
A prismatic blank with dimensions 44 × 44 × 85 mm made of VT1-0 titanium alloy having a microstructure with a grain size of 40 μm and a microhardness of H v = 1850 MPa was processed according to the proposed method. To deform the workpiece, a stamp made of heat-resistant steel 5XHB with a prismatic engraving of 44 × 44 × 90 mm was used. The stamp was heated to a temperature of 500 ° C, the engraving and the punch were lubricated with an oily suspension of colloidal graphite. The billet was heated in a chamber electric furnace KS-600 to a temperature of 800-820 ° C for 1 hour, then placed in the engraving of the stamp so that its larger size coincided with the direction of application of the deforming force. During deformation, the size of the workpiece decreased in the direction of the coordinate axis, which coincides with the direction of application of the deforming force, increased in the direction of the second coordinate axis (long matrix size), in the direction of the third coordinate axis, the size of the workpiece remained unchanged. In total, three stages of deformation were carried out with a change in the axes of application of the deforming force. Moreover, at each stage, the heating temperature of the billet was lowered: after the first stage to 700-720 ° C, after the second stage to 600-620 ° C.
At the end of the treatment, the degree of accumulated deformation of 3 was achieved, the grain size was 0.55 μm, and the microhardness increased by about 1.5 times to Hv = 2840 MPa. At the same time, tests showed uniformity of the fine-grained structure over the entire volume of the workpiece.
Thus, the proposed invention allows to improve the physico-mechanical properties of the workpiece material and increase processing productivity.

Claims (4)

1. A method of obtaining ultrafine-grained billets from metals and alloys, including intensive plastic deformation by multiple comprehensive forging with a change at each stage of the direction of deformation sequentially along the three coordinate axes, which begin in the forging temperature range of the material of the workpiece with its subsequent decrease after each or several stages of deformation to a temperature below the recrystallization threshold, characterized in that the forging is carried out in the die cavity according to a planarly deformed about the state in which at each stage of deformation, a reduction in the size of the workpiece in the direction of the first coordinate axis coincides with the direction of application of the deforming force, an increase in the size of the workpiece in the direction of the second coordinate axis — from the free side of the workpiece, and preservation of the size of the workpiece in the direction of the third coordinate axis — from the bent side of the workpiece, and at the end of the deformation step, the size of the workpiece in the direction of the first coordinate axis does not exceed the size of the workpiece in the direction of t coordinate axis, and the processing is carried out in several cycles until the degree of accumulated deformation of at least 3 is reached.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the forging of the workpiece is carried out with the creation of back pressure from the free side of the workpiece.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the forging is carried out at the same temperature of the workpiece and the stamp.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the forging is carried out at different temperatures of the workpiece and the stamp.
RU2009110937/02A 2009-03-25 2009-03-25 Method of producing ultra-fine-grain billets from metals and alloys RU2393936C1 (en)

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Cited By (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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RU2456111C1 (en) * 2011-04-01 2012-07-20 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Уфимский государственный авиационный технический университет" Method of forming ultra-fine-grained structure in billets from metal and alloys
RU2486275C1 (en) * 2012-05-24 2013-06-27 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Уфимский государственный авиационный технический университет" Method to produce ultra-fine grain blank of gte blade of titanium alloys
RU2581331C2 (en) * 2010-09-15 2016-04-20 ЭйТиАй ПРОПЕРТИЗ, ИНК. Method for thermomechanical processing of workpiece made of titanium or titanium alloy
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US9624567B2 (en) 2010-09-15 2017-04-18 Ati Properties Llc Methods for processing titanium alloys
US9765420B2 (en) 2010-07-19 2017-09-19 Ati Properties Llc Processing of α/β titanium alloys
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RU2637446C2 (en) * 2012-12-14 2017-12-04 ЭйТиАй ПРОПЕРТИЗ ЭлЭлСи Methods for processing titanium alloys
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RU2664346C1 (en) * 2017-05-12 2018-08-16 Хермит Эдванст Технолоджиз ГмбХ Method for producing titanium alloy billets for products experiencing variable mechanical loads
US10053758B2 (en) 2010-01-22 2018-08-21 Ati Properties Llc Production of high strength titanium
US10094003B2 (en) 2015-01-12 2018-10-09 Ati Properties Llc Titanium alloy
RU2681033C2 (en) * 2017-05-12 2019-03-01 Хермит Эдванст Технолоджиз ГмбХ Method for producing titanium alloy billets for products experiencing variable mechanical loads
US10337093B2 (en) 2013-03-11 2019-07-02 Ati Properties Llc Non-magnetic alloy forgings
US10502252B2 (en) 2015-11-23 2019-12-10 Ati Properties Llc Processing of alpha-beta titanium alloys
US10513755B2 (en) 2010-09-23 2019-12-24 Ati Properties Llc High strength alpha/beta titanium alloy fasteners and fastener stock

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US9796005B2 (en) 2003-05-09 2017-10-24 Ati Properties Llc Processing of titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloys and products made thereby
US9523137B2 (en) 2004-05-21 2016-12-20 Ati Properties Llc Metastable β-titanium alloys and methods of processing the same by direct aging
US10422027B2 (en) 2004-05-21 2019-09-24 Ati Properties Llc Metastable beta-titanium alloys and methods of processing the same by direct aging
US10053758B2 (en) 2010-01-22 2018-08-21 Ati Properties Llc Production of high strength titanium
US10144999B2 (en) 2010-07-19 2018-12-04 Ati Properties Llc Processing of alpha/beta titanium alloys
US9765420B2 (en) 2010-07-19 2017-09-19 Ati Properties Llc Processing of α/β titanium alloys
RU2581331C2 (en) * 2010-09-15 2016-04-20 ЭйТиАй ПРОПЕРТИЗ, ИНК. Method for thermomechanical processing of workpiece made of titanium or titanium alloy
US9624567B2 (en) 2010-09-15 2017-04-18 Ati Properties Llc Methods for processing titanium alloys
US10435775B2 (en) 2010-09-15 2019-10-08 Ati Properties Llc Processing routes for titanium and titanium alloys
US10513755B2 (en) 2010-09-23 2019-12-24 Ati Properties Llc High strength alpha/beta titanium alloy fasteners and fastener stock
RU2456111C1 (en) * 2011-04-01 2012-07-20 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Уфимский государственный авиационный технический университет" Method of forming ultra-fine-grained structure in billets from metal and alloys
US10287655B2 (en) 2011-06-01 2019-05-14 Ati Properties Llc Nickel-base alloy and articles
US9616480B2 (en) 2011-06-01 2017-04-11 Ati Properties Llc Thermo-mechanical processing of nickel-base alloys
RU2486275C1 (en) * 2012-05-24 2013-06-27 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Уфимский государственный авиационный технический университет" Method to produce ultra-fine grain blank of gte blade of titanium alloys
RU2637446C2 (en) * 2012-12-14 2017-12-04 ЭйТиАй ПРОПЕРТИЗ ЭлЭлСи Methods for processing titanium alloys
RU2688109C2 (en) * 2012-12-14 2019-05-17 ЭйТиАй ПРОПЕРТИЗ ЭлЭлСи Methods for processing titanium alloys
US9869003B2 (en) 2013-02-26 2018-01-16 Ati Properties Llc Methods for processing alloys
US10570469B2 (en) 2013-02-26 2020-02-25 Ati Properties Llc Methods for processing alloys
US10337093B2 (en) 2013-03-11 2019-07-02 Ati Properties Llc Non-magnetic alloy forgings
US10370751B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2019-08-06 Ati Properties Llc Thermomechanical processing of alpha-beta titanium alloys
US9777361B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-10-03 Ati Properties Llc Thermomechanical processing of alpha-beta titanium alloys
RU2583551C2 (en) * 2014-05-16 2016-05-10 Акционерное общество "Специальное конструкторско-технологическое бюро "Мединструмент" (АО "СКТБ "Мединструмент") Method of production of ultrafine-grained titanium work pieces
US10094003B2 (en) 2015-01-12 2018-10-09 Ati Properties Llc Titanium alloy
US10619226B2 (en) 2015-01-12 2020-04-14 Ati Properties Llc Titanium alloy
US10808298B2 (en) 2015-01-12 2020-10-20 Ati Properties Llc Titanium alloy
US10502252B2 (en) 2015-11-23 2019-12-10 Ati Properties Llc Processing of alpha-beta titanium alloys
RU2681033C2 (en) * 2017-05-12 2019-03-01 Хермит Эдванст Технолоджиз ГмбХ Method for producing titanium alloy billets for products experiencing variable mechanical loads
RU2664346C1 (en) * 2017-05-12 2018-08-16 Хермит Эдванст Технолоджиз ГмбХ Method for producing titanium alloy billets for products experiencing variable mechanical loads

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