RU2237217C2 - Burner unit and domestic heating stove for liquid fuel - Google Patents

Burner unit and domestic heating stove for liquid fuel Download PDF

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RU2237217C2
RU2237217C2 RU2002111483/06A RU2002111483A RU2237217C2 RU 2237217 C2 RU2237217 C2 RU 2237217C2 RU 2002111483/06 A RU2002111483/06 A RU 2002111483/06A RU 2002111483 A RU2002111483 A RU 2002111483A RU 2237217 C2 RU2237217 C2 RU 2237217C2
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Russia
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burner
fuel
housing
air
shells
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RU2002111483/06A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2002111483A (en
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В.И. Котельников (RU)
В.И. Котельников
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Котельников Вячеслав Иванович
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Abstract

FIELD: domestic heating appliances working fuel (kerosene, diesel fuel) without additional energy; evaporation-type burner units at control of natural draught.
SUBSTANCE: proposed burner unit has cylindrical housing fastened with base made in form of disk and provided with air intake ports; housing is provided with two cylindrical perforated shells forming combustion chambers in between them; air supply passage is provided between housing and external shell. Internal shell is closed with blind diaphragm at the top and with perforated diaphragm at the bottom. Housing terminates in contraction at the top and has holes for delivery of secondary air which are located in upper half. Mounted in internal shell is tubular fuel evaporator whose inlet is communicated with fuel system of heating appliance and outlet is communicated with gas collector made in base between shells in form of circular passage; this passage is provide with gas dispersion unit made from porous hygroscopic heat-resistant material, asbestos cardboard for example in form of stack of belts. Upper end faces of shells are provided with swirlers in form of throttling grate with many guide vanes. Guide vanes are located in plan between housing and internal shell in radial direction. Device is provided with ignition unit for firing-up the stove which is located near collector and is used for pouring fuel. Stove includes fuel tank with flow regulator, body inside which combustion chamber and air chamber are located. Gas duct mounted above combustion chamber is provided with exhaust branch pipe fitted with rarefaction regulator. Burner unit is so mounted in partition that upper portion of its housing is located in combustion chamber of stove and remaining part with holes for delivery of secondary air is located in air chamber. Housing may bypass surrounding air to gas duct through combustion chamber beyond burner unit by means of bypass port made in partition. Delivery of fuel from tank to evaporator of burner unit is performed by gravity. Maximum level of fuel in tank is at height excluding its overflow from evaporator to collector.
EFFECT: complete combustion of fuel; enhanced reliability; improved characteristics without re-adjustment.
25 cl, 9 dwg

Description

The invention relates to heating equipment, in particular to autonomous domestic stoves and burner devices of an evaporative type for them, operating on liquid fuel (kerosene, diesel, alcohol and others), in which the combustion air is supplied by natural draft without using additional types of energy .
Burners of the indicated type and purpose are known in which fuel evaporates from the open surface of the fuel layer, for example, a burner in which evaporation is carried out by transferring heat by radiation from an open flame (see Yu.P. Sosnin, EN Bukharkin. Heating and hot water supply of an individual house.M.: Stroyizdat, 1991, pp. 176-177, Fig. 93a). It consists of a cylindrical body, inside of which there is a plate-shaped base for fuel, supporting an air distribution column with a flame deflector on top along the axis, and a cylinder with holes for supplying secondary air along the periphery. Inside the base there are fittings for supplying and draining overflowing fuel, as well as for supplying fuel to the glow plug. Fuel is fed to the burner by gravity from the pressure tank. Air from the fan (or natural draft) enters the body through the central hole in the base and column, and then, changing direction, to the fuel mirror. The air-fuel mixture is formed above the mirror and in the perforated cylinder, where combustion actually occurs.
The described burner does not provide complete combustion of fuel. First of all, this is caused by the uneven distribution of fuel and primary air in the perforated cylinder (combustion chamber) both along the front and along the height. Their main mixing occurs on the oncoming movement in the upper part of the cylinder, where an undesirable excess of air is observed, which is difficult to penetrate into the lower (especially internal) zone of the cylinder and further to the mirror through the combustion front, especially in countercurrent draft. In addition, the evaporation of fuel also occurs unevenly, since the intensity of combustion over the cross section of the burner and, accordingly, the heating of different sections of the fuel mirror are different. These circumstances (especially with natural draft) lead to an imperfection of the working process and the extraction of unburned fuel particles from the burner. This drawback is aggravated by the supply to the combustion zone of a relatively cold central air stream that reduces the temperature of the flame. As a result of all combustion occurs with significant soot formation, especially on a cold flame reflector. The practically unchanged area of the fuel mirror determines a very narrow range of combustion power. Normal operation requires accurate installation in the horizontal plane and constant monitoring of the fuel level in it, since overfilling it can cause a fire, which complicates the fuel system of the heating device. The preference for forced air supply requires the use of additional types of energy, limiting the scope of the burner. A separate power and ignition system is required to start the burner.
A heater for domestic premises is also known, which uses the principle of catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels for heat production (AS 1778450, class F 24 C 5/08, 1992).
The heater comprises a housing with double walls, between which a through air-heating channel is formed. Inside the housing there is a burner with an annular catalytic nozzle (burner), inside of which there is a tubular evaporator, which is connected by a fuel line to a fuel metering device, which in turn is connected to the main fuel tank located above the evaporator. The dispenser and fuel tank are mounted on the rod with the ability to move up and down. The heater is also equipped with a start-up device, which is powered by gasoline or alcohol from an autonomous fuel tank.
Catalytic combustion, in principle, provides a fairly high completeness of fuel combustion, but it is achieved at maximum temperatures of the catalytic surface and low convection flows in the burner, practically in the absence of any extraction of combustion products, as is the case in currently used domestic and foreign heaters . The installation of a catalytic burner in a furnace with an exhaust pipe (channel), as in the described heater, reduces its efficiency, since the presence of any draft reduces the temperature of the catalytic nozzle. In addition, the latter requires the use of light hydrocarbons (gasoline, kerosene) and strictly normalized fuel consumption, and in a narrow range, since at a low flow rate the combustion process tends to attenuate due to insufficient temperature, and at a higher rate it leads to clogging of the nozzle pores with combustion products and "slip" of unoxidized fuel vapors, unjustified fuel consumption and lower efficiency of the device as a whole. Moreover, the “slip” of vapors in the specified heater is possible not only through the nozzle, but also if there is an excess of them in the evaporation chamber - into the through air-heating channel (through openings in the support ring) and then into the heated room. In this case, ignition of vapors in the evaporation chamber and the emission of flame into the specified channel are not excluded. In addition, the presence in the power supply system of three fuel tanks and especially the dispenser in the evaporator line complicates the design and significantly reduces the reliability of the heater. A possible violation of the tightness of the shut-off valve, malfunctions of the float mechanism in the dispenser can cause fuel overflow from the evaporator and fire. Due to these shortcomings, this heater has not found practical application.
Closest to the proposed burner device and furnace according to the principle of action and design is a heating device according to the application of the Russian Federation No. 93014935 A, class. F 24 C 5/02, publ. 06/19/1995, the device runs on liquid fuel and the burner used in it is made in the form of a cylindrical body with a base in the form of a bowl mounted on the body, in which the fuel evaporator is vertically mounted in the form of two coaxial tubes, the inside of which is connected to the fuel system heating device, and the external one serves as a fuel vapor collector and is in communication with a gas manifold made in the form of a torus with holes fixed on the evaporator in its lower part above the bowl. Above the collector, between the body and the evaporator, two blade swirlers are mounted one above the other. Air enters the burner through the bottom of the housing above the base.
The burner is vertically mounted in the horizontal partition of the heating device housing, separating the combustion chamber in it from the air chamber located in the lower part of the housing, on the side wall of which there is an exhaust pipe at the top of the combustion chamber. Outside the casing there is a heat shield carrying a fuel tank, the fuel level of which is lower than the upper cut of the inner tube of the evaporator. The tank has a hermetically mounted flow regulator with a locking needle that blocks the entrance to the fuel supply line to the burner. The fuel level in the evaporator is regulated on the principle of the Marriott vessel operation, for which a drain pipe is passed through the sealed filler neck, the lower cut of which is located near the bottom of the tank at the level of the fuel boiling zone in the evaporator. The burner in the partition is installed so that the upper part of its body is located in the combustion chamber, and the lower one in the air chamber.
To ignite the burner, fuel is poured into the bowl with the wick and, after impregnating the wick, it is ignited. As the evaporator warms up, fuel begins to evaporate in it and the resulting gas enters the collector. Expiring from the openings of the collector, gaseous fuel ignites in the stream of air entering the burner, and the main combustion occurs in the swirl zone. The combustion rate is largely determined by the draft in the burner.
The supply of all air with a massive stream to the base of the torch causes intensive cooling of the gas collector, evaporator and swirl blades, which, together with the latter being located near the collector in the mixing zone and the beginning of combustion, reduces the flame temperature and leads to soot formation. This impairs mixture formation. In addition, with such a supply of air there is an excess in the mixing zone (especially at low fuel consumption) and a deficit in the upper part of the housing, which violates the required ratio of fuel and air and reduces the intensity of combustion. As the tests of this design confirm, the achievement in the burner of the declared temperature of 800-900 ° C does not ensure the completeness of fuel combustion, as evidenced by abundant soot emission. Settling on the blades of the swirler and the evaporator, soot reduces their temperature, changes the geometry of the blades, worsening the aerodynamic properties of the latter and the evaporation of fuel. All this additionally exacerbates the shortcomings in mixing and combustion during operation, dramatically reducing the stability of the characteristics of the burner. In addition, soot on the evaporator makes subsequent ignition of the burner difficult, and a possible separation of the torch from the collector due to excess air (especially at low fuel consumption) can lead to an explosion of the combustible mixture, since fuel vapors continue to flow into the burner body and combustion chamber heating device. The burner does not allow gas to be used as fuel, since the collector does not provide the necessary preliminary mixing of it with air, and the gas outlet by separate jets leads to an immediate flame outage and creates an explosive situation. The exit of the flame from the burner with some twist and speed leads (in the combustion chamber of the heating device) to the collapse of the torch under the action of centrifugal forces and, accordingly, to a drop in its temperature and non-combustion of the remaining fuel particles, which causes further soot formation, especially at low fuel consumption. In addition, the operation of the burner is accompanied by a high level of sound pressure. This is facilitated by the location of the blades of the swirl in the zone of intense expansion of gases and an increase in the gas flow rate, which generally limits the scope and power of the burner.
Regulation of the fuel level in the evaporator on the principle of the Mariotte vessel has significant drawbacks. The low static pressure of the fuel column between the drain pipe section and the bottom of the fuel tank causes continuous fluctuations in the fuel level in the evaporation tube relative to the effective evaporation zone. This is also facilitated by the spasmodic nature of the change in static pressure in the tank, due to the "bubble" air flow into it from the drainage tube. The instability of the fuel level in the evaporator causes the instability of the combustion process due to the different amounts of evaporated fuel, and hence the incompleteness of its combustion. A possible depressurization of the tank due to wear on the seals of the locking needle leads to the release of even liquid fuel from the inner tube of the evaporator, which makes the furnace fire hazardous and requires constant monitoring. Fuel overflow from the tank is also possible with an idle furnace through a drain pipe due to an increase in fuel temperature and atmospheric pressure changes. The installation of the tank on the furnace body causes increased fuel evaporation, which worsens the sanitary conditions of the heated room. In addition, the location of the exhaust pipe directly in the area of the combustion chamber contributes to irrational heat removal to the atmosphere.
The objective of the present invention is to increase the completeness of fuel combustion and operational reliability in a wide range of power and fuel grades, increase fire safety, as well as ensure quiet operation and the possibility of using domestic gas as fuel without complicating and changing the design.
The problem is solved in that the burner device containing the housing in an oval cross-section, the working position of which is vertical, the base fastened with it, carrying a tubular fuel evaporator located in the vertical direction, the input of which is designed to connect to the fuel system of the heating device, and the output communicated with the gas manifold, as well as the swirl, according to the invention is equipped with two perforated shells located on the base inside the housing is equidistant the latter about the formation of a combustion chamber between each other, and between the casing and the outer shell - a through annular air supply channel, while the inner shell is closed at the top with a blind and perforated diaphragms at the bottom, there are air intake windows in the base, and the gas manifold is made in the base in the form of upward an annular channel located between these shells, in which a means for dispersing gas is made, made of a porous, hygroscopic, heat-resistant material, for example er of asbestos cardboard, and the swirl is made in the form of a throttling grid with many guide vanes mounted on the upper ends of the perforated shells, while the blades are in plan located between the body and the inner shell and are inclined to the plane of these ends in one direction, in addition, near the collector there is the ignition unit, and the casing on top ends with a confuser and has openings for supplying secondary air located around the perimeter in its upper half.
In a preferred embodiment, the base of the case is made in the form of a thickened disk with a rim, on the upper end of which a gas manifold is made and shells are installed, the disk contour coinciding with the contour of the outer shell, and on its side surface in the lower part there are bosses to which are attached by legs case, the lower edge of which is located not higher than the lower ends of the shells, and the size of the protrusion of the bosses is equal to the width of the annular air supply channel, while the gas manifold is made straight of the angular profile and on its lateral inner wall in the lower part there is an annular groove communicated with the fuel evaporator through cylindrical channels made in the base, and a gas supply fitting having holes for this in the wall, fixed in the central part of the base.
It is advisable to make the fuel evaporator in the form of a ∩-shaped tube installed in the inner shell, the inlet elbow of which is passed through the base and has a fuel supply nozzle, and the outlet elbow is fixed in the gas supply nozzle, while the height of these elbows is 2-3 times greater than the body and in the diaphragms of the inner The holes are provided for skipping them.
It is advisable to make the blind diaphragm of the inner shell in the form of a bowl located 3-15 mm below the upper end of the shell to which it is attached with its edge.
In a preferred embodiment, the height of the shells is 6-8 times greater than the distance between them, and the holes for supplying secondary air in the housing are made at the level of 2/3 of the height of the shells, and the total section of these holes is 0.2-0.5 of the passage section of the annular air supply channel.
It is possible to make the throttling grate in the form of a ring from a sheet blank, on the outside of which guide vanes are made, which are uniformly along the contour in the radial direction, and on the inside there is a flanging down adjacent to the side wall of the blind diaphragm.
It is advisable to tilt the blades of the throttling grate to the plane of the upper ends of the shells at such an angle that the total passage section between them is 1.5-2 times less than the total passage section of the combustion chamber and the annular air supply channel.
Preferably, the casing confuser is made in an arcuate profile, and the dimensions of its outlet section and height are no less than the transverse dimensions of the inner shell and the distance between the shells, which are located below the confuser to the height of the throttling grate.
It is advisable on the inner surface of the confuser at its entire height to make swirl ribs located uniformly along the contour with an inclination to the plane of the upper ends of the shells in one direction with the vanes of the throttling grating.
Preferably, the width of the gas manifold is 2.5-3 times smaller than the distance between the shells.
It is possible for the gas dispersion means to be implemented in the form of one or more tapes, the total thickness and length of which are equal to the width and length of the gas manifold, respectively.
It is desirable that the total cross section of the holes in the perforated diaphragm be made commensurate with the bore of the annular air supply channel.
It is possible to make the ignition unit in the form of an opening in the outer shell, coaxially to which a pipe with a removable stopper is attached to it, the free end of which is located in the hole provided in the housing.
Preferably, the body and shells in cross section, as well as the base in the plan, are made round.
It is desirable to provide the movement of gas and air flows in the combustion chamber and in the annular air supply channel, respectively, at a speed of 0.5-10 cm / sec.
The problem is also solved by the fact that in a heating furnace for liquid fuel with natural air supply for combustion, including a fuel tank, a flow regulator, a housing, inside which there is a combustion chamber and an air chamber separated from it by a partition, located in the lower part of the housing, equipped with in the upper part, an exhaust pipe with a rarefaction regulator, as well as a burner device mounted in the partition, the latter is made according to the described invention and installed so that the upper part the housing of the device is located in the combustion chamber, and the rest with holes for supplying secondary air is in the air chamber, and the furnace body is configured to bypass ambient air through the combustion chamber outside the burner device, for example, using a bypass window made in the partition.
In addition, additional bypass openings are also made in the partition around the burner body.
In this case, the area of the bypass window and additional openings is selected from the condition of ensuring the movement of gas and air flows in the burner at a speed of 0.5-10 cm / sec.
Moreover, the bypass window from the side of the combustion chamber is made with a flange or a guide pipe, the height of which is not more than the height of the part of the housing of the burner device located in the combustion chamber.
In addition, the furnace is equipped with a thermostatic valve with a sensor in the form of a thermocouple, while the valve is installed in the line between the fuel tank and the flow regulator, and the thermocouple is above the burner confuser.
In this case, the height of the fuel tank is no more than a third of the height of the burner fuel evaporator and located in the area of its upper third, with the maximum fuel level in the tank below the transverse elbow of the fuel evaporator and the upper part of the tank in communication with the atmosphere.
To increase thermal efficiency, the furnace is square in plan and most of the combustion chamber is covered by a top panel, which forms a L-shaped exhaust window along two adjacent sides of the housing, which communicates with the gas duct located on top of the latter, made in the form of a vertical box about the cross section, corresponding to the exhaust window, passing upward into the horizontal collection chamber, forming together with the specified panel an operational niche, while the exhaust pipe is installed over the collection chamber having a labyrinth inside the combustion products and the top of the combustion chamber with burner panel is made.
In addition, the inside of the casing is covered with heat-resistant paint, and the bypass window is located at a maximum distance from the burner housing and at a minimum from the exhaust window of the combustion chamber.
The essence of the invention is illustrated by the accompanying drawings, in which figure 1 shows a vertical longitudinal section and a partial General view of the proposed burner device; figure 2 is a cross section aa according to figure 1; figure 3 - view B according to figure 1; figure 4 - view In according to figure 3; figure 5 is a General view with a local section of the proposed heating furnace with the proposed burner device; figure 6 is a schematic vertical section of a furnace; Fig.7 is a section bB according to Fig.6; on Fig - section bb according to Fig.6; figure 9 is a drawing of the resulting torch in the combustion chamber of the furnace.
The proposed burner device is a housing 1 of a cylindrical shape, the working position of which is vertical. Another oval body shape in cross section is possible, for example elliptical. At the top, the casing ends with confuser 2, and at the bottom it is fastened to the base 3, made in the form of a thickened disk with a rim 4. On the upper end surface of the rim inside the casing 1, two cylindrical shells 5, 6 are located coaxially to the latter, whose height is 6-8 times the distance between them. The entire surface of the shells is uniformly perforated with holes, mainly of small diameter (1.3-1.7 mm). The holes are arranged in horizontal rows with the same pitch between them. Moreover, in the 2-3 lower rows, spaced from each other at the same distance, some of the holes are made of a larger diameter (2.2-2.5 mm) compared with the main array of holes. Along the edges of the end surface of the rim 4 are made fixing flanges 7 with bayonet sockets for attaching shells that have corresponding flanges on the lower edges for this. The shells 5 and 6 form a combustion chamber 8 between themselves, and between the outer shell 6 and the housing 1, an annular air supply channel 9. The inner shell 5 is closed on top with a blind, and bottom perforated diaphragms 10 and 11, respectively. The blind diaphragm 10 is made in the form of a bowl located below the upper end of the inner shell 5 by 3-15 mm, practically to which it is attached with its edge, and the total section of the holes in the perforated diaphragm 11 is comparable with the passage section of the air supply channel 9.
The diameter of the base 3 is almost equal to the diameter of the outer shell 6, while on its lateral outer surface in the lower part there are bosses 12 to which the body 1 is attached via legs 13, the lower edge of which is located not higher than the lower ends of the shells, and the protrusion of the bosses is almost equal to the width air supply channel 9. Closer to the rim 4 in the base 3 there are air intake windows 14 arranged uniformly around the circumference. In the axial zone of the base, a fuel evaporator 15 is mounted, made in the form of a ∩-shaped tube located vertically in the inner shell 5. In this case, the inlet elbow of the tube is passed through the base 3 and provided at the end with a fuel supply fitting 16 for connecting to the fuel system of the heating device, and the outlet the knee is fixed in the gas supply fitting 17, fixed in the center of the base 3.
To ensure the necessary static fuel pressure in the evaporator when using fuel systems with gravity-fed fuel, the height of the evaporator 15 is chosen to be 2-3 times greater than the height of the housing 1, and openings for their passage are provided in the diaphragms 10, 11 of the shell 5. The gas supply nozzle 17 in the base is fastened with a clamping nut 18. The lower end of the nozzle 17 is blind, and in the middle there are radial holes 19 for gas passage, at the level of which an annular distribution cavity 20 is made around the nozzle in the base. in the form of two coaxially arranged tubes fixed in a gas supply fitting. The inner tube in it is passed through the fitting and provided with a fuel supply fitting, and the outer one is plugged at the top and communicated with the cavity of the gas supply fitting and then through holes in its wall with an annular distribution cavity in the base (not shown). The cavity 20 through the cylindrical channels 21, made in the base between the intake windows 14, is in communication with the gas manifold 22, which is made in the rim 4 of the base between the shells 5, 6 in the form of a ring-shaped rectangular channel facing upward. The width of the collector 22 is 2.5-3 times less than the distance between the shells. An annular groove 23 is made on the lateral inner wall of the collector 22 in the lower part, into which the channels 21 open. In the collector 22, a gas dispersion device is installed along the entire length, made of porous, hygroscopic, heat-resistant material, such as asbestos cardboard, in the form of one or several tapes 24 (as shown in the drawing). The thickness of the tape or package of tapes is made equal to the width of the collector 22 so that these tools are installed in it without clearance and compression, leaving a free groove 23, which supplies gas to the tapes. Moreover, the height of the tape is made with a protrusion from the collector 1-3 mm.
It is possible to implement means for dispersing gas in the form of an annular or several arcuate ceramic inserts (not shown) installed in the manifold 22 similarly to the indicated flexible means. In the rim 4 at the upper edge of the manifold 22 there are three horizontal through holes arranged uniformly around the circumference. In these holes, wire clips 25 are installed, with which a packet of tapes is pierced 24. In the upper half of the housing 1, holes 26 for supplying secondary air are made uniformly around the circumference, located at 2/3 of the height of the shells 5, 6, while the total passage section of the holes is 0 , 2-0.5 passage section of the air supply channel 9.
At the upper ends of the shells 5, 6, a gas and air flow swirl is installed, made in the form of a throttling lattice 27, containing many guide vanes located in plan between the body 1 and the inner shell 5. The simplest in design and manufacturing is a ring-shaped lattice workpieces, on the outside of which guide vanes are made, and on the inside there is a flange 28 downward, practically adjacent to the side wall of the blind diaphragm 10. The guide vanes are evenly distributed around tools in a radial direction and inclined in one direction to the plane of the upper ends of the shells 5, 6, and the angle of inclination is chosen so that the total bore between the blades is 1.5-2 times less than the total bore of the combustion chamber 8 and the air supply channel 9.
The casing confuser 2 is made of an arcuate profile, while the diameter of its outlet section and the height are made not less than the diameter of the inner shell 5 and the distance between the shells, respectively. On the inner surface of the confuser, at its entire height (for example, stamping), swirl ribs 29 are made, which are uniformly circumferentially inclined to the plane of the upper ends of the shells in one direction with the blades of the grill 27, and the angle of inclination does not exceed the same angle of the blades of the grill. The height of the shell 5, 6 are located below the confuser 2 almost to the height of the lattice 27, which thereby fixes them in the vertical direction. In general, the design parameters of the device are selected from the conditions for ensuring the movement of gas and air flows, respectively, in the combustion chamber and the annular air supply channel with a speed of 0.5-10 cm / sec.
In the lower part, the burner device has an ignition unit made in the form of an opening 30 in the outer shell 6, coaxially to which a pipe 31 with a removable plug 32 is attached, the free end of which is located in the hole 33 provided in the housing 1. The lower edge of the pipe 31 is located near a gas manifold 22 with the ability to access the tapes 24 with a match or other ignition means.
The housing 1 above the openings 26 for supplying secondary air is provided with brackets 34 for fastening the burner device in a heating furnace or the like, the upper part of the housing 1 being designed to be installed in the combustion chamber of the heating furnace, and the rest with holes 26 outside this chamber in the air environment.
An example of the use of the proposed device is illustrated in figure 5-8, which shows the proposed heating furnace with the specified device. The furnace is a housing 35 in terms of an almost square shape, inside of which there is a combustion chamber 36 and an air chamber 37, separated by a horizontal partition 38, in which a burner device is mounted using brackets 34. Moreover, it is installed so that the upper part of its housing is located in the combustion chamber 36, and the rest with holes 26 for supplying secondary air in the air chamber 37, and these holes are located directly below the partition 38. The air chamber 37 is located in the lower part of the housing 35 and is in communication with the surrounding atmosphere through openings in it, and the combustion chamber is for the most part blocked by an upper panel 39 having a burner 40. The panel 39 forms an L-shaped slit-like projection along two adjacent sides of the housing the main window 41. On top of the combustion chamber 37, the furnace body has a gas duct 42 made in the form of a vertical duct, the cross section of which coincides with the shape of the exhaust window 41, above which the gas duct is located. In the upper part, the box passes into a horizontal collection chamber 43, which in plan coincides with the contour of the lower part of the housing 35. An exhaust pipe 44 with a rarefaction regulator 45 in the form of a rotary damper is installed on the upper wall of the collection chamber 43.
If necessary, an exhaust pipe can be installed on the pipe. For greater heat transfer chamber 43 inside has a labyrinth 46 for combustion products. The walls of the box facing the panel 39, and the lower wall of the collection chamber 43 together with the panel 39 of the combustion chamber form an operational niche 47 (for cooking, heating food, water). Inside the housing 1 is made with the possibility of bypassing the ambient air through the combustion chamber, bypassing the burner device, using the bypass window 48 made in the partition 38. The window 48 is located at the maximum distance from the housing 1 of the burner device and at the minimum from the exhaust window 41 of the combustion chamber, the sides of which the bypass window 48 has a flare 49 or a guide pipe (not shown), the optimum height of which is not more than the height of the part of the housing 1 of the burner device located in the combustion chamber. In addition, around the housing 1 in the partition 38 with uniform pitch made additional bypass holes 50 of small diameter (8-10 mm). The area of the bypass window and openings 50 is selected from the condition of ensuring the movement of gas and air flows in the burner at a speed of 0.5-10 cm / sec.
The furnace fuel system includes a fuel tank 51 with a cap 52 on top having a drainage hole and a supply valve 53 connected by a fuel line 54 through a flow regulator 55 to the fitting 16 of the evaporator 15 of the burner device. Tank 51 in height is made no more than a third of the height of the evaporator 15 and is installed in the area of its upper third outside the furnace body on a separate support - stand 56 or wall (not shown). It is possible to mount the tank on the furnace body. Moreover, the maximum fuel level in the tank is located below the level of the transverse elbow of the evaporator 15. When using gas as fuel, the fuel pipe 54 is connected to the gas cylinder (or network) through a pressure reducer (not shown). To further increase fire safety, a thermostatic valve 57 (type EM-1) is installed in the fuel line 54 between the tank 51 and the flow regulator 55 to shut off the fuel supply in the event of a cessation of combustion. For this, the valve has a sensor in the form of a thermocouple 58 mounted above the confuser 2 of the housing 1. On the duct side 42, a heat shield 59 is installed on the furnace body with a gap from it, covering the housing almost to the operating niche 47, from the side of which at the level of the top panel 39 case 35 reinforced protective handrail 60, which also serves for operational needs. In addition, to increase the heat transfer on the furnace body from the duct 42, vertical corrugations (not shown) can be made. To protect against thermal corrosion, the casing is coated on the inside with heat-resistant paint (on an organosilicon basis). In order to be able to connect a water or antifreeze battery (tube dryer), the furnace has a tubular heat exchanger 61 installed inside the combustion chamber 36 and the flue 42, with the inlet of the heat exchanger located at the bottom of the combustion chamber and the outlet in the collection chamber 43 of the flue. At the bottom of the air chamber 37 there is a drip tray 62 for collecting accidentally spilled fuel. On the front wall of the housing in the area of the air chamber 37 opposite the ignition unit of the burner device there is a door 63 for maintenance. Above it, in the area of the combustion chamber, there is a viewing window 64 with heat-resistant glass.
The operation of the burner and furnace is as follows. The rarefaction regulator 45 in the exhaust pipe 44 is set to maximum thrust. The opening of the supply valve 53 and the flow regulator 55 (for a small amount) provides fuel to the evaporator 15, in which it fills the inlet elbow to the fuel level in the tank without reaching the transverse elbow of the evaporator. Having opened the door 63, the plug 32 is removed from the pipe 31 of the ignition unit and a small amount (about 40 g) of kerosene is poured into the manifold 22 through a funnel (or the like). When this tape 24 is impregnated with fuel and at the stage of ignition of the device serve as a wick. Then, with a match or other means of ignition, the belts 24 are set on fire and a flame is set above them with a ring. The pipe 31 is closed by a plug 32 and within 6-7 minutes the burner device is ignited.
During this time, the shells 5, 6 and the evaporator 15 are heated, in which boiling and evaporation of fuel begins. The gas generated in this case through the outlet bend of the evaporator 15, where it is heated further, the fitting 17 and then through the radial holes 19 in it, the annular cavity 20 in the base 3 around the fitting 17, the channels 21 in the base enters the gas manifold 22. Thanks to the annular groove 23 in it, which is free of tapes 24, the gas evenly spreads around the entire circumference of the manifold 22. Under some static pressure in the latter, the gas penetrates through the pores of the tapes 24 and exits the manifold with an almost uniform continuous annular the flow that enters the combustion chamber 8 between the perforated shells 5, 6. Air flows from the air chamber 37 through the openings 14 at the base and the openings in the diaphragm 11 under the action of the draft in the exhaust pipe 44 and its own through many holes in the shells traction in the device. Its flow rate determines the bore of the holes in the lower diaphragm 11, the annular air supply channel 9 and the holes 26 in the housing 1, which are selected during development work for a specific size of the burner device, and the flow through the holes in the shells is provided with some excess (about 20-30 % compared with the stoichiometric ratio).
The large front of interaction of gaseous fuels with air in the combustion chamber 8 promotes uniform mixing and obtaining a highly homogenized mixture. At a height of 5-10 mm from the belts 24, combustion begins, the intensity of which increases towards the upper zone of the chamber 8, since an increasing volume of fuel is involved in mixing, the combustion front increases in height, the temperature of the flame, shells, and evaporator 15 increases. As the latter warms up the fuel level in it decreases and is set in the zone of the lower part of the shells. Upon reaching a stable combustion mode at a low flow rate, the latter is installed until the required power of the device is obtained, in which the combustion process has additional features. The main array of small diameter holes in the shells 5, 6 provides a wall air flow between them, which holds the flame in the middle zone between the shells, thereby preventing it from cooling from touching them. At the same time, air flows into the combustion chamber through openings of larger diameter in the shells in jets, which, penetrating into the flame, turbulent the gas flow, contributing to better mixing of air with fuel and their balance. All these processes, together with the heating of the air as it passes through the perforated diaphragm 11 heated to 500-600 ° C, the heated shells and gas overheating in the evaporator 15 contribute to the intensity of combustion.
A significant effect on the processes in the combustion chamber 8 is also exerted by the grill 27, which simultaneously performs three functions: a throttle, means of afterburning and a swirl. Having a passage section between its guide vanes smaller than the total passage section of the combustion chamber 8 and the air supply channel 9, the grill 27 throttles the gas and air flows in them. In this regard, the velocity of the flows in comparison with the free flow slows down, which in a limited volume of the combustion chamber leads to a uniform distribution of the combustible mixture and combustion throughout the chamber. As a result, the burning intensity increases, a high temperature develops, reaching under the grate up to 2000 ° C, which ensures mainly complete burnout of the fuel. In addition, the lattice 27, being in a stream of flame and having a lower temperature compared to it, initially causes unburnt soot particles to precipitate on the blades, especially when fired up and of poor quality fuel, but under the influence of the temperature of the blades themselves (warming up to 1000 ° C) and passing through them a high-temperature gas stream, these particles are burned and the grill always remains without soot deposits. Passing through the grill 27, the gas and air flows are twisted into the axial afterburning torch 65, which is formed above the housing 1 in the alignment of the confuser 2. At the same time, the air from the air supply channel 9 is additionally twisted by fins 29 on the confuser 2 and creates an air envelope around the torch, which feeds it fresh secondary air entering the channel 9 through the openings 26 in the housing 1, and protects the torch from contact with less heated confuser 2 and the medium of the combustion chamber of the furnace, as well as from its collapse in the latter, thereby contributing to the preservation torch temperature. The niche formed by the blind diaphragm 10 on top of the inner shell 5 creates a certain rarefaction in the root zone of the afterburning torch, which at an altitude of 50-70 mm from the confuser 2 causes the torch to compress along the axis, which together with the axial twist gives it a stable vortex shape, providing a secondary (after the camera combustion) an increase in temperature in this zone to 2000 ° C, which causes almost complete burnout of the remaining fuel.
The directed air flow generated by the bypass window 47 in the baffle 38 of the furnace body, passing through the combustion chamber 36 into the gas duct 42, has practically no temperature and dynamic effect on the afterburning torch, which is also protected by a "curtain" of thin air jets from the openings 50 in the partition 38 around the housing 1. At the same time, the specified air flow reduces the vacuum in the combustion chamber 36 and thereby reduces the speed of gas and air flows in the burner device, facilitating their movement in it under the action of exists under its own power unit with a low rate (0.5-10 cm / sec) at which these processes take place in the device most efficiently. At the same time, the exhaust pipe 44 (pipe) retains an effective draft for evacuating the combustion products, the regulation of which (when the atmospheric conditions change) by the rarefaction regulator 45 does not affect the operation of the burner device, since the main air flow into the combustion chamber 36 enters through the bypass window 48 Depending on the consumption and quality of the fuel, as well as on the level of rarefaction in the combustion chamber of the furnace in the afterburner, more or less fuel is burned with the formation of a different length and color of the torch - from colorless blue to blue-yellow, which serves as a visual criterion for the optimality of the operating mode of the burner device - the completeness of fuel combustion. When using gas, the afterburning torch at any flow rate retains a colorless blue color, indicating complete combustion of the fuel. The launch of the furnace is maintained, as for liquid fuel, by firing with kerosene and further supplying gas to the evaporator. The subsequent processes for preparing the combustible mixture and combustion are similar for liquid fuels. When the combustion ceases for any reason, the thermocouple 58 stops generating EMF, which causes the valve 57 to shut off the fuel supply pipe 54, which increases fire safety, especially when using gas and operating the furnace on vehicles in jolting, inclines. Possible fuel vapors in the air chamber 37 are sucked in through the openings 26 in the housing 1 and the windows 14 at the base and burn out in the burner and torch, which prevents the smell of fuel in a heated room.
The concentrated form of the afterburning torch, in which it does not touch the walls of the combustion chamber (except for the specially designed burner 40), allows the convenient and economical protection of the internal surfaces of the furnace body from thermal corrosion in the form of heat-resistant coatings. In this case, the walls are heated due to thermal radiation and convective exchange of the gas flow, which ensures uniform heating of the case without the appearance of local high-temperature sections that can cause ignition of materials during short-term contact with them, which also increases the fire safety of the furnace. This is also facilitated by the fuel level in the tank below the upper elbow of the evaporator 15, which excludes fuel overflow into the combustion zone, as well as the installation of the tank outside the furnace body. In addition, the location of the tank in the area of the upper third of the evaporator 15, and the level of the evaporation zone in its lower part (due to its high temperature - 400-450 ° C) provides a stable supply and static pressure of the fuel column in the evaporator, which reduces fluctuations in its level in the latter and promotes uniform evaporation and gas flow into the manifold 22 and, accordingly, stable combustion. The uniform heating of the evaporator 15 also contributes to this due to the thermal radiation of the shells 5, 6.
The implementation of the set of features described in the proposed burner device and furnace provides almost complete combustion of all grades of fuel used in any mixture and proportions with a minimum yield of harmful substances (according to instrumental control - 8-10 times less than permissible by GOST 22992-82), and when using gas, it is possible to use a furnace without a chimney in residential premises similar to kitchen gas stoves. The burner device and the whole furnace are silent in operation. The constancy of the geometry of the structural elements in the combustion zone (shells, grate, evaporator) due to the absence of soot deposits on them determines the stability of the characteristics of the burner device over a long period of operation. The implementation of these elements from heat-resistant stainless steels also contributes to this. The receipt of fuel from the manifold 22 into the combustion chamber 8 in the form of a gas heated to 450 ° C virtually eliminates flame outage, since any contact of the gas with air is enough to ignite, all the more so heated in the mixing zone to 400-500 ° C. After the cessation of combustion for 50-60 seconds, it is possible to resume without ignition of the burner device due to the high temperature of the elements of its design (evaporator, shells, grate).
The proposed burner device allows the use of fuel supply systems both with a dispenser and by gravity, as is the case in the proposed furnace. In the latter embodiment, the operation of the furnace is particularly stable and fireproof. The preferred power range for the described embodiment of the burner device is 1-25 kW, at which the furnace efficiency of more than 95% is achieved.
High reliability and fire safety determine the possibility of uncontrolled operation for a long time, ease of operation and the wide scope of the proposed furnace, allowing it to be used in various situations in the absence of other types of fuel and energy, which is of paramount importance in field and critical conditions. Long-term tests have confirmed the advantages and characteristics of the proposed burner device and furnace. The furnace is accepted for mass production.

Claims (25)

1. Burner device for liquid fuel for domestic heating devices with air supply for natural draft combustion, comprising an oval-shaped cross-sectional body, the working position of which is vertical, the base fastened with it, carrying a tubular fuel evaporator located in the vertical direction, the inlet of which is intended for connecting to the fuel system of the heating device, and the output is in communication with the gas manifold, as well as a swirl, characterized in that it is equipped with two perforated by the shells located on the base inside the shell, which is equidistant to the latter with the formation of a combustion chamber between each other, and between the shell and the outer shell - a through annular air supply channel, while the inner shell is closed with a blind at the top and perforated diaphragms at the bottom, there are air intake windows in the base and the gas collector is made in the base in the form of an annular channel facing upward, located between these shells, in which means for dispersing gas is installed, in made of porous hygroscopic heat-resistant material, such as asbestos board, and the swirl is made in the form of a throttling grid with many guide vanes mounted on the upper ends of the perforated shells, while the blades are in plan located between the body and the inner shell and are inclined to the plane of these ends in one direction In addition, there is an ignition unit near the collector, and the casing on top ends with a confuser and has openings for supplying secondary air located along the perimeter etru in its upper half.
2. The burner device according to claim 1, characterized in that the base of the casing is made in the form of a thickened disk with a rim, on the upper end of which a gas collector is made and shells are installed, the disk contour coinciding with the contour of the outer shell, and on its side surface in the lower parts are made bosses to which, through the legs, a housing is attached, the lower edge of which is located not higher than the lower ends of the shells, and the protrusion of the bosses is equal to the width of the annular air supply channel, while the gas manifold Execute a rectangular profile and on its inner side wall at the bottom of an annular groove is communicated with the fuel evaporator through cylindrical channels, formed in the base, and a gas supply nozzle having an opening in the wall, is fastened in the central part of the base.
3. The burner device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the fuel evaporator is made in the form of a U-shaped tube installed in the inner shell, the inlet elbow of which is passed through the base and has a fuel supply fitting, and the output is fixed in the gas supply fitting, while the height the specified elbows are 2-3 times greater than the height of the hull, and holes for their passage are provided in the diaphragms of the inner shell.
4. The burner device according to claim 1, characterized in that the blind diaphragm of the inner shell is made in the form of a bowl located 3-15 mm below the upper end of the shell to which it is attached with its edge.
5. The burner device according to claim 1, characterized in that the height of the shells is 6-8 times greater than the distance between them, and the holes for supplying secondary air in the housing are made at a level 2/3 of the height of the shells, and the total cross-section of these holes is 0, 2-0.5 passage section of the annular air supply channel.
6. The burner device according to claim 1, characterized in that the throttling grate is made in the form of a ring from a sheet blank, on the outside of which guide vanes are made, arranged uniformly along the contour in the radial direction, and on the inside there is a flanging down adjacent to the side wall of a blind diaphragm.
7. The burner device according to claim 1 or 6, characterized in that the throttle blades are inclined to the plane of the upper ends of the shells at such an angle that the total passage section between them is 1.5-2 times less than the total passage section of the combustion chamber and the annular air supply channel.
8. The burner device according to claim 1, characterized in that the casing confuser is made of an arcuate profile, and the dimensions of its output section and height are not less than the transverse dimensions of the inner shell and the distance between the shells, which are located below the confuser to the height of the throttling grate.
9. The burner device according to claim 1 or 8, characterized in that vortex ribs are made on the inner surface of the confuser at its entire height, arranged uniformly along the contour with an inclination to the plane of the upper ends of the shells in one direction with the vanes of the throttling grate.
10. The burner device according to claim 1, characterized in that the width of the gas manifold is 2.5-3 times less than the distance between the shells.
11. The burner device according to claim 1, characterized in that the means for dispersing gas is made in the form of one or more tapes, the total thickness and length of which are equal to the width and length of the gas manifold, respectively.
12. The burner device according to claim 1, characterized in that the total cross section of the holes in the perforated diaphragm is commensurate with the bore of the annular air supply channel.
13. The burner device according to claim 1, characterized in that the ignition unit is made in the form of a hole in the outer shell, coaxially with which a pipe with a removable stopper is attached to it, the free end of which is located in the hole provided in the housing.
14. The burner device according to claim 1, characterized in that the housing and shells in cross section, as well as the base, are made round in plan.
15. Burner device according to any one of claims 1 to 14, characterized in that the movement of gas and air flows, respectively, in the combustion chamber and the annular air supply channel is provided at a speed of 0.5-10 cm / s.
16. A household heating furnace for liquid fuel with natural draft air supply, including a fuel tank, a flow regulator, a housing, inside which there is a combustion chamber and an air chamber separated from it by a partition, located in the lower part of the housing, equipped with an exhaust pipe in the upper part with a rarefaction regulator, as well as a burner device mounted in a partition, characterized in that the burner device is made in accordance with any one of claims 1-15 and is installed so that its upper part the housing is located in the combustion chamber, and the rest with holes for supplying secondary air is in the air chamber, and the furnace body is configured to bypass ambient air through the combustion chamber outside the burner device, for example, using a bypass window made in the partition.
17. The furnace according to clause 16, characterized in that in the partition around the housing of the burner device, additional bypass holes are made.
18. The furnace according to clause 16 or 17, characterized in that the area of the bypass window and additional openings is selected from the condition of ensuring the movement of gas and air flows in the burner in accordance with clause 15.
19. The furnace according to clause 16, wherein the bypass window on the side of the combustion chamber is flanged or a guide pipe, the height of which is not more than the height of the part of the body of the burner device located in the combustion chamber.
20. The furnace according to clause 16, characterized in that the holes for the supply of secondary air are located directly under the partition.
21. The furnace according to item 16, characterized in that it is equipped with a thermostatic valve with a sensor in the form of a thermocouple, while the valve is installed in the line between the fuel tank and the flow regulator, and the thermocouple is above the confuser of the burner device.
22. The furnace according to clause 16, characterized in that the fuel tank in height is made no more than a third of the height of the burner fuel evaporator and is located in the area of its upper third, and the maximum fuel level in the tank is below the transverse elbow of the fuel evaporator, and the upper part tank connected with the atmosphere.
23. The furnace according to clause 16, characterized in that the casing is square in plan and most of the combustion chamber is covered by a top panel forming along the two adjacent sides of the casing an L-shaped exhaust window communicating with the gas duct located on top of the latter and made in the form of a vertical box with a cross-section corresponding to an exhaust window that goes upward into a horizontal collection chamber, which together with this panel form an operating niche, while the exhaust pipe is installed on top prefabricated chamber, having inside a labyrinth for combustion products, and the upper panel of the combustion chamber is made with a burner.
24. The furnace according to item 16 or 23, characterized in that the housing is coated on the inside with heat-resistant paint.
25. The furnace according to item 16 or 23, characterized in that the bypass window is located at a maximum distance from the housing of the burner device and minimum from the exhaust window of the combustion chamber.
RU2002111483/06A 2002-04-29 2002-04-29 Burner unit and domestic heating stove for liquid fuel RU2237217C2 (en)

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2456505C1 (en) * 2011-02-14 2012-07-20 Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Алтайская государственная академия образования имени В.М. Шукшина" Flame burning maintenance method
RU2457402C1 (en) * 2008-10-06 2012-07-27 Чул КИМ Kerosene furnace
RU2457403C1 (en) * 2008-06-26 2012-07-27 Чул КИМ Fire-fighting device for kerosene furnace
RU2509250C2 (en) * 2008-09-01 2014-03-10 Электролюкс До Бразиль Са System to fix gas pipes in gas ovens
RU2560463C2 (en) * 2011-04-13 2015-08-20 ПЛАНИКА Сп. з о.о. Furnace device and principle of its operation
US9506656B2 (en) 2013-10-01 2016-11-29 International Clean Energy Solutions, Ltd. Cooking stove
RU2607323C1 (en) * 2015-10-26 2017-01-10 Иван Васильевич Исак Method of heating liquid in heating device (versions) and heating device
RU174100U1 (en) * 2017-03-30 2017-10-02 Апетян Павел Мкртычевич FURNACE BURNER

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2457403C1 (en) * 2008-06-26 2012-07-27 Чул КИМ Fire-fighting device for kerosene furnace
RU2509250C2 (en) * 2008-09-01 2014-03-10 Электролюкс До Бразиль Са System to fix gas pipes in gas ovens
RU2457402C1 (en) * 2008-10-06 2012-07-27 Чул КИМ Kerosene furnace
RU2456505C1 (en) * 2011-02-14 2012-07-20 Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Алтайская государственная академия образования имени В.М. Шукшина" Flame burning maintenance method
RU2560463C2 (en) * 2011-04-13 2015-08-20 ПЛАНИКА Сп. з о.о. Furnace device and principle of its operation
RU2560463C9 (en) * 2011-04-13 2016-04-10 ПЛАНИКА Сп. з о.о. Furnace device and combustion method with its application
US9506656B2 (en) 2013-10-01 2016-11-29 International Clean Energy Solutions, Ltd. Cooking stove
US10077898B2 (en) 2013-10-01 2018-09-18 International Clean Energy Solutions, Ltd. Combustion engine for burning a fuel mixture of water and alcohol
RU2607323C1 (en) * 2015-10-26 2017-01-10 Иван Васильевич Исак Method of heating liquid in heating device (versions) and heating device
RU174100U1 (en) * 2017-03-30 2017-10-02 Апетян Павел Мкртычевич FURNACE BURNER

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