RU2125835C1 - Stereotaxic system - Google Patents

Stereotaxic system Download PDF

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RU2125835C1
RU2125835C1 RU94008031A RU94008031A RU2125835C1 RU 2125835 C1 RU2125835 C1 RU 2125835C1 RU 94008031 A RU94008031 A RU 94008031A RU 94008031 A RU94008031 A RU 94008031A RU 2125835 C1 RU2125835 C1 RU 2125835C1
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stereotaxic
patient
intracerebral
target
arc
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RU94008031A
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RU94008031A (en
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Владимир Беньевич Низковолос
Андрей Дмитриевич Аничков
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Владимир Беньевич Низковолос
Андрей Дмитриевич Аничков
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Abstract

FIELD: medicine; tomographic examinations. SUBSTANCE: stereotaxic system consists of three assemblies. The first assembly includes patient's head lock and stereotaxic adapter. It is designed for performance of diagnostic procedure and localization of intracerebral target. The second assembly consists of stereotaxic phantom and arc with guiding device. It serves for directing of stereotaxic instrument at intracerebral target picture. The third assembly incorporates head lock and arc with stereotaxic instrument. It is used for performance of stereotaxic operation on patient's brain. EFFECT: prompt and simple stereotaxic guidance to intracerebral target picture. 1 cl, 3 dwg

Description

Изобретение относится к области медицины и может быть использовано для проведения томографических исследований и проведения инвазивных стереотаксических операций на мозге человека. The invention relates to medicine and can be used for conducting tomography and invasive stereotactic operations on the human brain.

Известны устройства, служащие для атравматичной иммобилизации головы пациента, локализации внутримозговых мишеней и проведения дистальных радиовоздействий, например, стереоадаптор Низковолоса В. Б. и Аничкова А.Д. Known device for non-invasive immobilization of the patient's head, intracerebral localization of distal targets and Radio interference, for example, stereoadaptor Nizkovolosa VB and Anichkov AD (описание к заявке на авторское свидетельство N 1736438 от 01.02.1992), или устройство, описанное MlHariz, ATEriksson (Reproducibility od Repeated Mounings of a noninvasive CT/MRI Stereodapter, Applid Neurophysiology, 1986, p. 336 - 347), в котором атравматично, за ушные раковины и переносицу крепится голова пациента, причем все детали, расположенные в области мозга пациента, выполнены из рентгенопрозрачного материала. (Description on the application author's certificate N 1736438 from 01.02.1992) or device described MlHariz, ATEriksson (Reproducibility od Repeated Mounings of a noninvasive CT / MRI Stereodapter, Applid Neurophysiology, 1986, p 336 -. 347), wherein the atraumatic , behind the ears and the bridge of the patient's head is mounted, all parts located in the patient's brain, made of a radiotransparent material.

Недостатком этих устройств является то, что их невозможно использовать для инвазивных стереотаксических операций на мозге. The disadvantage of these devices is that they can not be used for invasive stereotactic brain surgery.

Наиболее близким к предлагаемому является устройство, предназначенное для крепления головы пациента, локализации внутримозговых структур и проведения стереотаксических операций на мозге человека. The closest to the proposed unit is intended for fastening the patient's head, the localization of intracerebral structures and stereotactic operations on the human brain. (Leksel stereotactic system ELEKTA INSTRUMENT INC. рекламный проспект 20, с. S-114 52 Stockgolm, Sweden). (Leksel stereotactic system ELEKTA INSTRUMENT INC. Brochure 20, p. S-114 52 Stockgolm, Sweden). Устройство состоит из стереотаксической координатной рамы, предназначенной для травматического крепления головы пациента за кости черепа. The device consists of a stereotactic coordinate frame designed for traumatic fixing the patient's head for the bones of the skull. На раму крепится стереотаксическая дуга, на которой расположено направляющее устройство со стереотаксическим инструментом. On the frame is mounted stereotactic arc on which the guiding device is disposed with a stereotaxic instrument. Для локализации внутримозговых мишеней пациентов при КТ и ЯМР- исследованиях используется стереотаксический адаптор, состоящий из рентгенопрозрачных пластин с нанесенными на них Z-образными рентгеноконтрастными маркерами. For localization of intracerebral targets patients with CT and NMR studies using stereotactic adapter, consisting of a radiolucent plate to put on them Z-shaped radiopaque markers.

Однако недостатками данного устройства являются: However, disadvantages of this device are:
травматизация головы пациента при обследовании на томографе; trauma patient's head during the examination on a tomograph;
наведение инструмента на мишень осуществляется путем довольно сложного стереотаксического расчета, причем за одни прием можно осуществить наведение только на одну точку мишени; tool guidance to the target is performed by stereotaxic rather complicated calculation, and for receiving some guidance may be performed only at a single point target;
при повторных обследованиях практически невозможно повторить укладку головы пациента, что снижает возможности сравнения информации, полученной до и после лечения. it is practically impossible to repeat the laying head of the patient with repeated surveys, which reduces the possibility of comparing the information obtained before and after treatment.

В настоящем изобретении была поставлена задача создания устройства для атравматичного крепления головы пациента неметаллическим приспособлением, обеспечения надежной повторяемости укладки головы пациента при повторных томографических исследованиях, и в котором наведение стереотаксического инструмента перед операцией осуществляется непосредственно на изображение мишени. The present invention has the task of creating a device for fixing the patient's head atraumatic non-metallic device, to ensure reliable repeatability laying head of the patient when repeated tomographic studies, and wherein prompting the stereotaxic instrument prior to surgery is performed directly on the target image.

Это достигается тем, что устройство дополнительно содержит стереотаксический фантом, включающий вертикальную раму и вторичную раму, снабженную дугой с возможностью вертикального перемещения, перемещаемую прозрачную вертикальную пластину для крепления томографического изображения и источник света, направленный к ней и расположенный за вертикальной рамой, а фиксатор головы пациента выполнен в виде рентгенопрозрачного подголовника и индивидуальной маски из термопластика. This is achieved in that the device further comprises a stereotaxic phantom comprising a vertical frame and a secondary frame, provided with an arc can move vertically movable transparent vertical plate for attachment of the tomographic image and the source light directed thereto and disposed behind the vertical frame, and the retainer head of the patient designed as a headrest and a radiotransparent individual masks of thermoplastic.

Устройство представлено в виде трех сборок. The apparatus presented in the form of three assemblies. Первая сборка (фиг. 1) используется для проведения диагностической процедуры и локализации внутримозговой мишени. The first assembly (FIG. 1) is used for carrying out diagnostic procedures of intracerebral localization and target. Вторая сборка (фиг. 2) служит для наведения стереотаксического инструмента на изображение внутримозговой мишени. The second assembly (FIG. 2) serves for guidance tool stereotaxic intracerebral target image. Третья сборка (фиг. 3) предназначена для проведения стереотаксической операции. A third assembly (FIG. 3) is designed for stereotactic surgery.

Использование прямоугольного стереотаксического фантома с перемещаемой вертикальной прозрачной плоскостью, на которую непосредственно крепится пленка с томографическим изображением внутримозговой мишени, позволяет более детально и наглядно составить план операции, причем наведение инструмента можно осуществлять по нескольким точкам с учетом контактной геометрии мишени. Using stereotaxic rectangular phantom transferable transparent vertical plane to which is attached directly to the film tomographic imaging intracerebral target, it allows more detail and graphically create operation plan, the tool guidance may be performed at several points of contact with the target geometry.

Первая сборка (фиг. 1) собирается для диагностики мозга пациента с целью определения координат внутримозговой мишени. The first assembly (FIG. 1) is collected to diagnose the patient's brain to determine the coordinates of the target intracerebral. Как видно из фиг. As seen from FIG. 1, первая сборка состоит из основания 1, на котором закреплены подголовник 2 из рентгенопрозрачного материала и вертикальная рама 3, на которую в свою очередь закреплен стереотаксический адаптор 4 с Z-образными маркерами 5. Во время диагностической процедуры голова пациента крепится на подголовнике с помощью индивидуальной маски из термопластика 6 пластинами 7. 1, the first assembly consists of a base 1, on which are fixed the headrest 2 of a radiotransparent material and the vertical frame 3, which in turn is mounted stereotactic adapter 4 with a Z-shaped markers 5. During the diagnostic procedure the patient's head is mounted on the headrest via individual thermoplastic mask 6 plates 7.

Вторая сборка (фиг. 2) предназначена для наведения стереотаксического инструмента на изображение внутримозговой мишени. The second assembly (FIG. 2) is intended for guidance stereotaxic instrument intracerebral target image. Она собирается из стереотаксического фантома, состоящего из горизонтальной пластины 8, вертикальной рамы 9, которая является точной копией рамы 3 (фиг. 1), и вертикальной прозрачной пластины 15, которая может перемещаться по направляющим в квадранте, образованном горизонтальной пластиной 8 и рамой 9. На пластине 15 закреплена пленка с томографическим изображением внутримозговой мишени 16 в натуральном масштабе, за рамой 9 расположена лампа подсветки 17. На вертикальной раме 9 закреплена вторичная рама 10, на которой расположена каретка вертикальн It is collected from the stereotaxic phantom consisting of a horizontal plate 8, vertical frame 9, which is a replica of the frame 3 (FIG. 1), and vertical transparent plate 15, which can be moved along the guide rails in the quadrant formed by a horizontal plate 8 and the frame 9. The plate 15 is secured with the film target intracerebral tomographic image 16 in real scale, of the frame 9 is located on the illumination lamp 17. The vertical frame 9 is fixed secondary frame 10 on which the carriage vertically ого перемещения 11 с дугой 12. На дуге расположено направляющее устройство 13 со стереотаксическим инструментом 14. th 11 with an arc displacement 12. At the arc guiding device 13 is disposed with stereotaxic instrument 14.

Третья сборка (фиг. 3) предназначена для наведения стереотаксического инструмента непосредственно на внутримозговую мишень. A third assembly (FIG. 3) is used for aiming directly at the stereotaxic instrument intracerebral target. Она состоит из основания 1 (фиг. 1) с закрепленным на нем рентгенопрозрачным подголовником 2 и зафиксированной на нем головой пациента с помощью маски 6. На вертикальную раму 3 закреплена вторичная рама 10 (фиг. 2) с дугой 12, направляющим устройством 13 и стереотаксическим инструментом 14. It consists of a base 1 (FIG. 1) with radiolucent headrest 2 and fixed to it the patient head mounted thereon with a mask 6. On the vertical frame 3 is fixed secondary frame 10 (FIG. 2) with the arc 12, the guiding device 13 and the stereotaxic tool 14.

Стереотаксическая система используется следующим образом. Stereotactic System is used as follows.

На этапе диагностики используется первая сборка (фиг. 1). the first assembly (FIG. 1) is used at the diagnostic stage. На рентгенопрозрачном подголовнике с помощью индивидуальной маски из термопластика закрепляют голову пациента, а на вертикальную раму 3 закрепляют стереотаксический адаптор 4. В таком положении больного исследуют на томографе и получают изображение внутримозговой мишени в виде одного или нескольких срезов в натуральном масштабе. On radiolucent headrest via individual masks thermoplastic fix the patient's head and on the vertical frame 3 is fixed stereotactic adapter 4. In this position of the patient and assayed for the tomograph image obtained intracerebral target in the form of one or more slices in the natural scale. С помощью томографа и адаптора определяют координаты внутримозговой мишени в системе координат первой сборки. With the imager adapter and intracerebral determine coordinates of the target in the coordinate system of the first assembly.

На втором этапе используют вторую сборку (фиг. 2). The second stage uses a second assembly (FIG. 2). Полученные координаты внутримозговой мишени переносят на фантом, для чего в рассчитанное положение устанавливают прозрачную пластину 15 с закрепленным на ней изображением внутримозговой мишени 16, которая подсвечивается лампой 17. Перемещением дуги 12 по вертикальной каретке 11 и направляющего устройства по дуге и вокруг оси крепления находят наиболее предпочтительное положение инструмента 14, исходя из наиболее безопасной траектории его погружения и точного попадания в мишень. The obtained coordinates are transferred to the intracerebral target phantom, which is set at the calculated position of the transparent plate 15 with the image fixed thereon intracerebral target 16 that is illuminated arc lamp 17. By moving the carriage 12 along the vertical guide device 11 and in an arc around the mounting axis and are the most preferred position of the tool 14, starting from the most safe trajectory of its dive and accurately hit a target. Глубина погружения инструмента для каждой точки мишени фиксируется упором на инструменте. Tool immersion depth for each point target focus is fixed on the instrument. С целью максимального охвата объема мишени направленным воздействием наведение осуществляют на несколько точек, исходя из радиуса действия конкретного инструмента. To maximize coverage of the target volume directional guidance exposure is performed on several points, based on the range of the particular instrument.

На третьем этапе используют третью сборку (фиг. 3). In the third step using a third assembly (FIG. 3). Для этого на первую сборку без стереотаксического адаптора 4 (фиг. 1) и с закрепленной на подголовнике с помощью маски головой пациента переносят вторичную раму 10 с дугой 12 и направляющим устройством 13, которую закрепляют на раме 3 аналогично ее положению на раме 9. С помощью инструмента на черепе пациента определяют место входа и делают трепанационное отверстие. For this purpose, the first assembly without stereotactic adapter 4 (FIG. 1) and fixed to the headrest via a mask patient secondary transfer head frame 10 with the arc 12 and the guide device 13, which is fixed on the frame 3 is similar to its position on the frame 9. By means tool to determine the patient's skull input location and make burr hole. После этого инструмент вводится по направляющему устройству в намеченные точки внутримозговой мишени, осуществляя стереотаксическое воздействие. The tool is inserted along the guide apparatus into the planned target point intracerebral, carrying Stereotactic impact.

Заявленное устройство позволяет быстро, просто и наглядно, исключая сложные математические расчеты, осуществить стереотаксическое наведение непосредственно на изображение внутримозговой мишени и провести стереотаксическую операцию. The claimed device allows you to quickly, simply and clearly, eliminating complex mathematical calculations, carry out stereotactic guidance directly on the image intracranial stereotactic target and carry out the operation. При этом место и время стереотаксической подготовки на томографе не зависят от времени и места проведения операции, что позволяет проводить стереотаксические вмешательства организациям, не имеющим своего томографа. At the same place and time on the preparation of stereotactic MRI scanner does not depend on the time and location of the operation, which allows for stereotactic intervention organizations that do not have their scanner. Надежная повторяемость укладки головы пациента в результате применения индивидуальной маски обеспечивает возможность оценить результаты вмешательства в любое время после операции. Reliable repeatability placing the patient's head as a result of individual mask provides an opportunity to assess the results of the intervention at any time after surgery.

Заявленная система активно эксплуатируется в 5 клинических учреждениях нашей страны и за рубежом. The claimed system is actively maintained in 5 clinical institutions in our country and abroad. За время эксплуатации с помощью этой системы сделано большое количество таких стереотаксических вмешательств, как стереотаксические биопсии, вентрикулопункции, имплантации радиоактивных источников, стереотаксические эвакуации гематом и абсцессов, дренинирование кист и ряд других. During the operation with the help of this system made a large number of stereotactic interventions as stereotactic biopsy ventrikulopunktsii, implantation of radioactive sources, stereotactic evacuation of hematomas and abscesses, cysts dreninirovanie and others.

Claims (1)

  1. Стереотаксическая система, содержащая основание, фиксатор головы пациента, стереотаксический адаптор и дугу с направляющим устройством, отличающаяся тем, что она дополнительно содержит стереотаксический фантом, включающий вертикальную раму, вторичную раму, снабженную дугой с возможностью ее вертикального перемещения, перемещаемую прозрачную вертикальную пластину для крепления томографического изображения и источник света, направленный к ней и расположенный за вертикальной рамой, фиксатор головы пациента выполнен в виде рентгенопр Stereotactic system comprising a base, locking head of the patient, stereotactic adapter and an arc with a guiding device, characterized in that it further comprises a stereotaxic phantom comprising a vertical frame, secondary frame, provided with an arc with the possibility of vertical movement of the movable transparent vertical plate for attachment tomographic the image and the source light directed thereto and disposed behind the vertical frame, the patient's head is formed as a retainer rentgenopr озрачного подголовника и индивидуальной маски из термопластика. ozrachnogo headrest and individual masks of thermoplastic.
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