RU2071839C1 - Cyclone - Google Patents

Cyclone Download PDF

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RU2071839C1
RU2071839C1 RU93053671A RU93053671A RU2071839C1 RU 2071839 C1 RU2071839 C1 RU 2071839C1 RU 93053671 A RU93053671 A RU 93053671A RU 93053671 A RU93053671 A RU 93053671A RU 2071839 C1 RU2071839 C1 RU 2071839C1
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Russia
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shell
radius
spherical
chamber
cyclone
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RU93053671A
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Russian (ru)
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RU93053671A (en
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Анатолий Николаевич Балалаев
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Анатолий Николаевич Балалаев
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Abstract

FIELD: purification of compressed gas from moisture, oil and mechanical impurities. SUBSTANCE: cyclone body has upper shell with tangential input and lower shell of bigger diameter joined to each other by outer spherical wall. Axial pipe has inner spherical wall on its lower end, that is equidistant to outer one. Lower edge of inner wall is connected to separating extension made in the form of lower half of tote, generatrix radius of which is 2 - 2.4 fold smaller, than radius of inner spherical wall. Extension is connected to axial pipe by its upper outer edge and its lower section has liquid outlet hole. Chamber of swirling is connected to body upper shell. Inner curvilinear surface of chamber of swirling is conjugated with tangential inlet and in place of conjugation it has maximum radius, that 1.2 - 2 fold exceeds radius of body upper shell. Chamber-collector with located in its cavity upper end of axial pipe is located over chamber of swirling and communicates with it by holes made in its bottom. Upper shell of body has diameter, that is 2.5 - 5 fold smaller, than lower shell diameter. EFFECT: improved purification. 2 cl, 4 dwg

Description

 The invention relates to a device for cleaning compressed air or gas from moisture, oil and mechanical impurities.
Countercurrent cyclones are known in which the separation chamber is coupled to a radial slot diffuser. In this case, the gas flow reversal occurs after the pressure in the diffuser is restored and the velocity level decreases, which reduces the water losses associated with the flow reversal [1,2]
However, in some operating modes in such cyclones, gas-liquid flow can be detached at the interface between the separation chamber and the diffuser, liquid can enter the inner wall of the diffuser and decrease the degree of purification.
This drawback is deprived of a cyclone separator, in which the housing consists of an upper shell of a smaller diameter and a lower shell of a larger diameter, interconnected by an outer wall of the diffuser, a tangential nozzle for introducing compressed gas is connected to the upper shell, an axial pipe for outputting purified gas is provided at the lower end with an inner wall of the diffuser , the equidistant outer wall of the diffuser, the lower shell has a drain pipe for the separated liquid, the inner and outer walls of the diffuser are made in the form of spherical segments, the ratio of the upper and lower shells of the casing is 1.5 o C2, to the lower edge of the inner wall of the diffuser is attached a spherical bowl with its upper edge, in the bottom of which there is an axial hole for the entrance of purified gas, the bowl is equipped with a liquid outlet pipe connected to the bottom of the bowl, and a cylindrical insert, the lower edge of which is connected to the hole of the bowl, the upper with the lower end of the axial pipe, and having a plug, below which tangential slots are made in the wall of the insert, and holes for I clean gas outlet [3]
The presence in this cyclone separator of a diffuser, the walls of which are made in the form of segments of spheres, leads to the appearance of additional centrifugal effects when gas flows around spherical surfaces, as well as to a reduction in water losses associated with a turn of the gas stream, which allows an increase in the velocity level in the separation chamber.
 However, an increase in the velocities in the separation chamber leads to additional water losses associated with the inlet of the gas stream into the separation chamber, and the advantages of this device are not fully manifested.
 At the same time, water losses in the structural elements of cyclones, which are used for the secondary swirling of the gas flow, increase.
 For the prototype adopted cyclone separator [3] as the closest to the proposed device in technical essence.
 The aim of the invention is to reduce water losses in the cyclone and increase the degree of purification by increasing the level of velocities in the separation chamber and secondary separation in the axial pipe of the outlet of the purified gas.
This goal is achieved by the fact that in a cyclone containing a nozzle for supplying compressed gas combined with a tangential nozzle inlet, a housing consisting of an upper shell of a smaller diameter and a lower shell of a larger diameter, interconnected by an external spherical wall, an axial pipe for the outlet of purified gas, equipped with the lower end of the inner spherical wall, the equidistant outer spherical wall, and forming with it a diffuser, a separation chamber formed by the upper shell, and also the drain pipe separated liquid, the tangential nozzle inlet is conjugated with a curved swirl surface, the maximum diameter of which at the interface with the nozzle inlet is 1.2 o C2 times the diameter of the separation chamber in its upper part, the curved swirl surface is conjugated with the upper shell of the casing, whose diameter is 2, 5 o C5 times smaller than the diameter of the lower shell of the body, the inner spherical wall is connected by its lower edge to the outer side of the half of the torus, the tube radius of which is 2.2 o C4 times less than the radius of the inner spherical wall, and having a hole for draining the liquid in the lower part, the axial pipe for the outlet of the purified gas is aligned on the side of the tangential nozzle inlet with the collection chamber, which is separated from the nozzle inlet by an end wall in which holes are made that communicate the cavity of the collection chamber with the separation chamber. In addition, the holes in the collection chamber are located at a distance from the cyclone axis of not more than 0.8 of the radius of the upper shell of the separation chamber housing, and their axes are located at an angle to the cyclone axis, but do not intersect with it and are directed towards the tangential nozzle inlet swirl direction.
The proposed technical solution differs from the prototype in that the axial pipe of the purified gas outlet is aligned with the collection chamber, and through the holes in the end wall of the latter with the cavity of the separation chamber, which makes it possible to bypass part of the gas from the axial tube inside the separation chamber due to the ejection effect and the participation of this part of the gas in the secondary separation. The ejection effect occurs due to a change in the ratio of the diameter of the lower shell of the shell to the diameter of the upper shell of the shell from 1.5 o C2, as in the prototype, to 2.5 o C5. Additional centrifugal effects during gas flow around the spherical surfaces of the diffuser do not decrease, since the inner spherical wall of the diffuser is connected to the new half-torus element, which has the radius of the tube and, therefore, the radius of curvature of the external gas-streamlined surface is smaller than the radius of the internal wall of the diffuser.
 Thus, the presence of new elements in the proposed design — half a torus, a collection chamber communicating with the axial tube and the separation chamber, as well as a change in the ratio of the diameters of the upper and lower shells of the housing prove the proposed technical solution meets the criterion of “novelty”.
The increase, compared with the prototype, the ratio of the diameters of the lower and upper shells of the body up to 2.5 o C5 increases the ejection properties of the cyclone. The design of the cyclone in this case is similar to the design of the self-evacuating vortex tube, the latter has a lower pressure compared to the gas pressure at the outlet of the diffuser at radii less than 0.8 of the radius of the pipe with a ratio of radial-slot diffuser and pipe equal to 4.5 o C5. The use of a profiled isogradient diffuser allows to reduce the ratio of diameters to 2.5 without compromising the ejection properties of the vortex self-pumping tube. In the proposed cyclone design, the role of the radial slot diffuser is played by a spherical diffuser, in which the ratio of the outlet and inlet diameters is equal to the ratio of the diameters of the lower and upper shells of the separation chamber body.
 The use in the design of an element representing half a torus is justified as follows. Additional centrifugal forces that occur when gas flows around curved surfaces increases with decreasing radius of curvature, therefore, to increase centrifugal forces and the separation effect, the radius of the torus tube (outer tube wall) should be less than the radius of the inner spherical wall of the diffuser. On the other hand, for the free entry of gas into the axial tube of the purified gas outlet, the inner diameter of the torus must be larger than the diameter of the hole of the axial tube. In FIG. 4 shows a diagram of a spherical diffuser of the proposed cyclone with the notation of the radii and optimal ratios between them.
The ratio in the formula, which is indicated in FIG. 4 (2), it is recommended for a self-evacuating vortex tube, where it is proved that a cylindrical body with a radius of 0.5 o C7 from the radius of the tube does not affect the dynamics of the gas flow, which is important for separation processes in a cyclone. The relation in formula (3) is valid for an ideal incompressible gas. The ratio in formula (4) is obtained from formula (1) and formula (3). The ratio in formula (5) expresses the requirement for a free gas input after the diffuser into the axial tube (r 6 ≥ r 3 ). From the obvious equality 2 • r 5 = r 4 -r 6 and the relations in formula (4) and formula (6), we obtain r 4 / r 5 = 2.2 o C4.
A new element of the proposed cyclone design is also a swirl chamber, the radius of which is 1.2 o C2 times the radius of the separation chamber. With this ratio of radii, the tangential component of the velocity in the swirl chamber is 1.2 o C2 times less than in the separation chamber, therefore, the velocity of the gas entering the cyclone and water losses associated with the gas inlet are lower in this design. At radii less than 1.2 of the separation chamber, the effect of reducing water losses is negligible, and at radii greater than 2, the area of the curved surface of the swirl increases, which leads to an increase in gas pressure loss from friction against this surface. It is known that the ejection properties of a vortex vacuum pump, the design of which is close in technical essence to the design of a cyclone with a slot diffuser, increase with the separation of the radii of the nozzle inlet and the mixing chamber. It is recommended to match the nozzle inlet with the vortex tube chamber along a curved surface with a lemniscate profile, which is justified by a decrease in hydraulic resistance.
 Thus, the new elements of the proposed cyclone design, acting together, lead to a decrease in hydraulic resistance, an increase in the gas flow rate in the separation chamber, an increase in the ejection properties of the cyclone and the organization of the flow of part of the purified gas from the axial tube into the separation chamber for secondary separation, which increases the degree of purification gas.
 New elements of the invention are also the directions of the axes of the holes in the end wall of the collection chamber communicating the cavity of the latter with the separation chamber, as well as the maximum permissible radius for the location of these holes relative to the axis of the cyclone.
 The proposed elements provide a twist flowing for secondary gas separation in the same direction as the swirl of gas in the separation chamber. The restriction of the location of the holes to a radius of 0.8 from the radius of the separation chamber is dictated by the fact that from this radius to the axis of the vortex chamber with a diffuser, the gas pressure does not exceed the pressure of the gas leaving the diffuser. Consequently, the new structural elements provide an ejection of part of the purified gas from the axial tube and twist it for the purpose of secondary separation under the action of centrifugal forces.
The total effect of all the distinguishing features of the proposed device leads to an increase in the degree of purification of the cyclone from moisture, which is reflected in a decrease in the dew point of the purified compressed air from t tr = + 1 o C (the prototype) to t TR = -2 o C (the proposed cyclone) at the same temperature of the source of saturated air t in = + 15 o C.
 In FIG. 1 shows a longitudinal section of the proposed cyclone; in FIG. 2 is a section AA in FIG. one; in FIG. 3 section BB.
 In FIG. Figure 4 shows for examination a diagram of a spherical diffuser with optimal geometric expressions, explaining the choice of size ratios.
 The cyclone contains a nozzle 1 for supplying compressed gas, a tangential nozzle inlet 2, a casing 3, a curved surface of the swirl 4, a vortex casing 5, forming a separation chamber 6, a lower casing 7, a diffuser 8 formed by an external spherical wall 9 and an internal spherical equidistant to it wall 10, the axial pipe 11 of the outlet of the purified gas, the wall 12, which is a half of the torus, attached to the inner spherical wall 10, with an opening 13 for draining the liquid, a pipe 14 for draining the separated liquid, chambers -Collection 15 and an end wall 16 having through openings 17.
 The cyclone works as follows.
Compressed air or gas enters through the nozzle 1 and the tangential nozzle inlet 2 into the cavity of the housing 3, where it acquires a rotational movement. Moving along the curved surface of the swirl 4, the gas moves to a smaller radius of the separation chamber 6. Since the radius decreases by 1.2 ° C2 times, the tangential velocity of the gas gradually increases by the same amount as compared to the rate of gas exit from the tangential nozzle inlet 2, according to the law of conservation of angular momentum. With an increase in the velocity level in the separation chamber 6, the static gas temperature becomes noticeably lower than the temperature of the gas entering the cyclone. Condensation forms out of the moist compressed air. In the separation chamber 6, under the action of centrifugal forces, particles of moisture, oil and mechanical impurities are thrown onto the wall of the upper shell of the housing 5. Gas after the separation chamber 6 enters the diffuser 8, where its static pressure is partially restored, and the speed decreases. Moisture and dust particles that failed to separate in the chamber 6, as well as those that hit the outer surface of the inner spherical wall of the diffuser 10, are discarded under the action of additional centrifugal forces caused by the flow around the convex surface of the inner spherical wall 10. The gas flows around the outer surface of half of the torus 12 having a tube radius smaller than the radius of the sphere of the inner wall of the diffuser 10, further enhances the centrifugal force. Separated particles of moisture and dust settle on the wall of the lower shell of the housing 7 and are removed through the condensate drain pipe 14. The purified gas after flowing around half of the torus 12 enters the internal cavity of the spherical wall 10, having some flow swirl due to the conservation of angular momentum. Therefore, particles of moisture and dust that can be picked up by the purified gas are separated in the internal cavity of the spherical wall 10, flow into the internal cavity of the half of the torus 12 and are removed through the opening 13. The purified gas passes through the axial pipe 11 through the collection chamber 15 and then leaves cyclone. Since the swirl of the gas flow is stored in the pipe 11, and its surface is cooled like a cylindrical body placed on the axis of a self-evacuating vortex tube, condensation and droplet separation occur in the axial pipe 11. This moisture with a part of the gas enters the collection chamber 15, from where it is ejected through the openings 17 into the separation chamber 6, where it is subjected to secondary separation. Since the axis of the holes 17 are directed towards the swirl of the tangential nozzle inlet 2, gas with droplet moisture from the collection chamber 15 enters the separation chamber 6 twisted, which creates better conditions for its secondary separation.
The presence in the cyclone of a curvilinear surface of a swirl with a diameter larger than the diameter of the separation chamber, a diffuser ending in half a torus, and also a collection chamber in communication with the separation chamber of the openings makes it possible to increase the speed level in the chamber compared to the base object, which is also a prototype separation, increase additional centrifugal forces, use the ejection and cooling properties of the cyclone for secondary separation, which generally increases the degree of gas purification. In the case of purification of moist air, it is possible to dry the dew point temperature while decreasing to t TR = -2 o C, which is 3 o C less than that of the prototype.

Claims (2)

 1. A cyclone containing a housing consisting of an upper shell with a tangential inlet of compressed gas and a lower shell of large diameter, interconnected by an external spherical wall, an axial tube provided with an inner spherical wall at the lower end, an equidistant outer spherical wall and forming a diffuser with it, a separation nozzle, the upper outer edge connected to the lower edge of the inner spherical wall and having a hole in the lower part for draining the liquid, characterized in that it is provided attached to the upper shell of the body with a twisting chamber, the inner curved surface of which is conjugated with a tangential input and at the interface has a maximum radius 1.2 to 2 times the radius of the upper shell of the body, a collection chamber located above the twisting chamber, while the upper end of the axial tube is placed in the collection chamber, in the bottom of which holes are made, communicating its cavity with the swirling chamber, the upper shell of the housing is made with a diameter of 2.5 to 5 times smaller than the diameter of the lower shell, and it is separate I nozzle is made in the form of the lower half of the torus, the radius of the generatrix of which is 2.4 times less than the radius of the inner spherical wall.
 2. The cyclone according to claim 1, characterized in that the holes in the bottom of the collection chamber are located at a distance from the cyclone axis of not more than 0.8 radius of the upper shell of the housing, their axes are located at an angle to the cyclone axis, without crossing it, and are directed side of the tangential input spin.
RU93053671A 1993-11-23 1993-11-23 Cyclone RU2071839C1 (en)

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RU93053671A RU2071839C1 (en) 1993-11-23 1993-11-23 Cyclone

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RU93053671A RU2071839C1 (en) 1993-11-23 1993-11-23 Cyclone

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RU2071839C1 true RU2071839C1 (en) 1997-01-20

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2014093195A1 (en) * 2012-12-10 2014-06-19 Uop Llc Apparatus and process for contacting and separating liquids
US9233319B2 (en) 2012-12-10 2016-01-12 Uop Llc Apparatus and process for contacting liquids

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
1. Авторское свидетельство СССР N 1472137, кл. В 04 С 5/103, 1989. 2. Авторское свидетельство СССР N 1526839, кл. В 04 С 5/15, 1989. 3. Авторское свидетельство СССР N 1766526, кл. В 04 С 5/103, 1992. *

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2014093195A1 (en) * 2012-12-10 2014-06-19 Uop Llc Apparatus and process for contacting and separating liquids
US9233319B2 (en) 2012-12-10 2016-01-12 Uop Llc Apparatus and process for contacting liquids
US9457294B2 (en) 2012-12-10 2016-10-04 Uop Llc Apparatus and process for contacting and separating liquids

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