RU2045921C1 - Cigarette filter - Google Patents

Cigarette filter Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2045921C1
RU2045921C1 RU92010811A RU92010811A RU2045921C1 RU 2045921 C1 RU2045921 C1 RU 2045921C1 RU 92010811 A RU92010811 A RU 92010811A RU 92010811 A RU92010811 A RU 92010811A RU 2045921 C1 RU2045921 C1 RU 2045921C1
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RU
Russia
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filter
salicylic acid
cellulose
acetate
cigarettes
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RU92010811A
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Russian (ru)
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RU92010811A (en
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Р.Д. Сафаев
Д.Г. Заридзе
Л.Я. Синельников
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Товарищество с ограниченной ответственностью "Сфинкс"
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Abstract

FIELD: tobacco industry. SUBSTANCE: filter has organic polymer fibers like cellulose, acetate or acetate and cellulose fibers impregnated with adsorbent agent in the form of 3-5% alcohol solution of salicylic acid which contents is 0.09- 0.14% of fiber mass. EFFECT: reduced nicotine, resin and carbon monoxide contents in inhaled smoke, enhanced effectiveness in adsorbing benz-(a)-pyrene and volatile N-nitroseamines and metals. 9 tbl

Description

 The invention relates to the tobacco industry and may find application in the manufacture of filter cigarettes.
 Various filters are known for smoking articles, in particular for cigarettes, which reduce the toxic effects of tobacco smoke, for which filtering devices are used, the basis of which, as a rule, is an acetate, cellulose or cellulose acetate fiber coated with substances having adsorption properties, or impregnated with these substances, which are activated carbon, inorganic and organic salts of mercaptoalkanesulfonic acids, cysteine, acetylcysteine, phthalocyanines.
 The disadvantage of these filters is that the spectrum of substances absorbed by these filters is in many cases limited, and the filters themselves can degrade with the formation of toxic compounds when heated. When using phthalocyanine, for example, organic cyanides, ammonia, benzene derivatives, etc. can be formed.
 A known filter for cigarettes based on porous hydroxyapatite (natural origin or obtained by precipitation).
 Hydroxyapatite is a material with particle sizes from 5 to 20 microns, used in an amount of from 0.1 to 20% by weight of tobacco in a cigarette. Hydroxyapatites are mainly represented, in which the M-cation is represented by calcium, since this material is non-toxic and highly effective.
 The hydroxyapatite filter is made in combination with a fibrous material or activated carbon. It can be made in the form of a tablet, mouthpiece sleeve, etc.
 This filter for cigarettes slightly increases the efficiency of absorption of harmful substances.
 The disadvantage of this filter is that it does not absorb a wide range of carcinogenic and toxic substances from tobacco smoke.
 A known filter based on acetate, cellulose or cellulose acetate fiber, including an adsorbing agent, which is a complex of an iron salt with organic low molecular weight ligands, while the adsorbing agent contains ferrous salts as iron salts, and sodium derivatives of sodium dithiocarbamate as ligands, the content of adsorbing means is 3.6-13 wt. filter fiber.
 The disadvantage of this filter is the limited range of absorbed substances. It absorbs nitric oxide from tobacco smoke, but does not reduce the content of such carcinogens as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with more than eight benzene rings, volatile N-nitroso compounds, tobacco-specific N-nitro compounds, some of the strongest carcinogens from tobacco smoke, as well as carcinogenic trace elements (cadmium nickel, chromium, arsenic, lead, etc.).
 A well-known cellulose acetate filter containing 10% triacetin as an adsorbing agent.
This filter selectively absorbs carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds: N-nitrosodimethylamine up to 75% N-nitrosodiethylamine up to 50% resin up to 35% and nicotine up to 28%
The disadvantage of this filter is that it practically does not absorb the strong carcinogen benz (a) pyrene and carcinogenic trace elements.
 A known filter for cigarettes made of fibers of an organic polymer impregnated with an organic agent, which is an organosilicon monomer, the amount of which is from 6 to 15 wt. by weight of filter fibers.
 The advantage of this filter is that it captures carcinogenic and toxic substances, in particular benz (a) pyrene, carcinogenic trace elements and volatile N-nitro compounds are better than known cigarette filters.
 However, this filter has the disadvantage that it does not differ from the known cigarette filters in absorbing carbon monoxide, nicotine and tar. In addition, it does not fully capture N-nitroso compounds.
 The disadvantage of all these filters is that they do not reduce the content of carcinogenic compounds in the main stream of tobacco smoke by more than 50%, and each of the known filters can reduce the content of only a certain class of chemical compounds with carcinogenic and toxic properties.
 The aim of the invention is to increase the degree of purification of the main stream of tobacco smoke from carbon monoxide, nicotine, tar, carcinogenic benz (a) pyrene, carcinogenic trace elements, volatile N-nitroso compounds and tobacco-specific N-nitroso compounds.
 This is achieved due to the fact that in a filter for cigarettes with an adsorbing substance made of organic polymer fibers, for example, acetate, cellulose or cellulose acetate fibers, a 3-5% salicylic acid solution is used as an adsorbing agent, the amount of which is from 0.09 to 0.14 wt. by weight of fibers.
 The proposed filter for cigarettes constructively can be performed by known technological methods that are used in the manufacture of cigarette filters.
 For example, consider a combination cigarette filter 18 mm long, consisting of two parts made of cellulose and acetate fibers.
As an adsorbing agent for the cigarette filter, 2-hydroxybenzoic (salicylic) acid was selected. Salicylic acid was prepared from sodium phenolate and carbon dioxide at a pressure of 5-6 kgf / cm 2 and at a temperature of 120-140 ° C by Kolbe-Schmitt reaction.
 Salicylic acid is produced in industry in a ready-to-use form.
Cigarette filters were impregnated with 3% 5% 7% and a 10% alcohol solution of salicylic acid. Only the cellulose part of the filter was soaked, which does not come into contact with the smoker's mouth. The volume of salicylic acid solution per filter is about 200 μl. The impregnated filter was dried at 60 ° C for 20 min.
According to the results of the analysis, the optimal value for the cigarette filter is a salicylic acid solution in the range of 3-5%, since the main commercial indicators (nicotine and resin) are improved by 50%
The selection and preparation of cigarettes for smoking with experimental filters were carried out as follows.
 All cigarettes before using them in the work were carefully selected by weight 874 ± 20 mg, according to the ISO standard (3402, 1987 g). Cigarettes manufactured by the Java factory were smoked on an automatic 20-position rotary automatic smoker from Borgwaldt (Germany). The standard smoking conditions are as follows: puff volume 35 ml, puff duration 2 s, puff frequency per minute 1 (ISO 3308 standard, 1986).
 When determining the amount of benz (a) pyrene, metals, nicotine, and tobacco smoke condensate, standard Cambridge filters with a diameter of 44 mm were used. Liquid traps were used to determine the amount of volatile N-nitrosamines and tobacco-specific N-nitro compounds.
 Determination of benz (a) pyrene.
Condensate from 5 cigarettes smoked through a Cambridge filter was extracted with benzene in an ultrasonic bath for 30 minutes twice. The resulting extract was evaporated on a rotary evaporator to 5 ml at 35 ° C, then 1 ml was used for thin layer chromatography, a layer of loose alumina Brockmann grade 2 in hexane / benzene system. After the development of the chromatogram, the luminescence zone of benz (a) pyrene was isolated under a UV lamp, and benz (a) pyrene was determined in the obtained fraction on a HITACHI-850 spectrofluorimeter at liquid nitrogen temperature.
 Determination of volatile N-nitrosamines (LNA) and tobacco-specific N-nitroso compounds (TSNA).
Smoke from cigarettes was passed through two serially connected liquid traps with citrate-phosphate buffer (pH 4.5) containing 20 mM axorbic acid. The absorption solution was extracted with CH 2 Cl 2, water was separated, and the extract was extracted once with 50 ml of 2M NaOH and adjusted to a volume of 5 ml in a water bath under a stream of nitrogen. The resulting solution was analyzed on a Hewllet-Packard Model 5890 gas chromatograph (USA) with a thermal energy detector TEA 502A (USA) specific for LNA. Analysis was performed under the following conditions: column temperature 150 ° C, the evaporator 225 C., 470 C. pyrolyzer glass column of 2.5 m x 4 mm, filled with Carbowax 20M KOH + 2%, the carrier gas is argon, rate 40 ml / min . The contents of the following LNA and TSNA were determined: 1) N-nitrosodiethylamine NDEA; 2) N-nitrosodimethylamine NDMA; 3) N-nitrosopyrrolidine NPYR; 4) N-nitrosopiperidine NPIP; 6) N-nitrosonorotoxin NNN; 7) N-nitrosoanatabin NAT; 8) 4- (methylnitrosamino) -1- (3-pyridyl) -1-butanone NNK.
 Definition of metals.
 Condensate from 5 cigarettes smoked through a Cambridge filter was extracted with 5N. nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath for 30 minutes (60 watts). The resulting extract was filtered through a porous ceramic filter funnel, then washed 2 times with 5 ml of 5N. nitric acid. The pure and whole extract, including the washing volume, was poured into a Kjeldahl flask and evaporated by heating to a volume of 2 ml. The residue was transferred to a 25 ml flask and made up to the mark with 15 ml of Dionized water by flushing from the walls of the Kjeldahl flask. The finished solution was analyzed on a JV-48 plasma emission spectrometer (Jobin-Ivon, France).
 The main commercial indicators depend primarily on the content of nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide in the main stream of tobacco smoke.
 In the table. 1 shows data on the content of the above basic indicators, which depend on the percentage of salicylic acid in a solution of alcohol.
The effectiveness of salicylic acid as an adsorbent is confirmed. So, for example, in comparison with a control filter not treated with salicylic acid, a filter with a 3% alcohol solution of salicylic acid reduces nicotine content by 47% resin by 37% and carbon monoxide by 16% in the main stream of tobacco smoke. At 5%, Alcoholic solution of salicylic acid, the nicotine content is reduced by 50% resin by 42% and carbon monoxide by 20%
A further increase in the content of salicylic acid does not lead to a decrease in the content of the main commercial indicators, primarily, nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide in the main stream of tobacco smoke, since with a 7% alcohol solution of salicylic acid, the nicotine content decreases by 41% by 29% a carbon monoxide by only 12%
The absorption efficiency of nicotine, resin and carbon monoxide are given in table. 2.
 The best indices for all classes of studied toxic and carcinogenic compounds were obtained with a 3% and 5% alcohol solution of salicylic acid, therefore, further experimental studies were carried out with precisely these concentrations of salicylic acid (Table 3, Table 4, Table 4. 5, table 6, table 7, table 8, table 9).
 Analysis of the results presented in these tables shows that the proposed tool quite effectively captures benz (a) pyrene, volatile and tobacco-specific N-nitroso compounds and metals. I especially want to note the ability of the filter to retain nickel, chromium and cadmium, which have carcinogenic properties.
Nickel is almost completely retained by 54% chromium and cadmium by 72%, while arsenic, also a carcinogenic metal, is retained by 57%
The proposed filter will find application in the manufacture of filters for cigarettes produced at tobacco factories in the CIS and abroad.
 The results of analytical studies.
 The research results are presented in table. 1-9.

Claims (1)

  1.  CIGARETTE FILTER made of fibers of an organic polymer, for example of cellulose, acetate or cellulose acetate, impregnated with an adsorbent, characterized in that the fibers of the organic polymer are impregnated with 3 5-alcoholic solution of salicylic acid, the amount of which is 0.09 0. 14 wt. by weight of fibers.
RU92010811A 1992-12-08 1992-12-08 Cigarette filter RU2045921C1 (en)

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RU92010811A RU2045921C1 (en) 1992-12-08 1992-12-08 Cigarette filter

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RU2045921C1 true RU2045921C1 (en) 1995-10-20

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EA014824B1 (en) * 2004-05-24 2011-02-28 Бритиш Америкэн Тобэкко (Инвестментс) Лимитед Molecularly imprinted polymer selective to nitrosamines, method for manufacturing thereof (variants), kit, smoking article and a filter comprising polymer and methods of using polymer
US9861124B2 (en) 2008-09-17 2018-01-09 Yonglin Liang Alexipharmic cigarette filter material and their preparation

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB0506278D0 (en) * 2005-03-29 2005-05-04 British American Tobacco Co Porous carbon materials and smoking articles and smoke filters therefor incorporating such materials

Non-Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Заявка ЕПВ N 0121436, кл. A 24D 3/14, 1985. *
Патент Франции N 2545698, кл. A 24D 3/14, 1985. *
Патент ФРГ N 3403281, кл. A 24D 3/14, 1986 *

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EA014824B1 (en) * 2004-05-24 2011-02-28 Бритиш Америкэн Тобэкко (Инвестментс) Лимитед Molecularly imprinted polymer selective to nitrosamines, method for manufacturing thereof (variants), kit, smoking article and a filter comprising polymer and methods of using polymer
US9861124B2 (en) 2008-09-17 2018-01-09 Yonglin Liang Alexipharmic cigarette filter material and their preparation

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