RU2015135574A - Production of liquefied natural gas - Google Patents

Production of liquefied natural gas Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2015135574A
RU2015135574A RU2015135574A RU2015135574A RU2015135574A RU 2015135574 A RU2015135574 A RU 2015135574A RU 2015135574 A RU2015135574 A RU 2015135574A RU 2015135574 A RU2015135574 A RU 2015135574A RU 2015135574 A RU2015135574 A RU 2015135574A
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RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
natural gas
hydrocarbon processing
cooling
mixed
refrigerant
Prior art date
Application number
RU2015135574A
Other languages
Russian (ru)
Inventor
Расселл Х. Элфке
Майкл Р. МИЛЛЕР
Original Assignee
Эксонмобил Апстрим Рисерч Компани
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Publication date
Priority to US201361756322P priority Critical
Priority to US61/756,322 priority
Application filed by Эксонмобил Апстрим Рисерч Компани filed Critical Эксонмобил Апстрим Рисерч Компани
Priority to PCT/US2013/074909 priority patent/WO2014116363A1/en
Publication of RU2015135574A publication Critical patent/RU2015135574A/en

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J1/00Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures
    • F25J1/0002Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the fluid to be liquefied
    • F25J1/0022Hydrocarbons, e.g. natural gas
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J1/00Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures
    • F25J1/003Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production
    • F25J1/0032Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production using the feed stream itself or separated fractions from it, i.e. "internal refrigeration"
    • F25J1/0035Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production using the feed stream itself or separated fractions from it, i.e. "internal refrigeration" by gas expansion with extraction of work
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J1/00Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures
    • F25J1/003Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production
    • F25J1/0032Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production using the feed stream itself or separated fractions from it, i.e. "internal refrigeration"
    • F25J1/004Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production using the feed stream itself or separated fractions from it, i.e. "internal refrigeration" by flash gas recovery
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    • F25J1/003Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production
    • F25J1/0032Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production using the feed stream itself or separated fractions from it, i.e. "internal refrigeration"
    • F25J1/0042Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production using the feed stream itself or separated fractions from it, i.e. "internal refrigeration" by liquid expansion with extraction of work
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    • F25J1/0045Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production using the feed stream itself or separated fractions from it, i.e. "internal refrigeration" by vaporising a liquid return stream
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    • F25J1/0052Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production using an "external" refrigerant stream in a closed vapor compression cycle by vaporising a liquid refrigerant stream
    • F25J1/0055Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production using an "external" refrigerant stream in a closed vapor compression cycle by vaporising a liquid refrigerant stream originating from an incorporated cascade
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    • F25J1/006Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the refrigerant fluid used
    • F25J1/007Primary atmospheric gases, mixtures thereof
    • F25J1/0072Nitrogen
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    • F25J1/006Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the refrigerant fluid used
    • F25J1/0097Others, e.g. F-, Cl-, HF-, HClF-, HCl-hydrocarbons etc. or mixtures thereof
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    • F25J1/0212Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures requiring the use of refrigeration, e.g. of helium or hydrogen Details and kind of the refrigeration system used; Integration with other units or processes; Controlling aspects of the process using a multi-component refrigerant [MCR] fluid in a closed vapor compression cycle as a single flow MCR cycle
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    • F25J1/0215Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures requiring the use of refrigeration, e.g. of helium or hydrogen Details and kind of the refrigeration system used; Integration with other units or processes; Controlling aspects of the process using a multi-component refrigerant [MCR] fluid in a closed vapor compression cycle as a dual level refrigeration cascade with at least one MCR cycle with one SCR cycle
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    • F25J1/0219Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures requiring the use of refrigeration, e.g. of helium or hydrogen Details and kind of the refrigeration system used; Integration with other units or processes; Controlling aspects of the process using a multi-component refrigerant [MCR] fluid in a closed vapor compression cycle in combination with an internal quasi-closed refrigeration loop, e.g. using a deep flash recycle loop
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    • F25J1/0228Coupling of the liquefaction unit to other units or processes, so-called integrated processes
    • F25J1/0229Integration with a unit for using hydrocarbons, e.g. consuming hydrocarbons as feed stock
    • F25J1/023Integration with a unit for using hydrocarbons, e.g. consuming hydrocarbons as feed stock for the combustion as fuels, i.e. integration with the fuel gas system
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    • F25J1/0229Integration with a unit for using hydrocarbons, e.g. consuming hydrocarbons as feed stock
    • F25J1/0231Integration with a unit for using hydrocarbons, e.g. consuming hydrocarbons as feed stock for the working-up of the hydrocarbon feed, e.g. reinjection of heavier hydrocarbons into the liquefied gas
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    • F25J2220/00Processes or apparatus involving steps for the removal of impurities
    • F25J2220/60Separating impurities from natural gas, e.g. mercury, cyclic hydrocarbons
    • F25J2220/64Separating heavy hydrocarbons, e.g. NGL, LPG, C4+ hydrocarbons or heavy condensates in general
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2245/00Processes or apparatus involving steps for recycling of process streams
    • F25J2245/02Recycle of a stream in general, e.g. a by-pass stream

Claims (43)

1. A hydrocarbon processing system for the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG), comprising:
a fluorocarbon cooling system configured to cool natural gas for LNG production using mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant; and
a nitrogen removal unit (NRU) for removing nitrogen from LNG.
2. A hydrocarbon processing system according to claim 1, comprising a nitrogen cooling system configured to further cool natural gas to produce LNG using a nitrogen refrigerant.
3. The hydrocarbon processing system according to claim 1, comprising a self-cooling system configured to further cool natural gas to produce LNG.
4. The hydrocarbon processing system according to claim 3, wherein the self-cooling system comprises a plurality of evaporation drums and a plurality of expansion devices.
5. The hydrocarbon processing system of claim 1, wherein at least a portion of the natural gas is cooled using a nitrogen stream separated from natural gas by NRU.
6. The hydrocarbon processing system according to claim 1, wherein the fluorocarbon cooling system comprises a cycle with one mixed refrigerant.
7. The hydrocarbon processing system according to claim 1, wherein the fluorocarbon cooling system comprises a pre-cooled mixed refrigerant cycle.
8. The hydrocarbon processing system according to claim 1, wherein the fluorocarbon cooling system comprises a cycle with two mixed refrigerants.
9. The hydrocarbon processing system according to claim 8, in which the cycle with two mixed refrigerants contains:
a first mixed refrigerant cycle using warm mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant; and
a second mixed refrigerant cycle using cold mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant, wherein the first mixed refrigerant cycle and the second mixed refrigerant cycle are connected in series.
10. The hydrocarbon processing system according to claim 1, wherein the fluorocarbon cooling system comprises a cycle with three mixed refrigerants.
11. The hydrocarbon processing system according to claim 1, wherein the fluorocarbon cooling system comprises a heat exchanger configured to cool natural gas by indirect heat exchange between natural gas and mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant.
12. The hydrocarbon processing system according to claim 1, wherein the fluorocarbon cooling system comprises:
a compressor configured to compress the mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant to produce a compressed mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant;
a refrigerator configured to cool the compressed mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant to produce a cooled mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant; and
a heat exchanger configured to cool natural gas by indirect heat exchange with a cooled mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant.
13. The hydrocarbon processing system according to claim 1, wherein the hydrocarbon processing system is configured to cool natural gas to control the dew point of hydrocarbons.
14. The hydrocarbon processing system according to claim 1, wherein the hydrocarbon processing system is configured to cool natural gas to extract a gas condensate liquid.
15. The hydrocarbon processing system according to claim 1, wherein the hydrocarbon processing system is configured to separate methane and lighter gases from carbon dioxide and heavier gases.
16. The hydrocarbon processing system according to claim 1, wherein the hydrocarbon processing system is configured to prepare hydrocarbons for the production and storage of liquefied petroleum gas.
17. The hydrocarbon processing system according to claim 1, wherein the hydrocarbon processing system is configured to condense the irrigation stream.
18. A method for the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG), including:
natural gas cooling to produce LNG in a fluorocarbon cooling system using mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant; and
nitrogen removal from LNG in a nitrogen removal unit (NRU).
19. The method according to p. 18, which includes additional cooling of natural gas with the formation of LNG in a nitrogen cooling system using nitrogen refrigerant.
20. The method according to p. 18, including additional cooling of natural gas with the formation of LNG in the self-cooling system.
21. The method according to p. 20, comprising cooling at least part of the natural gas using a nitrogen stream separated from natural gas using a nitrogen removal unit (NRU).
22. The method according to p. 18, in which the cooling of natural gas in a fluorocarbon cooling system includes:
compressing the mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant to produce a compressed mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant;
cooling the compressed mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant by indirect heat exchange with a coolant to obtain a cooled mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant;
passing the cooled mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant into the heat exchange zone; and
heat transfer of natural gas with a cooled mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant in the heat exchange zone.
23. A hydrocarbon processing system for generating liquefied natural gas (LNG), comprising:
a mixed refrigerant cycle configured to cool natural gas using a mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant, the mixed refrigerant cycle comprising a heat exchanger configured to cool natural gas by indirect heat exchange
between natural gas and mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant;
a nitrogen removal unit (NRU) configured to remove nitrogen from natural gas; and
a methane self-cooling system configured to cool natural gas for LNG production.
24. The hydrocarbon processing system of claim 23, wherein the mixed fluorocarbon refrigerant comprises a mixture of two or more fluorocarbon refrigerants.
25. The hydrocarbon processing system of claim 23, wherein the nitrogen stream separated from natural gas by NRU is used to cool at least a portion of the natural gas.
26. The hydrocarbon processing system of claim 23, wherein the methane self-cooling system comprises a plurality of expansion devices and a plurality of evaporation drums.
RU2015135574A 2013-01-24 2013-12-13 Production of liquefied natural gas RU2015135574A (en)

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US201361756322P true 2013-01-24 2013-01-24
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WO2014116363A1 (en) 2014-07-31
CA2894176A1 (en) 2014-07-31
BR112015012441A2 (en) 2017-07-11
JP6254614B2 (en) 2017-12-27
JP2016511817A (en) 2016-04-21
CN104919260B (en) 2016-10-12
MX2015006658A (en) 2015-08-10
CA2894176C (en) 2017-06-06
CL2015001629A1 (en) 2015-09-04
US20150316316A1 (en) 2015-11-05
ZA201505314B (en) 2016-07-27
US20180149424A1 (en) 2018-05-31
EP2948721A1 (en) 2015-12-02
CN104919260A (en) 2015-09-16
SG11201504193VA (en) 2015-08-28
EP3435016A1 (en) 2019-01-30
EP2948721A4 (en) 2017-01-18
AU2013375185A1 (en) 2015-08-13

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