NL1025027C2 - Method and system for the production of solids from raw materials. - Google Patents

Method and system for the production of solids from raw materials. Download PDF

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Publication number
NL1025027C2
NL1025027C2 NL1025027A NL1025027A NL1025027C2 NL 1025027 C2 NL1025027 C2 NL 1025027C2 NL 1025027 A NL1025027 A NL 1025027A NL 1025027 A NL1025027 A NL 1025027A NL 1025027 C2 NL1025027 C2 NL 1025027C2
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Netherlands
Prior art keywords
torrefaction
space
gas
part
method according
Prior art date
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NL1025027A
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Dutch (nl)
Inventor
Robin Willem Rudolf Zwart
Peter Christiaan Alber Bergman
Arjan Ragusa Boersma
Jacob Hendrik Arnold Kiel
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Stichting Energie
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Priority to NL1025027A priority Critical patent/NL1025027C2/en
Priority to NL1025027 priority
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Publication of NL1025027C2 publication Critical patent/NL1025027C2/en

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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10LFUELS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NATURAL GAS; SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS OBTAINED BY PROCESSES NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C10G, C10K; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS; ADDING MATERIALS TO FUELS OR FIRES TO REDUCE SMOKE OR UNDESIRABLE DEPOSITS OR TO FACILITATE SOOT REMOVAL; FIRELIGHTERS
    • C10L9/00Treating solid fuels to improve their combustion
    • C10L9/08Treating solid fuels to improve their combustion by heat treatments, e.g. calcining
    • C10L9/083Torrefaction
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B49/00Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by direct heating with heat-carrying agents including the partial combustion of the solid material to be treated
    • C10B49/02Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by direct heating with heat-carrying agents including the partial combustion of the solid material to be treated with hot gases or vapours, e.g. hot gases obtained by partial combustion of the charge
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B53/00Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form
    • C10B53/02Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form of cellulose-containing material
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10LFUELS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NATURAL GAS; SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS OBTAINED BY PROCESSES NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C10G, C10K; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS; ADDING MATERIALS TO FUELS OR FIRES TO REDUCE SMOKE OR UNDESIRABLE DEPOSITS OR TO FACILITATE SOOT REMOVAL; FIRELIGHTERS
    • C10L5/00Solid fuels
    • C10L5/40Solid fuels essentially based on materials of non-mineral origin
    • C10L5/44Solid fuels essentially based on materials of non-mineral origin on vegetable substances
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels
    • Y02E50/14Bio-pyrolysis
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels
    • Y02E50/15Torrefaction of biomass
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste

Description

Method and system for the production of solids from raw materials.

The present invention relates to a process for the production of solids from raw materials with torrefaction, wherein: a) raw material is subjected to an elevated temperature in a low-oxygen to oxygen-free atmosphere in a reactor, by b) the raw material being in heat-exchanging contact brought with a gaseous medium with a temperature higher than the torrefaction temperature of the raw material producing solid fuel and reaction gas, c) wherein at least a part of the reaction gas is added to a condensing space, in which that reaction gas is at least partly added cooled such that at least a portion of the condensable components present in the torrefaction gas condenses and is separated from the non-condensed torrefaction gases from that condensation space and the resulting condensate is at least partially burned by the addition of oxygen-containing gas.

Such a method is known from FR 2594135. This describes a pyrolysis treatment in which ligno-cellulose material is treated at a pressure of approximately 800 Pa and a temperature of approximately 400 ° C. This method is used in particular for the production of charcoal .

The solid obtained has a higher calorific value compared to the raw material and has a better grindability. As a result, the solid substance obtained via the present invention is very suitable as a fuel in, for example, gasification and combustion processes.

Possible raw materials consist wholly or partly from organic material and originate, for example, from forestry, agriculture, or another industry. These streams can also be wholly or partly of a fossil nature or a mixing stream of the forms mentioned above. Examples are biomass (residual) streams such as prunings, sapwood, grasses, and seeds and raw materials derived therefrom, which can be seen as a product in another previous process. In a more general sense, it concerns raw materials that contain lignocellulose in whole or in part. Possible raw materials are also waste wood originating from, inter alia, the construction sector or the wood industry and 1025027 i 2 integral household and industrial waste or a separate sub-stream thereof.

The method described in this French patent specification is unsuitable due to large-scale application. The transit time is too high, while the product obtained is only suitable when using very pure wood-like materials.

The object of the present invention is to avoid these disadvantages.

This object is achieved in a process described above in that said treatment at elevated temperature comprises a torrefaction treatment at 200 ° C-320 ° C, the reaction gas comprises torrefaction gas and that raw material is continuously supplied to that reactor and product is continuously discharged therefrom. By using torrefaction, it is possible to use all kinds of material steams as the starting product. Moreover, a relatively high efficiency can be obtained and a hydrophobic product is produced that is easily grindable. Due to the relatively low temperature, it is technically easy to carry out this process continuously.

Moreover, with the present invention, contaminated process water is prevented.

This process water arises in the process because the raw material has a certain moisture content, and because of the thermally induced reactions that take place during the torrefaction process. This water cannot be removed selectively from the torrefaction gases via cooling and partial condensation. With the condensation of water, other components such as furans, acids and phenols will therefore condense or dissolve in the water, creating a polluted stream of water that in some cases is very difficult to clean. This is very undesirable from an economic point of view.

According to an advantageous embodiment, the raw material, such as biomass, comes directly into heat-exchanging contact with the gaseous medium.

According to a further advantageous embodiment, the removal of components from the torrefaction gas takes place in a very effective manner which could otherwise lead to emission problems, or, to problems in a combustion space or a heat exchanger (e.g. corrosion or deposition). This applies in particular to raw materials with a high content of halogens, heavy metals (such as mercury), sulfur or nitrogen. In the present invention, halogen-containing components, nitrogen-containing and sulfur-containing components and components consisting of heavy metals present in the torrefaction gas can be removed from the condensate obtained by cooling the torrefaction gas before at least a part of this condensate is supplied to a combustion step with the addition of oxygen.

According to a further advantageous embodiment, stepwise cooling of at least a part of the torrefaction gas takes place, wherein a specific fraction of the torrefaction gas condenses in each case. In this way it is prevented that certain components present in the torrefaction gas cause contamination at a lower temperature than that at which that fraction has been captured, as a result of which selective water removal from the obtained condensate by cooling of the torrefaction gas is better possible through, for example, membrane separation or liquid / liquid extraction. This allows process water to be extracted and discharged without contamination or with minimal contamination.

According to the present invention, at least a part of the aforementioned condensate is supplied to a combustion space, where it is burned with the addition of an oxygen-containing gas. In this way an important part of the energy content of the torrefaction gases from a torrefaction space is retained for use in the own process. In this case, at least a part of the condensate is optionally evaporated in an evaporation space, before it is supplied to at least one combustion space.

According to a further advantageous embodiment, a part of the aforementioned condensate is burnt together with a part of the torrefaction gas that originates from a torrefaction space, or from a condensation space, in a combustion space. In this case, at least one additional auxiliary substance can optionally be supplied which is burned in the same combustion space, or another combustion space. According to a further advantageous embodiment, this auxiliary substance is a raw material or a raw material whose moisture content is reduced or a solid produced according to the method.

According to a further advantageous embodiment, a raw material is supplied to a torrefaction space. The energy required for the process is introduced into that torrefaction space by also supplying a gaseous medium thereto, such that the temperature of this gaseous medium is higher than the temperature which is understood to be the torrefaction temperature in that torrefaction space. This gaseous medium is mixed with gas that is formed in that torrefaction space and withdrawn from the torrefaction space as a torrefaction gas. Torrefaction gas therefore consists at least in part of components that are formed from a raw material and are gas-shaped at that torrefaction temperature between 200 ° C and 320 ° C.

According to a further advantageous embodiment, this gaseous medium is compressed to compensate for pressure drops over a torrefaction space. Beforehand, it may be advantageous to raise the temperature of the gas in temperature 10, so that condensation due to heat losses prior to this compression is prevented.

According to a further advantageous embodiment, combustion of both at least a part of the condensate and at least a part of the torrefaction gas takes place in a common combustion space. The IS solids originating from the torrefaction are preferably cooled in order to return the heat contained therein to the torrefaction process as much as possible. This can be done either by the permanently present gases (whether or not mixed with torrefaction gases), or via an indirect heat exchange with a cooling medium in particular present for that purpose.

According to the present invention, a part of the gaseous medium is discharged mixed with torrefaction gases, but the useful energy present in this gas mixture is used for discharging, among other things, inlet streams at the torrefaction space. This is done by burning the gases when supplying oxygen to a combustion space. A flue gas is thereby created and this flue gas is not fed back to the process, but is removed after heat exchange with material streams introduced into the torrefaction space and any cleaning.

The heat that is released during the combustion of at least a part of the torrefaction gas can be used for drying the raw materials supplied to the torrefaction and / or can be used for at least a part for heating the gaseous medium supplied to the torrefaction space which must maintain the torrefaction process.

1025027 5

The invention also relates to a system for subjecting raw materials to a torrefaction treatment, comprising a torrefaction space with inlet for the raw materials and outlet for solid substances, which space is provided with a supply for heating gases, and an outlet for S-heating gases and gases released during the torrefaction, wherein said outlet is connected to a combustion space, which combustion space is provided with an inlet for introducing oxygen-containing gas, wherein the outlet of said combustion space is connected via heat exchangers to an outlet of a system, which heat exchangers on the other hand, are connected to the inlet supply of the torrefaction space.

The invention will be described in more detail below with reference to exemplary embodiments shown very schematically in the drawing. It shows:

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a first variant of the torrefaction according to the present invention; FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a second variant of the present invention,

FIG. 3 is a block diagram of a third variant of the present invention; and

FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a fourth variant of the present invention.

The system according to the present invention is indicated in its entirety by 1 in FIG. Central is a torrefaction space 2 with a supply 3 for heating gases that maintain the torrefaction process. The torrefaction process is preferably carried out between 200 and 320 ° C, and more particularly between 200 and 280 ° C.

The material to be fed to the torrefaction process enters the torrefaction space 2 via inlet 4. The torrefaction space is provided with an outlet 5 for solid matter, as well as an outlet 6 for gaseous substance. Outlet 6 is connected to the inlet 8 of a condensation space 7. The remaining torrefaction gases consisting of the gaseous medium originating from the feed 3, as well as the gases produced during the torrefaction, are discharged via outlet 9. The condensed substances from the torrefaction gases are discharged at 10 and fed to the inlet 12 of a combustion space 11. Optionally, the condensed substance is subjected to a cleaning step 1025027 6

The gases from the outlet 9 are partly supplied to a heat exchanger 16 to be discussed below, partly fed to space 26 and partly fed to the inlet of the combustion space 11. Air is also supplied to this combustion space 11 via inlet 14 added. In order to promote combustion, an auxiliary substance can be supplied in addition to air. This can be used both at start-up and during maintenance. Such an auxiliary fuel can be either liquid, gaseous or solid. As an example of a solid, the solid obtained in the torrefaction is mentioned. In the combustion space 11 combustion of a part of the torrefaction gas and all products released during the condensation takes place. The flue gas thus generated is supplied via outlet 15 to heat exchanger 16 and more particularly the inlet 17 thereof. After cooling, this flue gas is led to the inlet 22 of a dryer 21. After further cooling, the gas is discharged into the environment via outlet 23 after any intermediate cleaning steps.

Raw material is supplied to the dryer via inlet 24. The gaseous medium (which contains a part of torrefaction gas) is introduced into heat exchanger 16 and, after heating, is introduced into inlet 3 of the torrefaction space 2.

The device described above works as follows:

The raw material is supplied to the inlet 24 of a dryer 21. Depending on the moisture percentage of the materials supplied, a drying step may or may not be necessary. A large part or all of the water is removed there by heating. Subsequently, the material thus obtained is supplied to the torrefaction space 2 and subjected to torrefaction treatment with the aid of a gaseous medium entering through the inlet 3. The solid substance from the outlet 5 is supplied to the inlet 27 of a cooler 26 and subjected to a cooling step and discharged at 28. As a result of this cooling, part of the gas originating from the torrefaction and introduced at inlet 29 is heated and discharged at 30. This gas is then mixed with the gas from the outlet 6 of the torrefaction space 2.

After cooling in space 26, a solid is formed which can be used, for example, as a fuel for 30 power stations. The torrefaction gases released at the outlet 8 consist of the gaseous medium and gases produced in the torrefaction space 2. As already described above, after a condensation step, a 1025027 part of this gas is supplied to the combustion 11 and discharged into the environment after useful use of the warmth. Another part is recirculated to the torrefaction space. A further part is used for cooling the solid released during the torrefaction.

Fig. 2 shows a variant of the present invention, which is indicated in its entirety by 31. All components corresponding to the components described above are provided with the same reference numerals increased by 30. That is, the torrefaction space is indicated by 32, the supply of a heating gas of which is indicated by 33 and the inlet for raw materials by 34.

In contrast to the embodiment of the cooler 26 described above, the cooler 56 currently used is not included in the flow of the gaseous medium, but is passed through a separate cooling medium there. That is, a separate cooling medium moves through the inlet 59 and outlet 60. Moreover, in this embodiment, only a small part of the gases released from the outlet 39 after condensation is supplied to the combustion space 41. This is indicated by a line 43.

Instead of connecting the heat exchanger 16 and drying space 21 in series as regards the gas flow from the outlet 15 of the combustion space 11, the gas from the combustion space 41 is now distributed over heat exchanger 46 and dryer 51.

Fig. 3 shows a further variant of the present invention, which is indicated in its entirety by 61. All components corresponding to the components in FIG. 1 are provided with the same reference numerals, increased by 60.

The gases released during the torrefaction are supplied via line 68 to the condensation step 67. Part of the torrefaction gases is, in contrast to the earlier embodiments, actually led directly to the combustion chamber 71. This separate feed is indicated by 89. An additional advantage of this possible embodiment is that the torrefaction gas is not unnecessarily cooled, since it must nevertheless be burned. The same applies to a part of the torrefaction gases which is fed directly to the heat exchanger 76 via feeder 79. Cooling at 86 of solids obtained during the torrefaction takes place in a manner not further illustrated.

1025027 8

In Fig. 4, a further variant of the invention is indicated in its entirety by 91. Compared to the embodiment in Fig. 1, all parts corresponding to the embodiment of Fig. 1 are provided with a reference numeral which is increased by 90. Figure 1 is explicitly referred to for a description of the functioning. In this embodiment, just as in the embodiment described with reference to FIG. 3, part of the torrefaction gases is not subjected to the condensation process, but is supplied directly to the combustion chamber 101. In contrast to Figures 2 and 3 and in accordance with Figure 1, the cooled gas is used for cooling the solids in block 116. This gas is then returned to the torrefaction via heat exchanger 106. As a result, the heat released during cooling of the solids in 116 is recovered and used to maintain the torrefaction treatment. In addition, only one recycle of gases is required.

After reading the foregoing, further variants will immediately occur to those skilled in the art. These are within the scope of the present application and more particularly of the appended claims.

1 025 0 2 7

Claims (18)

  1. Process for the production of solids from raw materials with tonefaction, wherein: a) raw material is subjected to an elevated temperature in a low-oxygen to oxygen-free atmosphere in a reactor, by b) bringing the raw material into heat-exchanging contact with a gaseous medium with a temperature higher than the torrefact temperature of the raw material producing solid fuel and reaction gas, d) at least a part of the reaction gas being added to a condensing space, in which at least a part of that reaction gas is cooled such that at least a part is cooled of the condenses) components present in the torrefaction gas condenses and is separated from the non-condensed torrefaction gases from that IS condensation space and the resulting condensate is at least partially burned by the addition of oxygen-containing gas, characterized in that said treatment at elevated temperature a torrefaction treatment 200 ° C to 320 ° C, the reaction gas comprises torrefaction gas and that feedstock is continuously supplied to that reactor and product is continuously withdrawn therefrom.
  2. 2. A method according to claim 1, wherein halogen-containing components, nitrogen and sulfur-containing components, heavy metals and / or other contaminants or products are removed from condensate obtained by cooling the torrefaction gas.
  3. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein stepwise cooling of at least a part of the torrefaction gas takes place in said condensation space, wherein in each stage a certain fraction of at least a part of the torrefaction gas condenses. 1025027
  4. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein a part of said condensate is evaporated in a separate evaporation chamber prior to combustion.
  5. 5. Method as claimed in any of the foregoing claims, wherein a part of the torrefaction gas produced is supplied to a combustion space, wherein the combustion of the torrefaction gas takes place with the addition of oxygen.
  6. 6. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said condensate and that torrefaction gas are supplied to a common combustion space.
  7. Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein said torrefaction gas is burned and the flue gases released thereby are supplied to said combustion space for the condensate.
  8. 8. Method as claimed in any of the foregoing claims, wherein at least a part of that heat in the flue gas that is discharged from said combustion space is added to the method.
  9. 9. Method as claimed in any of the foregoing claims, wherein at least a part of that heat present in that flue gas is exchanged with at least a part of a gaseous medium which is supplied to a torrefaction space.
  10. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein at least a part of the heat released during the cooling of at least a part of said torrefaction gas is utilized elsewhere in the method.
  11. 11. Method as claimed in any of the foregoing claims, wherein to said combustion space for condensate and / or torrefaction gases is added an auxiliary substance which promotes combustion.
  12. The method according to claim 11, wherein said auxiliary substance is an auxiliary substance based on said raw material. 1025027
  13. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said heat released is used to heat the raw material before it is subjected to the tonefaction.
  14. 14. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said gaseous medium consists of at least a part of the torrefaction gas.
  15. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said gaseous medium is compressed for introduction into a torrefaction space.
  16. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said gaseous medium is raised in temperature prior to said compression.
  17. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said cooling of the solid substance from a torrefaction space takes place by means of a gaseous medium, wherein said gaseous medium originates from a condensation space.
  18. 18. System (1, 31, 61, 91) for subjecting raw materials to torrefaction treatment, comprising a torrefaction space (2, 32, 62, 92) with inlet (4, 34, 64, 94) for raw materials and exhaust ( 5, 35, 65, 95) for solids, which space (2, 32, 62, 92) is provided with a supply (3) for heating gases and an outlet (6,36,66, 96) for heating gases and gases released during the torrefaction, wherein said outlet (9, 39, 69, 99) is connected to a combustion space (11, 41, 71, 101), which combustion space is provided with an inlet (14, 44, 74, 94 ) for introducing oxygen-containing gas, the outlet (15, 45, 75, 105) of said combustion space (11, 41, 71, 101) being connected to heat exchangers (16, 46; 21, 51, 76, 106, 81, 111). a drain of a system, which heat exchangers, on the other hand, are connected to the inlet supply of the torrefaction space, characterized in that the outlet (6, 36, 66, 96) of the torrefaction space (2, 32, 62, 92) is connected to a condensation space (7.37, 67.97). 1025027
NL1025027A 2003-12-15 2003-12-15 Method and system for the production of solids from raw materials. NL1025027C2 (en)

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NL1025027A NL1025027C2 (en) 2003-12-15 2003-12-15 Method and system for the production of solids from raw materials.
PCT/NL2004/000873 WO2005056723A1 (en) 2003-12-15 2004-12-15 Method and system for the torrefaction of raw materials

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US8276289B2 (en) 2009-03-27 2012-10-02 Terra Green Energy, Llc System and method for preparation of solid biomass by torrefaction

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