KR20110098241A - 3 wavelength digital holographic microscope and data processing method thereof - Google Patents

3 wavelength digital holographic microscope and data processing method thereof Download PDF

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KR20110098241A
KR20110098241A KR1020100017759A KR20100017759A KR20110098241A KR 20110098241 A KR20110098241 A KR 20110098241A KR 1020100017759 A KR1020100017759 A KR 1020100017759A KR 20100017759 A KR20100017759 A KR 20100017759A KR 20110098241 A KR20110098241 A KR 20110098241A
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양병관
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지니포토닉스(주)
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/24Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring contours or curvatures
    • G01B11/25Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring contours or curvatures by projecting a pattern, e.g. one or more lines, moiré fringes on the object
    • G01B11/2518Projection by scanning of the object
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B9/00Instruments as specified in the subgroups and characterised by the use of optical measuring means
    • G01B9/02Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects
    • G01B9/021Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects using holographic techniques
    • G01B9/025Double exposure technique
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B9/00Instruments as specified in the subgroups and characterised by the use of optical measuring means
    • G01B9/02Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects
    • G01B9/021Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects using holographic techniques
    • G01B9/027Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects using holographic techniques in real time
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B21/00Microscopes
    • G02B21/18Arrangements with more than one light path, e.g. for comparing two specimens
    • G02B21/20Binocular arrangements
    • G02B21/22Stereoscopic arrangements
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H1/00Holographic processes or apparatus using light, infra-red or ultra-violet waves for obtaining holograms or for obtaining an image from them; Details peculiar thereto
    • G03H1/22Processes or apparatus for obtaining an optical image from holograms
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T15/003D [Three Dimensional] image rendering
    • G06T15/08Volume rendering
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H1/00Holographic processes or apparatus using light, infra-red or ultra-violet waves for obtaining holograms or for obtaining an image from them; Details peculiar thereto
    • G03H1/0005Adaptation of holography to specific applications
    • G03H2001/0033Adaptation of holography to specific applications in hologrammetry for measuring or analysing

Abstract

The present invention relates to a three-wavelength digital holographic microscope and a data processing method, comprising a color camera, a light source module for outputting blue / green / red light, a microscope objective lens MO, an object light O, a reference light R, It consists of sample S, and uses a module that combines blue / green / red light that can be individually turned on and off as a light source, and after measuring interference fringes using a commercially available color camera as a detector, color entanglement It relates to a three-wavelength digital holographic microscope, characterized in that to restore the blue / green / red hologram by separating the.

Description

3 WAVELENGTH DIGITAL HOLOGRAPHIC MICROSCOPE AND DATA PROCESSING METHOD THEREOF

The present invention relates to a three-wavelength digital holographic microscope and a data processing method, and more particularly, to a light source module for outputting blue / green / red light, an interference microscope including a microscope objective lens, and a color camera. By decoupling the color coupling that overlaps the transmission band of the color camera's color filter, data processing process separates the blue, green, and red holograms to increase the color purity of the 3D image and to improve the phase distribution. It is about extending the measurement accuracy and measurement range.

Microscopes have traditionally been used because they can see microscopic structures that cannot be observed with the naked eye with cell-level resolution. When combined with a CCD (Charge Coupled Device) camera, up to two-dimensional measurement is possible, but images in the depth of focus of the objective lens overlap, and information such as a step or thickness in the depth direction is lost. On the other hand, a digital holographic microscope combined with a digital holography microscope can obtain an intact three-dimensional image with only one measurement, and the phase distribution is also obtained during the calculation. The phase changes sensitive to the light path, which is useful for precisely measuring the thickness of the step or sample.

Conventional holography divides interference light into two, one strand is used as the reference light, and the other strand is irradiated to the object. The interference pattern formed by the object light scattered from the object and the reference light is recorded on the photographic plate, and then developed to produce a hologram. When the hologram is irradiated with reference light, an intact three-dimensional image of the object may be obtained (FIG. 1A). Digital holography replaces a photographic plate with a two-dimensional detector element such as a CCD (FIG. 1B), and does not require a process of developing a photographic plate, and restores a three-dimensional image entirely by numerical calculation from a hologram obtained in real time with a computer. Combined with a microscope objective lens to increase spatial resolution, it is a digital holographic microscope that can obtain three-dimensional images of objects with cell-level resolution. In addition, the phase information of the image is also obtained during the numerical calculation.

The interference fringe I H formed by combining the object light O and the reference light R can be expressed as follows.

Figure pat00001

Here, the superscript * represents a complex conjugate. In addition, the digital hologram h (x, y) actually measured in the CCD camera can be written as follows.

Figure pat00002

From here

Figure pat00003
Can be measured separately with the camera's dark current,
Figure pat00004
Is the response characteristic,
Figure pat00005
Is the cumulative time. Image reproduction is like putting a reproduction light such as reference light into the hologram as in conventional holography, but digital holography calculates it numerically.

Figure pat00006

In the above equation, the first term on the right side is order 0 and the second term is the virtual image of the object. In addition, since the last term is used to form a distorted image by adding R 2 to the actual image, the complex term R * of the reference light R is used as a regenerated light to erase the R 2 that forms the distorted image as in the following equation.

Figure pat00007

Since the object light O is scattered and diverged from the object, it is actually a complex conjugate of the object light O.

Figure pat00008
Converges to form an image. The reference light R does not affect the image of the restored object because its amplitude is constant or well known. In order to obtain an image of a real object, the electric field distribution in the phase plane must be obtained by Fresnel-Kirchhoff integration.

The electric field at the image plane is expressed by the following equation.

Figure pat00009

From here

Figure pat00010
to be. x and y are the Cartesian axes of the hologram plane,
Figure pat00011
Wow
Figure pat00012
Is the rectangular coordinate axis of the imaging plane and d is the distance between the hologram plane and the imaging plane (see FIG. 2). In order to separate the real image from the zero order term and the virtual image, the reference light R and the object light O may be diagonally combined to give a carrier frequency. In addition to using Fresnel-Kirchhoff integration as described above, a mathematical calculation method for restoring an image includes a Fourier transform method and a convolution method, depending on the device configuration method. The final signal is the object light
Figure pat00013
Because of the electric field distribution of, a three-dimensional image is obtained from the square of the electric field amplitude, and the phase distribution of the object light is obtained by obtaining the phase of the electric field.

Digital holographic microscopes inherently use holography, so they use a monochromatic laser light with a long interference length as a light source. As a result, the reconstructed image is information about the laser light used as the light source, that is, the grayscale image and the phase is for the short wavelength.

If the holography of three wavelengths is possible as the human eye recognizes, it is expected that the use will be expanded as it is possible to obtain not only natural color images but also more information that cannot be observed with monochromatic colors such as absorption and refractive index dispersion according to the wavelength. do.

Another advantage of three-wavelength holography is the increased thickness range of the measurable sample. Phase distribution of the object light obtained above

Figure pat00014
Is obtained without information on an integer multiple of 2π. When the thickness of the sample is d and the refractive index is n, the relationship between the phase and the thickness is as follows.

Figure pat00015

Where m is an integer

Figure pat00016
Is the actual phase distribution without ambiguity about an integer multiple of 2π. For holography with monochromatic laser light, it is difficult to know the integer m.
Figure pat00017
The range of optical path difference that can be known from nd is the following formula.

Figure pat00018

In the case of measuring in air (n = 1) with a reflective structure in which light reciprocates like a conventional three-dimensional measuring device, the range of measurable steps is as follows.

Figure pat00019

In the case of using a silicon-based detector, the shortest detectable wavelength is about 1.2 μm, so the maximum detectable step is 0.6 μm, thereby limiting its use.

Using multiple wavelengths can overcome this limitation. Each phase distribution measured by blue / green / red laser light

Figure pat00020
,
Figure pat00021
,
Figure pat00022
If you put it, the following relation holds.

Figure pat00023
,

Figure pat00024
,

Figure pat00025
,
Figure pat00026

Here, λ B , λ G , and λ R are the wavelengths of blue / green / red laser light, respectively. Phase difference

Figure pat00027
Wow
Figure pat00028
Is the same as the phase distribution measured by the effective wavelengths λ BG and λ GR . If the wavelengths of the blue / green / red laser light are 450 nm, 532 nm and 650 nm, λ BG becomes 2,920 nm and λ GR becomes 2,931 nm, without 2π ambiguity. The range of steps that can be measured is widened. Furthermore
Figure pat00029
Calculate the step and calculate the step, the effective wavelength λ BGR is 778,050nm, which significantly increases the range of measurable step.

In order to realize three wavelengths, a sequential scanning method (time division method) in which a light source capable of sequentially irradiating blue / green / red laser light and a blue / green / red hologram are separately measured and combined using a monochrome camera is used. Should be. However, if the object moves during the scanning process, measurement is impossible. Therefore, it is difficult to realize the natural color of a living sample such as living tissue.

Another method is spatial partitioning, which simultaneously sends blue / green / red laser light and uses a color camera to measure blue / green / red holograms at once. However, color coupling occurs in which the transmission spectra of the filters coated on the blue / green / red pixels of commercial color CCD cameras overlap each other and the signals of each subpixel are mixed with each other. The entangled signal acts as a noise, which affects the signal-to-noise ratio, resulting in a problem of degrading image quality and measurement accuracy.

The present invention relates to a three-wavelength digital holographic microscope and a data processing method invented to solve the problems of the prior art as described above, the light source that can be turned ON / OFF individually while simultaneously sending blue / green / red light It consists of a module and a color camera, and aims to improve the measurement accuracy of image quality and phase distribution by separating the mixed three-wave hologram.

The three-wavelength digital holographic microscope according to the present invention includes a color camera, a light source module for outputting blue / green / red light which can be individually turned ON / OFF, an interference microscope having a transmissive or reflective structure, an object light O and And reference light R and sample S, and the device matrix is obtained by using a hologram formed by inputting reference light R generated by sequentially irradiating blue, green, and red light of the light source module into a color camera, and obtaining the reference light R After measuring the interference signal between the object light O and the inverse matrix of the device matrix and the interference signal, each hologram in which color entanglement is separated by decoupling color entanglement generated by a color camera color filter is repeated. After the reconstruction, the image signal of each reconstructed hologram is combined to obtain a three-dimensional image of natural color.

In addition, the data processing method of the three-wavelength digital holographic microscope according to the present invention is a color camera, a light source module for outputting blue / green / red light that can be individually ON / OFF, and a transmission or reflective interference microscope And an object light O, a reference light R, and a sample S, and after blocking the object light O, irradiating blue / green / red light of the light source module in order to measure response characteristics of the color camera. ; Obtaining a device matrix representing a device characteristic from the response characteristic; Measuring the interference signal between the reference light R and the object light O by opening the object light O which was mounted and blocked with the sample S; Finding a blue / green / red hologram without color entanglement by decoupling color entanglement caused by overlapping transmission bands by a color camera color filter using the inverse of the device matrix and the interference signal; Finding a 3D image and a phase distribution from the blue / green / red hologram; And combining the three-dimensional image to obtain a three-dimensional image of natural color.

In addition, the present invention is to find the image and phase distribution from the blue / green / red hologram using the Fresnel-Kirchhoff integration method, Fourier transform method or the convolution method (blue / green / red respectively) It is characterized by obtaining a three-dimensional image of the weighted to each image.

In addition, the present invention is characterized by obtaining a phase distribution of the restored blue / green / red wavelengths and combining each phase distribution to measure a wide range of steps with high precision.

In addition, the present invention is characterized in that the light source module is a combination of a blue / green / red laser diode, a blue / green / red LED or a band-pass filter and a blue / green / red LED.

The present invention relates to a three-wavelength digital holographic microscope, comprising: a light source module for outputting blue / green / red light, an interference microscope having a transmissive or reflective structure, and a detector camera having a two-dimensional or three-dimensional structure; Decoupling the color entanglement that overlaps the transmission band of the color camera color filter, separates the blue / green / red holograms, restores the images from the respective holograms, and recombines them to obtain a natural three-dimensional image. When using the 3D step measurer using the phase distribution obtained in the image reconstruction process, there is an effect that the range of the step that can be measured is widened by combining the phase distribution of the blue / green / red wavelengths.

In addition, the present invention can separate the color entanglement to obtain a high-quality natural color image with high color purity, and has the effect of improving the measurement accuracy and widening the measurement range.

1a and 1b show the basic principles of holography.
2 is a diagram illustrating a process of obtaining a digital hologram.
3A and 3B show a color filter structure and a transmission spectrum of a color filter of a color camera.
4 illustrates a three-wavelength digital holographic microscope in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention.
5 illustrates a three-wavelength digital holographic microscope in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention.

Hereinafter, a three-wavelength digital holographic microscope according to the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Figure 4 shows the basic structure of a three-wavelength digital holographic microscope according to an embodiment of the present invention, as shown, the three-wavelength digital holographic microscope is equipped with a sample and blue / green / red laser diode To the ON position and measure the hologram.

The three-wavelength digital holographic microscope according to an embodiment of the present invention includes a color camera, a light source module for outputting blue / green / red light, an interference microscope having a transmissive or reflective structure, an object light O, and a reference light R And it comprises a sample S.

As the light source module, a blue / green / red laser diode or a blue / green / red LED or a bandpass filter and a blue / green / red LED can be used in combination. In this embodiment, a blue / green / red laser diode was used, and a CCD color camera was used as the color camera.

Before starting the measurement in full, cut off the light passing through the sample (object light) so that the reference light can be detected and measure the device matrix by sequentially turning the blue / green / red laser diodes on and off. The purpose of measuring the device matrix is that, when the device matrix is measured, the inverse matrix of the device matrix can be obtained to determine the luminance of blue / green / red laser light corresponding to the incident light signal.

If the luminous intensity of the red / green / blue laser light incident on the i-th pixel is r i , g i , b i , and the red / green / blue sub-pixel signals are R i , G i , B i , A relationship like an equation is formed.

Figure pat00030

Here M i is a device matrix which is a real 3 × 3 matrix representing the relationship between the amount of red / green / blue light incident on the i-th pixel and the actual measured signal. The diagonal component of the device matrix is mainly affected by the spectral sensitivity of the detector. If the bandwidth of the transmission spectrum of the color filter is narrow, and the blue / green / red filter transmits only the blue / green / red laser light, the non-diagonal components of the device matrix are all zero. As shown in the color filter structure and the transmission spectrum of the color filter of FIGS. 3A and 3B, since the transmission band of the transmission spectrum of the color filter of a conventional color CCD camera is wide and blue / green / red laser light is mixed with each other, it is generally measured. The non-diagonal component of the device matrix M i is not zero. However, if the device matrix M i is known, r i , g i , b i corresponding to the signal of incident light can be obtained from the measured signals R i , G i , and B i of the measured subpixels according to the following equation.

Figure pat00031

In order to measure the device matrix M i , after blocking the object light, each signal is measured by sequentially turning on / off the red / green / blue laser light. At this time, the output of the red / green / blue laser light is assumed to be 1 to be normalized.

First, when only the red laser is ON and the other laser is OFF, according to the above formula,

Figure pat00032
.

If only green laser is ON and other laser is OFF, according to the above formula,

Figure pat00033
.

When only blue laser is ON and other laser is OFF, according to the above formula,

Figure pat00034
.

Therefore, the device matrix M i of the i-th pixel is measured as follows.

Figure pat00035

The device matrix is the i-th pixel, and the device matrix is obtained in this manner for all two-dimensional pixels, the sample is placed, and the blocked object light is opened to start the interference fringe measurement with the reference light. If the interference signal of the i-th pixel is H i R , H i G , H i B , the hologram signals h i r , h i g , and h i b without color entanglement are as follows.

Figure pat00036

If h i r , h i g , and h i b are obtained from each pixel, and h i r , h i g and h i b are collected, they become red / green / blue holograms without color entanglement, respectively. Image restoration of each hologram obtains a red / green / blue 3D image and phase distribution, and combines the image signals to obtain a natural 3D image.

CCDs are often used as detectors for color cameras, and the size of the CCD chip is several mm in width and length. The device matrix is thus almost identical regardless of the position of the pixel. In this case, color entanglement can be repeated by using the averaged device matrix instead of the individual device matrix.

The three-wavelength digital holographic microscope can acquire three-dimensional data of an object by one-time imaging, and reconstruct and display a three-dimensional image through numerical reproduction. In the above equation, if the position d of the imaging plane is constant, an image of the longitudinal section of the object is obtained, and d and the associated coordinate value (

Figure pat00037
If you calculate by changing), you will get an image of the cross section. In addition, by numerically adding the lens, an image in which an object is enlarged or reduced can be obtained without mechanical manipulation.

As shown in FIG. 5, when the measurement sample does not transmit light, the light reflected from the sample becomes the object light, and the light reflected from the reflector becomes the reference light, and the interference patterns are measured by the color camera. Such a structure is mainly used in a 3D measuring device, and the process of recovering color entanglement for three wavelengths is the same as the above-described process.

Claims (5)

  1. It includes a color camera, a light source module that outputs blue / green / red light which can be turned ON / OFF individually, an interference microscope of a transmissive or reflective structure, an object light O, a reference light R, and a sample S. Lose,
    After obtaining a device matrix using a hologram formed by injecting reference light R generated by sequentially irradiating blue, green, and red light of the light source module into a color camera, and measuring an interference signal between the reference light R and object light O, By using the inverse matrix of the device matrix and the interference signal, the color entanglement caused by overlapping transmission bands by the color camera color filter is decoupling. 3-wavelength digital holographic microscope characterized in that it is configured to obtain a three-dimensional image of color.
  2. It includes a color camera, a light source module that outputs blue / green / red light which can be turned ON / OFF individually, an interference microscope having a transmissive or reflective structure, an object light O, a reference light R, and a sample S. Lose,
    Blocking the object light O and irradiating blue / green / red light of the light source module in order to measure response characteristics of the color camera;
    Obtaining a device matrix representing a device characteristic from the response characteristic;
    Measuring the interference signal between the reference light R and the object light O by opening the object light O which was mounted and blocked with the sample S;
    Finding a blue / green / red hologram without color entanglement by decoupling color entanglement caused by overlapping transmission bands by a color camera color filter using the inverse of the device matrix and the interference signal;
    Finding a 3D image and a phase distribution from the blue / green / red hologram;
    Combining the three-dimensional images to obtain a three-dimensional image of natural colors;
    Data processing method of a three-wavelength digital holographic microscope comprising a.
  3. The method of claim 2, wherein the step of finding an image and a phase distribution from the blue / green / red hologram is performed using a Fresnel-Kirchhoff integration method, a Fourier transform method, or a convolution method. A data processing method of a three-wavelength digital holographic microscope, characterized in that each three-dimensional image is obtained and weighted on each image.
  4. 4. The three-dimensional digital holo of claim 2 or 3, wherein the phase distribution of the restored blue / green / red wavelengths is obtained and each phase distribution is combined to obtain a wide range of steps with high precision. Data processing method of graphic microscope.
  5. 3. The three-wavelength digital holographic device of claim 2, wherein the light source module is a blue / green / red laser diode, a blue / green / red LED, or a combination of a bandpass filter and a blue / green / red LED. Microscope Data Processing Method.
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KR101332984B1 (en) * 2012-01-17 2013-11-25 세종대학교산학협력단 Hologram tomography apparatus and method thereof
WO2014051680A1 (en) * 2012-09-25 2014-04-03 Asociación Centro De Investigación Cooperativa En Nanociencias, Cic Nanogune Synthetic optical holography
KR101441245B1 (en) * 2013-05-29 2014-09-17 제주대학교 산학협력단 Digital Holographic Microscope Apparatus
CN108645336A (en) * 2018-05-11 2018-10-12 赣南师范大学 A kind of no reference light digital hologram camera and scaling method

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KR101953031B1 (en) 2017-07-21 2019-02-27 연세대학교 산학협력단 Phase shifter for digital holographic system, digital holographic system comprising the same and method for manufactiring the same

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US6525821B1 (en) 1997-06-11 2003-02-25 Ut-Battelle, L.L.C. Acquisition and replay systems for direct-to-digital holography and holovision
KR100402689B1 (en) * 1998-12-26 2003-12-18 주식회사 대우일렉트로닉스 Optical alignment control device of digital holographic data storage system
KR100721131B1 (en) * 2005-07-26 2007-05-22 (주)에이피앤텍 Digital Holographic Microscope with a wide field of view

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR101332984B1 (en) * 2012-01-17 2013-11-25 세종대학교산학협력단 Hologram tomography apparatus and method thereof
WO2014051680A1 (en) * 2012-09-25 2014-04-03 Asociación Centro De Investigación Cooperativa En Nanociencias, Cic Nanogune Synthetic optical holography
US9213313B2 (en) 2012-09-25 2015-12-15 Asociación Centre De Investigación Cooperativa en Nanociencias, CIC Nanogune Synthetic optical holography
KR101441245B1 (en) * 2013-05-29 2014-09-17 제주대학교 산학협력단 Digital Holographic Microscope Apparatus
CN108645336A (en) * 2018-05-11 2018-10-12 赣南师范大学 A kind of no reference light digital hologram camera and scaling method

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