KR100721131B1 - Digital Holographic Microscope with a wide field of view - Google Patents

Digital Holographic Microscope with a wide field of view Download PDF

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Publication number
KR100721131B1
KR100721131B1 KR1020050067995A KR20050067995A KR100721131B1 KR 100721131 B1 KR100721131 B1 KR 100721131B1 KR 1020050067995 A KR1020050067995 A KR 1020050067995A KR 20050067995 A KR20050067995 A KR 20050067995A KR 100721131 B1 KR100721131 B1 KR 100721131B1
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South Korea
Prior art keywords
light
lens
objective lens
angle
viewing angle
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KR1020050067995A
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Korean (ko)
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KR20070013582A (en
Inventor
신상훈
오남현
최승길
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(주)에이피앤텍
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Abstract

The wide viewing angle digital hologram microscope of the present invention reduces the divergence angle of the object light by inserting another lens system in addition to the objective lens in the digital hologram microscope, making the object light and the reference light smaller than the maximum combined angle of overlapping the diffraction pattern recording and diffraction efficiency. It is designed to maximize the viewing angle and to make the viewing angle larger.

Description

Digital Holographic Microscope with a wide field of view}

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In order to better understand the drawings cited in the detailed description of the invention, a brief description of each drawing is provided.

1 is a view showing the configuration of a wide viewing angle digital hologram microscope according to an embodiment of the present invention.

2 shows the configuration of a conventional digital hologram microscope.

3 is a schematic diagram of how the reference light and the object light overlap and the overlapping interference fringe are recorded by the CCD image pickup device spaced a certain distance from the object.

4 is an example of a transmissive object according to an embodiment of the present invention.

Fig. 5 shows a reproduced image in which a hologram obtained by a CCD image pickup device in the absence of a lens system is reproduced at a fixed distance by software.

Fig. 6 is a reproduced image in which a hologram obtained by a CCD image pickup device with a lens system is reproduced at a fixed distance by software.

FIG. 7 is a hologram photographed according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention and corresponds to a case in which the total width of an object is large, and is reproduced apart by a numerical distance using the software 101.

1 light source

2, 3 neutral filter

4,8 objective lens

5,6 beam split

7 lenses

9 pinhole

10,20,30,40 mirror

21 Reference Light

22 object light

51 The maximum angle at which the object light and the reference light overlap

52 The minimum angle at which the object light and the reference light overlap

53 Reference Light

54 Object Light

55, 56 outermost beam of object light

57, 58 outermost beam of reference light

59 divergence angle of the object

80 objects

90 lens system

100 CCD

101 software

The present invention relates to a digital holographic microscope system, and more particularly to a new type of digital holographic microscope system capable of overcoming the limitation of diffraction pattern recording and diffraction efficiency due to the enlargement of the viewing angle and the pixel size of the CCD.

Microscopes, observation and measurement equipment, have been utilized in all areas of science since the advent of early optical microscopes. The biggest problem of the optical microscope is that the higher the magnification, the more difficult it is to extract the object information in the depth direction (that is, the three-dimensional data of the object), and the resolution is limited to the wavelength level of the light source used due to the optical diffraction limit. To solve these problems, advanced microscopes have been developed that are more precise and applicable to various purposes, and research is being conducted to improve their performance.

  Confocal Microscope, Atomic Force Microscope, AFM, Scanning Electron Microscope and SEM Equipment such as TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and LEAP (Local Electron Atom Probe) have been developed and used in almost all industries as well as in medicine, biology and biotechnology.

  However, these equipments have difficulty in extracting and displaying object 3D data in real time and are not widely used due to the high price of equipment. Each of the microscope instruments described above has its own advantages and disadvantages. However, the biggest disadvantage is that both of these microscopes require a lot of time and computation to extract the three-dimensional information of the object. In addition, in the case of SEM or TEM, damage to the object occurs when measuring a living object such as a microorganism or an organic material due to the use of a high energy electron beam. Therefore, in the case of investigating three-dimensional data of individual objects of a large amount of objects, or when living organisms such as microorganisms are active in a certain space, the distribution, the number of individuals, the locus of each movement, and each of the individual microorganisms are in a certain space. It is practically impossible to obtain three-dimensional information about an object in real time, such as three-dimensional information. In addition, the microscopes are all expensive equipment, it is difficult to purchase and equip all from various needs. Such high resolution three-dimensional data providing microscopes are indispensable measurement equipment for scientific, academic, research, and industrial fields.

As the interest in nanotechnology increases, the necessity for nano microscopes, which are observation and measurement equipments, is also rapidly increasing.

 Digital hologram technology uses video recording devices such as CCD (Charge Coupled Device) starting from the existing hologram technology (the method of reproducing the 3D image by providing the reference light and recording in the same way as the photographing using the hologram plate). By obtaining the hologram data of the object in real time, and obtaining the three-dimensional data of the object by a method of numerical three-dimensional image reproduction. The conceptual methodology has been proposed about 30 years ago, and the development of numerical 3D image reproducing has been actively conducted in the world due to the development of CCD and computer computation speed. . As described above, the 3D data of the object is recorded by the hologram method, so that the 3D data of the object can be obtained by one-time shooting, and the 3D data of the object can be reconstructed and displayed by numerical reproduction. In terms of performance, we can expect an unparalleled improvement in performance compared to the advanced microscopes developed earlier. Such three-dimensional data-related ability can meet the data display needs of a variety of objects, and various applications are expected.

  CCD imaging devices that record interference fringes in digital holographic microscopes are constructed pixel by pixel, and the pixel size is currently at least 5 μm x 5 μm. Therefore, there is a disadvantage that can not be recorded when the period of the interference fringe is 10 μm or more. The period of the interference fringe is dependent on the angle at which the reference light and the object light overlap. The smaller the overlapping angle, the larger the period. Therefore, in order to record the interference fringe with the CCD image pickup device, the maximum allowable angle at which the reference light and the object light overlap is calculated, and meaningful data can be obtained only when the reference light overlaps at an angle smaller than this. This limited angle also limits the field of view of the microscope.

Accordingly, the technical problem to be achieved by the present invention is to design a wide viewing angle digital holographic microscope in which another lens system is inserted in addition to the objective lens in the digital holographic microscope device to make the divergence angle of the object light smaller than the maximum coupling angle, thereby recording the diffraction pattern. And the diffraction efficiency can be maximized and the viewing angle can also be made large.

The schematic diagram of the structure of the wide viewing angle digital hologram microscope of the structure of this invention is shown in FIG. As shown in FIG. 1, the wide viewing angle digital hologram microscope is constructed by applying a Mach-Zender type interferometer. Lens system 90 that maximizes diffraction efficiency, CCD 100 for recording interference fringes by combining the object light and reference light, and software 101 for numerically analyzing the recorded interference fringes. . The light source 1 uses a laser beam having good coherence. As an example, a cw He-Ne laser having a wavelength of 632.8 nm is used. In order to generate the reference light, the laser beam of the light source 1 is divided into two beams through the beam splitter 5 and passed through the neutral filter 3 to adjust the beam intensity and reflect the reflected light to the reflector 30. The reflected beam is magnified to a predetermined size using the objective lens 8, the pinhole 9, and the lens 7, and parallel light having a TEM 00 shape is produced to make the reference light 21. In addition, another beam divided by the beam splitting 5 allows the object to be piled up at a predetermined distance by the objective legs 4 in the light of the transmissive object 80. The intensity of the object light can be adjusted through the neutral filter 2. Examples of the objective lens 4 include magnifications of 10X, 20X, 50X, 100X, and the like.

Figure 2 shows the structure of the digital hologram microscope used previously. As shown in the figure, except for the lens system 90 used for the purpose of the present invention has the same structure.

FIG. 3 shows a schematic diagram of how the reference light and the object light overlap and the overlapping interference fringes are recorded by the CCD 100 imaging device spaced a certain distance from the object 90. In FIG. 3, the divergence angle 59 of the object light depends on the magnification of the objective lens 4, and all of the diverging beams inside, including the outermost beams 55 and 56, are the object light 54 and the parallel outermost beam ( 57, 58), the beams traveling parallel to each other are the reference light 53.

A typical silver halide film for recording holograms is a film containing grains whose state changes in response to laser light, the size of which is the film resolution. A typical holographic film can record 5000 line pairs per mm, which is not limited by the combined angle of object light and reference light from 0 to 180 degrees. However, in the case of the digital hologram, since the CCD imaging device is used instead of the film, only the hologram having the interference pattern period in the resolution of the imaging device can be recorded. The maximum coupling angle is as follows.

The maximum spatial frequency f max is

f max = 2 / λsin (θ max / 2) (1)

Where? Is the recording laser wavelength and? Max is the maximum angle at which the object light and the reference light are coupled. Also, if the CCD pixel size is Δx, the maximum spatial frequency f max is

f max = 1 / 2Δx (2)

to be. For example, because the size of the CCD pixel used is 7.4 μm X 7.4 μm, the theoretical maximum allowable coupling angle θ max is 2.46 degrees.

An example of a transmissive object 80 is shown in FIG. 4 and is a photo mask for photolithography and is made of a transmissive type. The numerical value of the object 80 is shown in Table 1.

Table 1. The angles at which the object light and the reference light overlap in two cases
If there is no lens system If there is lens system Distance from object 75 cm 125 cm 75 cm 125 cm Width (W) 27 mm 50 mm 14 mm 22 mm Height (H) 46 mm 83 mm 24 mm 35 mm Small (SW) 8 mm 15 mm 4mm 7 mm c1 (51) 2.84 1.82 c2 (52) 0.2 0.9

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In the conventional digital holographic microscope without the lens system 90, the divergence angle 59 of the object light is 2.64 degrees, and in the case of the wide viewing angle digital holographic microscope with the lens system 90, it is 0.92 degrees, and the maximum value of the overlapping angles is In the absence of the lens system 90, the theoretical maximum permitted angle of 2.84 degrees is greater than 2.46 degrees, so the diffraction efficiency can be expected to decrease. Small values are expected to have high diffraction efficiency.

FIG. 5 shows a reproduced image of a hologram obtained by the CCD 100 in the absence of the lens system 90 at a predetermined distance by the software 101, and FIG. 6 is obtained by the CCD 100 in the case where the lens system 90 is present. The hologram is a reproduced image reproduced at a certain distance by the software 101. 5 and 6 numerically analyzing the diffraction efficiency, it can be seen that the microscope with the lens system 90 of the present invention is about 4 times higher.

Thus far, when the magnification of the objective lens 4 is 50x or more, the angle 59 at which the object light spreads out exceeds the maximum allowable angle at which the object light and the reference light overlap, so that the present invention is a method for overcoming this limitation. Is designed to reduce the spreading angle 59 of the object light by using another lens row (90). Next, in addition to such control, an example of obtaining the maximum field of view of the objective lens 4 in the case of the lens system 90 was tested.

To test this, a hologram was made using a 20 x Mitsutoyo lens, and the experiment was divided into the case with and without the lens system 90.

Table 2. Overlap angles with and without another lens system 90
If there is no lens system If there is lens system Distance from object 40 cm 80 cm 40 cm 80 cm Width (W) 29 mm 67 mm 15 mm 26 mm Height (H) 29 mm 67 mm 15 mm 26 mm c1 (51) 2.69 0.782 c2 (52) 2.69 0.78

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The parameters of the embodiment are shown in Table 2 where the distance from the object is the distance from the object to the CCD, the width W is the horizontal distance of the whole object and the height H is the vertical distance of the whole object. In the absence of the lens system 90, the reproduced image was hardly distinguishable. However, in the case where the lens system 90 is present, the reproduced image is shown as shown in FIG. 7, and the reproduced image is reproduced by a numerical value of 90 cm apart using the software 101. As shown in the figure, the zero diffraction light is slightly raised from the center of four objects, and the two bright and small images are virtual. In addition, the reproduction image on the right side of the reproduction image on the lower left side is enlarged and shown on the right side of FIG.

According to the present invention, it is possible to devise a new type of digital holographic microscope system capable of overcoming the limitation of diffraction pattern recording and diffraction efficiency due to the enlargement of the viewing angle and the pixel size of the CCD.

Claims (10)

  1. A laser, a first beam splitter optically coupled to the laser, a transmissive object optically coupled to the first beam splitter, a first objective lens optically imaging the object, and an optically coupled to the first beam splitter A second objective lens coupled to the second objective lens, an optically coupled pinhole to the second objective lens, an optically coupled lens to the pinhole, a second beam splitter for coupling an object light and a reference light, and an optically coupled to the second beam splitter A wide viewing angle digital hologram recording device comprising a connected CCD imager,
    By controlling the spreading angle of the object light through the lens array between the first objective lens and the second beam split, when the object light and the reference light are coupled through the second beam split through the lens array, the object light is A wide viewing angle digital hologram recording device, characterized in that the spreading angle is configured to prevent a deviation from the maximum allowable angle at which the object light and the reference light overlap.
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  6. A wide viewing angle digital hologram recording method, comprising: splitting a laser beam into a reference light and an object light, making the reference light into parallel light, passing the object light through an objective lens, and passing the object light through the objective lens. And adjusting the divergence angle within a maximum allowable angle at which the object light and the reference light overlap, and forming a hologram in the CCD image pickup device so as to overlap the reference light and the object light.
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KR1020050067995A 2005-07-26 2005-07-26 Digital Holographic Microscope with a wide field of view KR100721131B1 (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106990695A (en) * 2016-01-21 2017-07-28 富士施乐株式会社 Hologram recorder

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR101125842B1 (en) * 2010-02-26 2012-03-28 지니포토닉스(주) 3 wavelength digital holographic microscope and data processing method thereof

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR20000004670A (en) * 1998-06-30 2000-01-25 전주범 Hologram data spacial multiplexing method and storage system using the same
KR20040062978A (en) * 2001-11-30 2004-07-09 하마마츠 포토닉스 가부시키가이샤 Hologram preparing method
JP2004335067A (en) 2003-04-30 2004-11-25 Daewoo Electronics Corp Holographic digital data recording system
WO2004102111A1 (en) 2003-05-16 2004-11-25 Universite Libre De Bruxelles Digital holographic microscope for 3d imaging and process using it

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR20000004670A (en) * 1998-06-30 2000-01-25 전주범 Hologram data spacial multiplexing method and storage system using the same
KR20040062978A (en) * 2001-11-30 2004-07-09 하마마츠 포토닉스 가부시키가이샤 Hologram preparing method
JP2004335067A (en) 2003-04-30 2004-11-25 Daewoo Electronics Corp Holographic digital data recording system
WO2004102111A1 (en) 2003-05-16 2004-11-25 Universite Libre De Bruxelles Digital holographic microscope for 3d imaging and process using it

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106990695A (en) * 2016-01-21 2017-07-28 富士施乐株式会社 Hologram recorder

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