JPH0767038A - Solid-state image pickup device - Google Patents

Solid-state image pickup device

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Publication number
JPH0767038A
JPH0767038A JP20962993A JP20962993A JPH0767038A JP H0767038 A JPH0767038 A JP H0767038A JP 20962993 A JP20962993 A JP 20962993A JP 20962993 A JP20962993 A JP 20962993A JP H0767038 A JPH0767038 A JP H0767038A
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Prior art keywords
signal
circuit
output
image
pickup
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JP20962993A
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Japanese (ja)
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Masayuki Shimura
雅之 志村
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Sony Corp
ソニー株式会社
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Abstract

PURPOSE:To improve the degradation of picture quality caused by fixed pattern noise by storing a fixed pattern noise signal as line information and subtracting this fixed pattern noise signal from the output signal of the detected valid picture element part of a solid-state imaging device. CONSTITUTION:An image pickup output signal supplied from an A/D converting circuit into an input terminal 10a is supplied to a subtracting circuit 4 and a select circuit 13. At this select circuit 13, the image pickup output signal of a CCD imaging device is supplied to an integration circuit 2, in this image pickup output signal, the image pickup output signal corresponding to a vertical optical black picture element part 1V of the CCD imaging device is supplied to the integration circuit 2, and the image pickup output signal corresponding to a horizontal optical black picture element part 1H is supplied to an integration circuit 14. When the signal is integrated at the circuit 2, the fixed pattern noise signal sharply appears. The circuit 14 supplies the output to an optical black clamp circuit 15 as a clamp signal. At the subtracting circuit 4, this fixed pattern noise signal is subtracted for each line signal.

Description

【発明の詳細な説明】 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

【0001】 [0001]

【産業上の利用分野】本発明は例えばCCD撮像素子等の固体撮像素子を使用した固体撮像装置に関する。 The present invention relates to a solid-state imaging device using a solid-state imaging device such as a CCD image sensor, for example.

【0002】 [0002]

【従来の技術及び発明が解決しようとする課題】一般にCCD撮像素子を使用した固体撮像装置は、そのシステムに起因する周期性クロックノイズや垂直転送レジスタの欠陥による白線等が画質上の問題となっていた。 A solid-state imaging device using a CCD imaging device generally BACKGROUND OF INVENTION Problems to be Solved] is made such as a white line due to a defect of the periodic clock noise or vertical transfer registers resulting from that system a problem on image quality which was.

【0003】特に、この白線は発生しているレベルが非常に小さいにもかかわらず、固定した縦筋となることから画面上非常にめだち易い不都合がある。 In particular, the white line even though the level is occurring is very small, there tends inconvenience conspicuous screen very since a fixed vertical stripe. この縦筋の白線はレベルが非常に小さいことよりしてノイズに埋もれて検出が困難であり、補正することが非常に困難であった。 The white vertical stripe is difficult to detect buried and from that level is very small in noise, it is very difficult to correct.

【0004】またCCD撮像素子を使用した固体撮像装置においてはCCD撮像素子特有の現象として、強烈な光が入射したときに発生するスミア現象による画質劣化も問題となっている。 [0004] As the CCD peculiar phenomenon in the solid-state imaging device using a CCD image sensor, intense light is in the image quality deterioration problem due to smear phenomenon that occurs when the incident.

【0005】斯るスミア現象による画質の劣化に関しては、現在のところ抑圧する有効な手段はなく、このCC [0005] With respect to the image quality degradation due to 斯Ru smear phenomenon, not an effective means of currently suppression, this CC
D撮像素子の特性改善に依存しているが、最近では小型化による単位画素サイズの縮小と高感度化により、このCCD撮像素子の特性改善が困難になりつつある。 Is dependent on the characteristic improvement of the D imaging device, recently the reduction and sensitivity of the unit pixel size by downsizing, improving characteristics of the CCD imaging device is becoming difficult.

【0006】本発明は、斯る点に鑑み周期性クロックノイズや垂直転送レジスタの欠陥による白線等による画質の劣化、スミア現象による画質の劣化を改善するようにすることを目的とする。 [0006] The present invention aims to to improve the image quality degradation due to such as a white line due to a defect of the periodic clock noise and the vertical transfer registers in view of the 斯Ru point, the deterioration of image quality due to smear phenomenon.

【0007】 [0007]

【課題を解決するための手段】本発明固体撮像装置は例えば図面に示す如く、固体撮像素子1と、この固体撮像素子1の垂直方向の光学的黒の画素部分1Vの出力信号を1画素単位で積分する積分手段2と、この積分手段2 The present invention solid-state imaging device SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The As shown in the drawings example, a solid-state imaging device 1, the solid-state imaging device 1 in the vertical optical black pixel portion 1V output signal one pixel unit of in the integrating means 2 for integrating, the integrating means 2
の出力信号を1ライン分の信号として記憶する記憶手段3と、この固体撮像素子1の有効画素部分1aの出力信号よりこの記憶手段3に記憶した信号を減算する減算手段4とを有するものである。 Those having a storage means 3 for storing the output signals as one line of signals, and a subtraction means (4) for subtracting the signal stored in the storage unit 3 from the output signal of the effective pixel portion 1a of the solid-state imaging device 1 is there.

【0008】 [0008]

【作用】本発明によれば固体撮像素子1の垂直方向の光学的黒の画素部分の出力信号を画素単位で積分(加算平均)しているので、ランダムなノイズ成分は平均化され零となり、固定パターンノイズ信号を検出でき、この固定パターンノイズ信号をライン情報として記憶し、この固体撮像素子1の有効画素部分1aの出力信号よりこの固定パターンノイズ信号を減算することにより、この固定パターンノイズである白線等及びスミアを改善することができる。 Since the [act integrating the output signal of the vertical optical black pixel portion of the present invention in accordance if the solid-state imaging device 1 in units of pixels (averaging), random noise components are averaged becomes zero, can detect a fixed pattern noise signal, by the fixed pattern noise signal is stored as a line information, subtracting the fixed pattern noise signal from the output signal of the effective pixel portion 1a of the solid-state imaging device 1, in this fixed pattern noise it is possible to improve certain white lines or the like and smear.

【0009】 [0009]

【実施例】以下、図面を参照して本発明固体撮像装置の一実施例につき説明しよう。 EXAMPLES Hereinafter, trying explained an embodiment of the present invention, with reference to the solid-state imaging device to the drawings. 図2は本例によるCCD撮像素子を使用した固体撮像装置を示す。 Figure 2 shows the solid-state imaging device using a CCD image sensor according to the present embodiment. 図2において1 2 1
は被写体が光学系を介して撮像面に結像されるCCD撮像素子を示し、このCCD撮像素子1は図3に示す如くで、そのセンサー領域は撮像エリアである有効画素部分1aと垂直及び水平方向の黒基準を決めるための光学的黒画素部分1V及び1Hとから成っており、本例においては、この光学的黒画素部分1V,1Hは有効画素部分1aの上側で垂直方向に12ラインの光学的黒画素部分1Vと有効画素部分1aの右側で水平方向に40画素の光学的黒画素部分1Hとより成っている。 Shows a CCD image sensor formed on the imaging surface subject through the optical system, the CCD image sensor 1 as listed in Figure 3, the sensor area effective pixel portion 1a and vertical and horizontal, which is an imaging area and consists an optical black pixel portion 1V and 1H for determining the direction of the black reference, in the present embodiment, the optical black pixel portion 1V, 1H upper vertical direction in the 12 lines of the effective pixel portion 1a horizontally in the right optical black pixel portion 1V and the effective pixel portion 1a is more a optical black pixel portion 1H of 40 pixels.

【0010】この光学的黒画素部分1V,1Hはセンサー上に遮光膜を付けた構造となっており、この光学的黒画素部分1Vにも白線等及びスミアは有効画素部分1a [0010] The optical black pixel portion 1V, IH is a marked structural shielding film on the sensor, such as a white line and smear in the optical black pixel portion 1V effective pixel portion 1a
と同じく存在し、この光学的黒画素部分1Vより得られる撮像出力信号には有効画素部分1aより得られる撮像出力信号と同じレベルで白線等及びスミア信号が含まれている。 If also present, it is included such as a white line and smear signal at the same level as the imaging output signal obtained from the effective pixel portion 1a the imaging output signal obtained from the optical black pixel portion 1V.

【0011】図2において、5はタイミングジェネレータを示し、このタイミングジェネレータ5は適当なタイミングで各種の信号を発生するもので、このタイミングジェネレータ5よりのタイミング信号を駆動回路6を介して、このCCD撮像素子1に供給し、このタイミング信号により、このCCD撮像素子1における各画素(センサー)からの垂直転送レジスタへの信号電荷の読出し、垂直転送レジスタによる垂直転送、水平転送レジスタによる水平転送等の駆動を行う。 [0011] In FIG. 2, 5 denotes a timing generator, the timing generator 5 is intended to generate the various signals at an appropriate timing, the timing signal from the timing generator 5 through the driving circuit 6, the CCD was supplied to the imaging element 1, the timing signal, the signal charges in the vertical transfer registers from each pixel (sensor) in the CCD image pickup device 1 reads, vertical transfer by the vertical transfer register, a horizontal transfer due horizontal transfer register for driving.

【0012】7は基準信号発振器であり、この基準信号発振器7に得られる基準信号をタイミングジェネレータ5に供給する如くする。 [0012] 7 is a reference signal oscillator, to as to supply the reference signal obtained at the reference signal oscillator 7 to the timing generator 5.

【0013】このCCD撮像素子1の撮像出力信号をサンプルホールド(S/H)及び自動利得制御(AGC) [0013] samples and holds the image pickup output signal of the CCD image sensor 1 (S / H) and automatic gain control (AGC)
回路8を介してアナログ−デジタル(A/D)変換回路9に供給し、このA/D変換回路9で例えば10ビットのデジタルデータとして、固定パターンノイズ除去回路10に供給し、この固定パターンノイズ除去回路10の出力側に得られる固定パターンノイズが除去されたデジタル信号の撮像出力信号を信号処理回路11に供給し、 Through the circuit 8 analog - digital (A / D) supplied to the conversion circuit 9, as the A / D conversion circuit 9, for example, 10-bit digital data, and supplies the fixed pattern noise elimination circuit 10, the fixed pattern noise supplying the image pickup output signals of the fixed pattern digital signal from which noise has been removed obtained at the output side of the removing circuit 10 to the signal processing circuit 11,
この信号処理回路11で各種の信号処理が行われて、輝度信号及びクロマ信号を得、この信号処理回路11の出力端子12にビデオ出力信号を得る如くする。 The signal processing circuit 11 various kinds of signal processing is performed in, to give a luminance signal and a chroma signal, as is obtained a video output signal to an output terminal 12 of the signal processing circuit 11.

【0014】本例においては、この固定パターンノイズ除去回路10を図1に示す如く構成する。 In the present embodiment, it constitutes as shown the fixed pattern noise elimination circuit 10 in FIG. 1. この図1につき説明するに、入力端子10aに供給されるA/D変換回路9よりの撮像出力信号を減算回路4に供給すると共にこの撮像出力信号をセレクト回路13に供給する。 To explained FIG. 1, and supplies the image pickup output signal to the select circuit 13 supplies the image pickup output signal from the A / D converter circuit 9 is supplied to the input terminal 10a to the subtraction circuit 4.

【0015】このセレクト回路13においては、撮像出力信号のうちCCD撮像素子1の垂直方向の光学的黒画素部分1Vに対応する12ライン分の撮像出力信号を積分回路2に供給するようにすると共にこの撮像出力信号のうちCCD撮像素子1の水平方向の光学的黒画素部分1Hに対応する40画素の撮像出力信号を積分回路14 [0015] Along with this the selection circuit 13 to supply the image pickup output signals of 12 lines corresponding to the vertical direction an optical black pixel portion 1V of the CCD imaging device 1 of the image pickup output signal to the integrating circuit 2 integrating the image pickup output signals of the 40 pixels corresponding to the horizontal optical black pixel portion 1H of the CCD image sensor 1 circuit of the image pickup output signal 14
に供給するようにする。 So as to supply to.

【0016】この場合、積分回路2においてはラインメモリ3を利用して、垂直方向の光学的黒画素部分1Vよりの出力信号の12ライン分を画素単位で積分(加算平均)する。 [0016] In this case, the integrator circuit 2 utilizes a line memory 3, integrating the 12 lines of the output signal from the vertical optical black pixel portion 1V for each pixel (averaging) to. このラインメモリ3には1ライン分の信号として固定パターンノイズ信号が記憶される。 This is the line memory 3 fixed pattern noise signal as a signal for one line is stored.

【0017】即ち積分回路2で積分(加算平均)したときはランダムなノイズ成分は平均化され零となり、ランダムなノイズに埋もれていた小レベルの白線及びスミア信号等の固定パターンノイズ信号が鮮明に現れる。 [0017] That is the random noise component when integrating (averaging) the integration circuit 2 becomes zero are averaged, such as small level of white lines and smear signal which has been buried in random noise fixed pattern noise signal clearly appear.

【0018】積分回路14は正確な光学的黒基準を得るようにしたもので、このCCD撮像素子1の水平方向の光学的黒画素部分1Hの撮像出力信号を抽出して積分してランダムなノイズ成分の除去された光学的黒基準信号を得、この積分回路14の出力側に得られる光学的黒基準信号をクランプ信号として光学的黒クランプ回路15 The integration circuit 14 which was to obtain an accurate optical black reference, random noise by integrating extracts an image output signal of the horizontal optical black pixel portion 1H for the CCD image sensor 1 give the removed optical black reference signal component, the optical black clamp circuit 15 optical black reference signal obtained at the output side of the integrating circuit 14 as the clamp signal
に供給する。 Supplied to.

【0019】またラインメモリ3に記憶した1ライン分の固定パターンノイズ信号を、この光学的黒クランプ回路15を介して減算信号として減算回路4に供給する。 [0019] supplying a fixed pattern noise signal for one line stored in the line memory 3, to the subtraction circuit 4 as a subtraction signal via the optical black clamp circuit 15.
この減算回路4においては、撮像出力信号のライン信号毎にこの1ライン分の固定パターンノイズ信号を減算する如くする。 In the subtraction circuit 4, which as subtracts the fixed pattern noise signal of one line for each line signal of the image pickup output signal.

【0020】この減算回路4の出力側に得られる固定パターンノイズ信号が除去された撮像出力信号を信号処理回路11に供給する。 [0020] supplying the image pickup output signal fixed pattern noise signal obtained is removed on the output side of the subtraction circuit 4 to the signal processing circuit 11. その他は従来の固体撮像装置と同様に構成する。 Others are configured similarly to the conventional solid-state imaging device.

【0021】以下、図4及び図5を参照して本例の固体撮像装置の動作につき説明する。 [0021] Hereinafter, with reference to FIGS. 4 and 5 will be described operation of the solid-state imaging device of the present embodiment. この図4,図5においては説明の都合上アナログ的に表現する。 This 4, conveniently on the analog representation of the description in FIG.

【0022】CCD撮像素子1において垂直転送レジスタ等に欠陥がなく白線等がなく且つスミア現象が在しないときは積分回路2の入力信号は図4Aに示す如くランダムなノイズ成分の信号であり、ラインメモリ31に記憶される1ライン信号は図4Bに示す如く基準の一定の信号であり、従って光学的黒クランプ回路15の出力側には図4Cに示す如き積分回路14の出力側に得られる光学的黒基準信号でクランプした一定の信号が得られ、 The input signal of the integrator circuit 2 when and smear phenomenon no white line or the like without any defects in the vertical transfer register or the like in the CCD image sensor 1 is not standing is the signal of the random noise component, as shown in Figure 4A, the line optical 1 line signal stored in the memory 31 is a constant signal of the reference as shown in FIG. 4B, the output side of the optical black clamp circuit 15 thus obtained at the output side of such integration circuit 14 shown in FIG. 4C constant signal is obtained which is clamped at black reference signal,
減算回路4の出力側には光学的黒基準が定められた撮像出力信号が得られ、信号処理回路11の出力側には良好なビデオ出力信号が得られる。 The output side of the subtraction circuit 4 is an imaging output signal optical black reference has been determined to obtain a good video output signal is obtained at the output side of the signal processing circuit 11.

【0023】またCCD撮像素子1において、図3に示す如く垂直レジスタ等の欠陥による垂直方向の白線及びスミア現象があるときには積分回路2の入力信号は図5 [0023] In the CCD image pickup element 1, the input signal of the integrator circuit 2 when there is a white line and smearing in the vertical direction due to defects in the vertical register or the like as shown in FIG. 3 5
Aに示す如くランダムノイズ信号、スミア信号及び白線信号を含む信号であり、ラインメモリ3に記憶される1 Random noise signal as shown in A, a signal including a smear signal and white line signal, 1 is stored in the line memory 3
ライン信号は図5Bに示す如く、スミア信号及び白線信号を含む固定パターンノイズ信号となる。 Line signal as shown in FIG. 5B, a fixed pattern noise signal including a smear signal and a white line signal.

【0024】従って光学的黒クランプ回路15の出力側には図5Cに示す如き、積分回路14の出力側に得られる光学的黒基準信号でクランプした固定パターンノイズ信号が得られ、減算回路4の出力側には、この入力側に供給される図5Dに示す如きスミア信号及び白線信号を含む撮像出力信号より、図5Eに示す如き固定パターンノイズ信号が除去され且つ光学的黒基準が定められた撮像出力信号が得られ、これが信号処理回路11に供給される。 [0024] Thus the output side of the optical black clamp circuit 15 as shown in FIG. 5C, the fixed pattern noise signal of clamping is obtained in the optical black reference signal obtained at the output side of the integrating circuit 14, the subtraction circuit 4 the output side, from the image pickup output signal containing smear signal and white line signal as shown in FIG. 5D supplied to the input side, and an optical black reference is removed fixed pattern noise signal as shown in FIG. 5E is defined imaging output signal is obtained which is supplied to the signal processing circuit 11.

【0025】従ってこの信号処理回路11の出力側には固定パターンノイズであるスミア及び白線等が改善されたビデオ出力信号が得られ、本例によれば周期性クロックノイズや垂直転送レジスタの欠陥による白線等による画質の劣化、スミア現象による画質の劣化を改善することができる利益がある。 [0025] Thus according to a defect of the fixed pattern noise video output signal smear and white lines and the like are improved is obtained, periodic clock noise or vertical transfer registers according to the present embodiment the output side of the signal processing circuit 11 deterioration of image quality caused by the white line or the like, there is a benefit that can improve the image quality degradation due to the smear phenomenon.

【0026】尚、上述実施例においては1フィールドの固体撮像素子1の垂直方向の光学的黒画素部分1Vの出力信号を1画素単位で積分して、1ライン分の信号としてラインメモリ3に記憶するようにしたが、これを複数フィールドに亘って積分して1ライン分の信号としてラインメモリ3に記憶するようにしても良い。 [0026] Incidentally, by integrating the output signal of one field of the solid vertical optical black pixel portion 1V of the imaging device 1 in one pixel unit in the above embodiment, stored in the line memory 3 as a signal of one line was way, by integrating over this a plurality of fields may be stored in the line memory 3 as a signal of one line. このときは更に良好に固定パターンノイズ信号を検出することができる。 This time can be detected better fixed pattern noise signal. また本発明は上述実施例に限ることなく本発明の要旨を逸脱することなく、その他種々の構成が採り得ることは勿論である。 The present invention without departing from the gist of the present invention not limited to the above embodiment, be various other structures can take a matter of course.

【0027】 [0027]

【発明の効果】本発明によれば周期性クロックノイズや垂直転送レジスタの欠陥による白線等による画質の劣化、スミア現象による画質の劣化等垂直方向に発生する固定パターンノイズによる画質の劣化を改善できる利益がある。 Deterioration of image quality caused by a white line or the like due to a defect of the periodic clock noise or vertical transfer registers according to the present invention can improve the image quality degradation due to fixed pattern noise generated in deterioration vertical in image quality due to smear phenomenon there is a benefit.

【図面の簡単な説明】 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

【図1】本発明固体撮像装置の要部の例を示す構成図である。 1 is a configuration diagram showing an example of a main part of the present invention the solid-state imaging device.

【図2】本発明固体撮像装置の一実施例を示す構成図である。 2 is a block diagram showing an embodiment of the present invention the solid-state imaging device.

【図3】本発明の説明に供する線図である。 3 is a diagram for explaining the present invention.

【図4】本発明の説明に供する線図である。 4 is a diagram for explaining the present invention.

【図5】本発明の説明に供する線図である。 5 is a diagram for explaining the present invention.

【符号の説明】 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS

1 CCD撮像素子 1a 有効画素部分 1H 水平方向の光学的黒画素部分 1V 垂直方向の光学的黒画素部分 2 積分回路 3 ラインメモリ 4 減算回路 10 固定パターンノイズ除去回路 11 信号処理回路 1 CCD image sensor 1a effective pixel portion 1H horizontal optical black pixel portion 1V vertical optical black pixel portion 2 integrator circuit 3 line memory 4 subtraction circuit 10 fixed pattern noise elimination circuit 11 signal processing circuit

Claims (2)

    【特許請求の範囲】 [The claims]
  1. 【請求項1】 固体撮像素子と、 該固体撮像素子の垂直方向の光学的黒の画素部分の出力信号を1画素単位で積分する積分手段と、 該積分手段の出力信号を1ライン分の信号として記憶する記憶手段と、 上記固体撮像素子の有効画素部分の出力信号より上記記憶手段に記憶した信号を減算する減算手段とを有することを特徴とする固体撮像装置。 1. A solid-state and the imaging device, an integrating means for integrating an output signal of the vertical optical black pixel portion of the solid-state image capturing device on a pixel-by-pixel basis, the integrating one line of the signal an output signal of the means a solid-state imaging device comprising a storage means for storing, that it has a subtraction means for subtracting the signal stored in the storage means from the output signal of the effective pixel portion of the solid-state imaging device as.
  2. 【請求項2】 請求項1記載の固体撮像装置において、 上記積分手段は上記固体撮像素子の垂直方向の光学的黒の画素部分の出力信号を1画素単位で複数フィールドに亘って積分するようにしたことを特徴とする固体撮像装置。 2. A solid-state imaging device according to claim 1, wherein, as the above integration means for integrating over a plurality of fields in one pixel output signal in the vertical direction optical black pixel portion of the solid-state imaging device the solid-state imaging device, characterized in that the.
JP20962993A 1993-08-24 1993-08-24 Solid-state image pickup device Pending JPH0767038A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

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JP20962993A JPH0767038A (en) 1993-08-24 1993-08-24 Solid-state image pickup device

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