JP5831791B2 - Three-dimensional object forming apparatus and three-dimensional object forming method - Google Patents

Three-dimensional object forming apparatus and three-dimensional object forming method Download PDF

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JP5831791B2
JP5831791B2 JP2011182012A JP2011182012A JP5831791B2 JP 5831791 B2 JP5831791 B2 JP 5831791B2 JP 2011182012 A JP2011182012 A JP 2011182012A JP 2011182012 A JP2011182012 A JP 2011182012A JP 5831791 B2 JP5831791 B2 JP 5831791B2
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printing
dimensional
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stacking
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JP2013043338A (en
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好之 橋本
好之 橋本
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コニカミノルタ株式会社
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  The present invention relates to a three-dimensional object formation apparatus and a three-dimensional object formation method, and more particularly, to a three-dimensional object formation apparatus and a three-dimensional object formation method that simultaneously perform formation and printing.

  A technique called rapid prototyping (RP) is known as a technique for modeling a three-dimensional solid object. This technology calculates the cross-sectional shape sliced thinly in the stacking direction based on the data (STL (Standard Triangulated Language) format data) that describes the surface of one three-dimensional shape as a collection of triangles. It is a technology to form and form a three-dimensional object. In addition, as a technique for modeling a three-dimensional object, a melt deposition method (FDM: Fused Deposition Molding), an ink jet method, an ink jet binder method, a stereolithography method (SL: Stereo Lithography), a powder sintering method (SLS: Selective Laser Sintering) ) Etc. are known.

  Moreover, it is also possible to attach a pattern and a color to the three-dimensional object modeled using such a technique. For example, in Patent Document 1 below, the surface inclination information obtained from the three-dimensional data of the modeled three-dimensional object is included. Based on this, a three-dimensional printing apparatus that provides high-quality printing by controlling ink ejection is disclosed. Moreover, the following patent document 2 discloses a method for manufacturing a three-dimensional modeled object in which the surface of a modeled product is covered with a printed film and thermally decorated to decorate the model after completion of modeling. In addition, by using a plurality of modeling materials with different colors and switching the modeling material for each modeling site, modeling is possible. There are devices that can change the color of each minute part by forming a three-dimensional object by laminating ink while mixing it with a binder to harden the ink.

JP 2001-260329 A JP 2009-190223 A

  As described above, as a method of printing on the surface of a modeled object, there is a method of applying ink to the surface of a completed modeled object in a later step, but in this method, a portion that is not exposed to the outside (for example, , The inner surface of the cylinder) or a recessed portion (for example, a concave-convex recess) cannot be printed. Further, in the method of printing in the subsequent process, it is difficult to position the modeled object, and a positional deviation is likely to occur. Furthermore, in this method, since the apparatus for modeling and the apparatus for printing must be prepared separately, it costs.

  In addition, in a conventional 3D printer, a method of modeling by switching modeling materials of different colors for each part, or a YMC color ink is soaked in a binder for solidifying powder as a modeling material (that is, the binder is colored) There is also a method of modeling, but in these methods, since the resolution of printing is limited to the modeling pitch, high-definition printing cannot be realized. In addition, since the reproduced color is affected by the modeling material, it is difficult to accurately and uniformly reproduce the saturation and lightness. Furthermore, since the portion (inside) that cannot be visually recognized by these methods is also colored, the coloring material is wasted.

  The present invention has been made in view of the above problems, and a main object of the present invention is a three-dimensional object forming apparatus capable of printing in a high-definition also on a portion not exposed to the outside of a three-dimensional object or a recessed portion. And providing a three-dimensional object shaping method.

In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides a data input for inputting data including three-dimensional shape information and color information of a modeling object in a three-dimensional object modeling apparatus that models a three-dimensional object by sequentially stacking modeling materials. And a modeling material stacking unit that performs modeling by sequentially laminating the modeling material based on the data, and a printing material different from the modeling material is applied to at least a part of the modeling material based on the data A printing unit that performs printing, and an apparatus that executes printing on at least a part of the modeling material by the printing unit every time one or more layers of the modeling material are stacked by the modeling material stacking unit A UV curing resin or photocuring resin that is cured by light irradiation as the modeling material, and U that is cured by light irradiation as the printing material. Using the cured ink or light-curable ink, the apparatus control section, after executing printing on the printing unit, prior to executing the stacking of the next of said build material in the build material laminated portion, the light irradiation It is not to be done.

The present invention is also a three-dimensional object modeling method using a three-dimensional object modeling apparatus that models a three-dimensional object by sequentially stacking modeling materials, and includes data including three-dimensional shape information and color information of a modeling object. After the input, a modeling material stacking step for stacking one or more layers of the modeling material based on the data, and a new layer of a printing material different from the modeling material based on the data Alternatively, a plurality of layers of the modeling material, or one layer or a plurality of layers of the modeling material stacked immediately before, or a newly stacked one layer or a plurality of layers of the modeling material and one layer or a plurality of layers stacked immediately before A printing step of applying to at least a part of the modeling material of the layer, and using the UV curable resin or the photocurable resin that is cured by light irradiation as the modeling material, As printing materials, using a UV curable ink or light-curable ink is cured by light irradiation, after executing the printing step, before the next of the build material laminated step is not performed with light irradiation.

  According to the three-dimensional object modeling apparatus and the three-dimensional object modeling method of the present invention, high-definition printing can be performed even on a portion that is not exposed to the outside of the three-dimensional object or a recessed portion. The reason for this is that in the three-dimensional object forming apparatus that forms the three-dimensional object by sequentially stacking the modeling material, every time one or more layers of the modeling material are laminated, a material different from the modeling material is used on the surface of the modeling material. This is because printing is performed.

  Thereby, it is possible to print on a portion not exposed to the outside or a recessed portion that could not be printed by the conventional method of printing after modeling. Further, since the printing accuracy is not limited by the modeling pitch unlike the conventional method of coloring the modeling material, high-definition printing is possible.

  In addition, in the conventional method of printing after modeling, it is necessary to accurately position the modeled object at the time of printing, but in the present invention, modeling and printing are performed at the same time. Therefore, printing can be performed accurately and workability can be improved. Moreover, in the conventional method of performing modeling and printing separately, a modeling apparatus and a printing apparatus must be prepared separately. However, in the present invention, modeling and printing can be performed with one apparatus. Therefore, cost can be reduced.

  Further, in the conventional method of coloring the modeling material itself, since the reproduced color is affected by the modeling material, it is difficult to reproduce the saturation and lightness, but in the present invention, the coloring is printed on the surface of the modeling material. The brightness and brightness can be reproduced accurately and uniformly. In addition, in the conventional method, a portion that cannot be visually recognized (inside) is also colored, so that the coloring material is consumed wastefully. However, in the present invention, since the printing is performed on the surface of the modeling material, the consumption of the material can be reduced. it can.

It is a block diagram which shows the structure of the three-dimensional object modeling apparatus which concerns on one Example of this invention. It is a figure explaining the method of simultaneously performing modeling and printing concerning one example of the present invention. It is a flowchart figure which shows the modeling procedure (printing for every layer) of the solid thing which concerns on one Example of this invention. It is a figure which shows typically the method of performing printing for every layer. It is a flowchart figure which shows the modeling procedure (every 2 layers printing) of the solid thing which concerns on one Example of this invention. It is a figure which shows typically the method of printing for every 2 layers. It is a figure explaining the effect of the solid thing modeling method concerning one example of the present invention. It is a flowchart figure which shows the modeling procedure (procedure in the case of judging printability based on the amount of ultraviolet irradiation) of the solid thing which concerns on one Example of this invention. It is a flowchart figure which shows the modeling procedure (procedure in the case of judging printing propriety based on the elapsed time after modeling) which concerns on one Example of this invention. It is a flowchart figure which shows the modeling procedure (procedure in the case of judging printability based on the surface temperature of modeling material) of the solid thing which concerns on one Example of this invention. It is a flowchart figure which shows the modeling procedure (procedure in the case of judging printing propriety based on the color change of modeling material) which concerns on one Example of this invention. It is a figure explaining the difference of the precision of the conventional solid thing shaping method and the solid thing shaping method which concerns on one Example of this invention. It is a flowchart figure which shows the modeling procedure (procedure in the case of employ | adopting UV hardening system) of the solid thing which concerns on one Example of this invention. It is a figure which shows typically the method of printing using a UV hardening system. It is a figure which shows typically the conventional method (melting material deposition method) which models a solid thing. It is a figure which shows typically the conventional method (inkjet method) which models a solid thing. It is a figure which shows typically the conventional method (inkjet binder method) which models a solid thing. It is a figure which shows typically the conventional method (optical modeling method) which models a solid thing. It is a figure which shows typically the conventional method (powder sintering method) which models a solid thing.

  As shown in the background art, a technique called rapid prototyping is known as a technique for modeling a three-dimensional solid object, and as a technique for modeling a three-dimensional object, a melt deposition method (FDM) or an ink jet is used. Methods, an ink-jet binder method, an optical modeling method (SL), a powder sintering method (SLS), and the like are known.

  In the melt deposition method (FDM), as shown in FIG. 15, the head piles up the modeling material while moving like a stroke in the layer at the height. For example, a thermoplastic material is heated to be fluidized, and a cross-sectional shape is drawn while being extruded from one nozzle. Further, if necessary, the thermoplastic support material is heated and melted and extruded from the other nozzle. And when the supplied material cools, a thin hardened layer is formed. After repeating this process, a solid object is formed by dissolving the support.

  In the ink jet method, as shown in FIG. 16, the paper is moved in the Y direction while reciprocating in the X direction as in a general paper ink jet printer. For example, a thermoplastic material (build material) is melted by heating and dropped from one inkjet nozzle based on the cross-sectional shape. Further, if necessary, a thermoplastic support material is heated and melted and dropped from the other inkjet nozzle onto the outer periphery or inner periphery of the model. And when the dripped material cools, a thin hardened layer is formed, and the top of the layer is cut each time it is further stacked. By repeating this process, a three-dimensional object is formed and the support is dissolved later.

  In the ink jet binder method, as shown in FIG. 17, a binder is dropped from an ink jet nozzle based on the cross-sectional shape after the powder is spread, and the powder is adhered to each other to form a thin solidified layer. And a powder is spread | laid thinly on the solidified layer made, and a solid thing is modeled by repeating this process.

  Further, in the optical modeling method, as shown in FIG. 18, the surface of the resin layer is cured and the lower layer is bonded by scanning the resin liquid surface according to the cross-sectional shape with a laser beam. Then, the table is lowered by the thickness of one layer, and this process is repeated to form a three-dimensional object.

  In the powder sintering method, as shown in FIG. 19, the powders are scanned according to the cross-sectional shape with an infrared laser beam after the powders are spread, thereby forming a thin solidified layer. At this time, bonding to the lower layer is also performed by sintering. And a powder is spread | laid thinly on the solidified layer made, and a solid thing is modeled by repeating this process.

  By using such a technique, a three-dimensional object having the same shape as the object to be modeled can be modeled, and a pattern or a color can be given to the three-dimensional object modeled using such a technique. However, in the method of applying ink to the surface of the finished model in the subsequent process, there are problems that it is impossible to print on the part that is not exposed to the outside or the recessed part, and the positioning of the model is difficult There are a problem that the shift is likely to occur, and a problem that the cost is increased because a modeling apparatus and a printing apparatus must be prepared separately. In addition, in the method of modeling by switching the modeling material of different colors for each part or the method of modeling by infiltrating the color ink into the binder for solidifying the modeling material, the printing resolution is limited to the modeling pitch. The problem of being unable to print in detail, the problem of difficulty in reproducing the saturation and lightness accurately and uniformly due to the influence of the modeling material, and wasteful use of coloring materials to color even invisible parts There is a problem of doing so.

  Therefore, in one embodiment of the present invention, the three-dimensional object modeling apparatus is provided with means for printing on the surface of the modeling material in addition to the means for laminating the modeling material, and printing is performed in units of one or a plurality of layers during the layered modeling. To do. At that time, immediately after the lamination, the modeling material is not in a state that can withstand printing, such as liquid, gel, and powder, so the modeling material is cured by cooling, drying, UV irradiation, etc., and is ready for printing. Make sure that printing is performed after confirming this.

  Thus, by printing during modeling, it is possible to print on a portion that is not exposed to the outside or a recessed portion. In addition, since the printing accuracy is not limited by the modeling pitch, high-definition printing is possible. In addition, since modeling and printing can be performed at a time, workability can be improved and costs for manufacturing a three-dimensional object can be reduced as compared with a method of performing modeling and printing separately.

  Further, by performing printing after confirming that the shaped part can be printed, high-definition printing without bleeding, density unevenness, or density reduction becomes possible. Further, since the printing paint does not soak into the modeling material, it is possible to avoid deterioration in accuracy such as expansion of the modeling material. Moreover, it can print firmly with respect to a molded article by employ | adopting the method of making it harden | cure completely after printing on the laminated body of a semi-hardened state. Furthermore, by adopting a method that uses UV curable resin as a modeling material and UV curable ink as a printing paint, both the modeling material and the printing paint can be cured by one UV lamp irradiation, thereby reducing the number of processes. It is possible to effectively use UV energy and improve the life of UV lamps.

  In order to describe the above-described embodiment of the present invention in more detail, a three-dimensional object formation apparatus and a three-dimensional object formation method according to an embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a configuration of a three-dimensional object forming apparatus according to the present embodiment, and FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating a method of simultaneously performing modeling and printing according to the present embodiment. 3 and 4 are diagrams for explaining a method for performing printing for each layer, FIGS. 5 and 6 are diagrams for explaining a method for performing printing for every two layers, and FIG. It is a figure explaining the effect of the solid thing modeling method of an example. 8 to 11 are flowcharts showing a procedure for determining whether or not printing is possible in the three-dimensional object modeling method of the present embodiment, and FIG. 12 is a conventional three-dimensional object modeling method and the three-dimensional object modeling method of the present embodiment. FIGS. 13 and 14 are diagrams for explaining a three-dimensional object forming method employing a UV curing method.

  In the following examples, an article to be modeled is referred to as a modeling object, and an article that is modeled on the modeling object and is manufactured by a three-dimensional object modeling apparatus is referred to as a modeling object. Moreover, the material used when producing a modeling thing is called modeling material, and the material used when coloring a modeling thing is called printing material or printing paint.

  FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating the configuration of the three-dimensional object forming apparatus of the present embodiment. This three-dimensional object forming apparatus is an apparatus that forms a three-dimensional object using a melt deposition method (FDM), an ink jet method, an ink jet binder method, an optical modeling method (SL), a powder sintering method (SLS), and the like. The block 10, the head moving mechanism block 20, and the modeling material handling block 30 are configured. Moreover, a layer stacking completion determination data providing unit 40, a UV lamp 50, a heater 35, and the like can be added as necessary. Hereinafter, each component will be described.

[Control block]
The control block 10 includes a 3D data input unit 11 and a device control unit 12.

  The 3D data input unit 11 acquires 3D data (CAD data, design data, etc.) of the modeling target from a computer device or the like, and transfers it to the device control unit 12. The method for acquiring 3D data is not particularly limited, and may be acquired using wired communication, wireless communication, short-range wireless communication such as Bluetooth (registered trademark), USB (Universal Serial Bus) memory, or the like. You may acquire using this recording medium. Further, the 3D data may be acquired directly from a computer that designs the modeling target, or may be acquired from a server that manages / stores the 3D data.

  The apparatus control unit 12 includes a calculation unit such as a CPU (Central Processing Unit), and data for each layer (hereinafter referred to as 3D) for modeling a modeling material and a surface image in three dimensions based on the input 3D data. , Called slice data). Moreover, the apparatus control part 12 controls operation | movement of the whole apparatus during modeling operation. For example, the mechanism control information for discharging or applying the modeling material and the printing paint to a desired place is transmitted to the head moving mechanism block 20, and the slice data is transmitted to the modeling material handling block 30. That is, the apparatus control unit 12 controls the modeling material handling block 30 and the head moving mechanism block 20 in synchronization.

  The 3D data input unit 11 and the device control unit 12 may be configured as hardware, or configured as a control program that functions as the 3D data input unit 11 and the device control unit 12, and the control program is a three-dimensional object. It is good also as a structure operated with the apparatus which controls a modeling apparatus or the said three-dimensional object modeling apparatus.

[Head moving mechanism block]
The head moving mechanism block 20 includes a head moving block 21 and a stage moving block 22. The head moving block 21 includes an X direction moving unit 21a and a Y direction moving unit 21b. The stage moving block 22 includes a Z-direction moving unit 22a and the like.

  The head moving block 21 (X direction moving unit 21a and Y direction moving unit 21b) drives a motor and a driving mechanism (not shown) according to mechanism control information acquired from the control block 10, and discharges or applies a modeling material and printing paint. The head for this purpose is freely moved in the X direction (horizontal direction) and the Y direction (horizontal direction).

  The stage moving block 22 (Z direction moving unit 22a) drives a motor and a driving mechanism (not shown) according to the mechanism control information acquired from the control block 10, and moves the modeling stage in the Z direction (downward), or moves the head. The distance between the head and the modeled object is adjusted by moving the block 21 in the Z direction (upward).

[Building material handling block]
The modeling material handling block 30 includes a modeling material supply unit 31, a modeling material discharge unit 32, a printing paint supply unit 33, a printing paint application unit 34, and the like.

  The modeling material supply unit 31 supplies the modeling material stored in a cartridge tank (not shown) to the modeling material discharge unit 32 (head) through a modeling material tube by a supply pump. In addition, the modeling material discharge unit 32 discharges the modeling material onto the modeling stage at a desired timing at a position determined by the head moving mechanism in accordance with the slice data acquired from the control block 10. The modeling material discharge unit 32 may be provided with a heater 35. This is because heat is applied to the modeling material, the viscosity of the modeling material is reduced, and discharge from the modeling material discharge unit 32 is facilitated. In this case, the modeling material immediately after discharge is in a low-viscosity state at a high temperature and needs to be cured by natural cooling or UV irradiation. In addition, the modeling material supply part 31 and the modeling material discharge part 32 may each be mounted in a three-dimensional object modeling apparatus, and may each be mounted in multiple numbers.

  The printing paint supply unit 33 supplies ink stored in a cartridge tank (not shown) to the printing paint application unit 34 (head) through an ink tube by a supply pump. Further, the printing paint application unit 34 is configured integrally with or separately from the modeling material discharge unit 32, and similarly to the modeling material discharge unit 32, the position determined by the head moving mechanism according to the slice data acquired from the control block 10. The printing paint is applied to the modeling material on the modeling stage at a desired timing to form a printed image. Note that one printing paint supply unit 33 and one printing paint application unit 34 may be mounted on the three-dimensional object forming apparatus, or a plurality of printing paint supply units 34 may be mounted in order to realize multicolor printing.

  Further, although not essential, when a support material is used in addition to the modeling material, a support material providing unit and a support material injection unit (not shown) may be provided. The role of the support material is to play the role of a pillar for supporting the modeling material when modeling an overhanging part or the like when modeling upward. Generally, the support material is removed by water, heat, or peeling after the completion of modeling.

  The layer stacking completion determination data providing unit 40 also includes a timer that counts the cooling and curing time of the modeling material, the irradiation time of the UV lamp 50, a temperature sensor that detects the cooling and curing of the modeling material, and the color of the modeling material accompanying the curing. The apparatus controller 12 includes a color sensor that detects changes, a dosimeter that measures the UV irradiation amount of the UV lamp 50, and the like, and determines whether or not a newly stacked layer of modeling material is ready for printing. Is collected and provided to the apparatus control unit 12.

  The UV lamp 50 is used to cure these materials when a UV curable resin is used as a modeling material or when a UV curable ink is used as a printing paint.

  In FIG. 1, the head moving mechanism block 20 and the modeling material handling block 30 are classified, but they can also be classified into a function of stacking modeling materials and a function of applying printing paint. In this case, the modeling material supply unit 31, the modeling material discharge unit 32, and the head movement mechanism block 20 are combined to print the modeling material stacking unit, the printing paint supply unit 33, the printing paint application unit 34, and the head movement mechanism block 20. It can be called a part.

  FIG. 2A is a schematic diagram of a general three-dimensional object modeling apparatus (3D printer) that performs only modeling. The nozzle discharges the modeling material while moving in the XY (horizontal and vertical) direction. The injection (discharge) is performed for each “layer” in the height direction, and when the stacking of one layer is completed, the nozzle is raised or the modeling stage is lowered, and the next layer is modeled. And the solid thing of a free shape is modeled by repeating lamination | stacking of a layer unit.

  FIG. 2B is a schematic diagram of the three-dimensional object forming apparatus (3D printer) of the present embodiment, and includes a nozzle for printing paint in addition to the forming material nozzle of the conventional 3D printer. In the 3D printer of the present embodiment, printing is performed on the surface of the modeled object at the same time as the modeling is completed (the right side surface after the modeling is performed) by performing modeling while sequentially laminating the modeling material and applying ink to the surface of the stacked modeling material. The printing of the characters “ABCD” can be completed at the same time.

  In FIG. 2B, after the modeling material is laminated, the printing paint is applied to the surface of the modeling material. However, after the modeling material is newly laminated, the surface of the modeling material laminated just before the modeling material ( The part exposed from the newly stacked modeling material), or the surface of the modeling material stacked immediately before and the side surface of the newly stacked modeling material, or the surface and side surfaces of the modeling material stacked immediately before, and the newly stacked modeling Printing paint can also be applied to the sides of the material. In this configuration, the pattern and color (characters “ABCD” in the figure) can be reproduced more accurately by applying printing paint on the surface and side surfaces of the modeling material. Therefore, the following examples are based on this configuration. Although it demonstrates, even if it laminates | stacks modeling material and employ | adopts the structure which apply | coats a printing paint to the surface of the modeling material, the same effect can be acquired.

  Hereinafter, a method for modeling a three-dimensional object using the three-dimensional object modeling apparatus having the above configuration will be described. First, a procedure for modeling and printing for each layer will be described with reference to a flowchart of FIG. 3 and a schematic diagram of FIG.

  First, 3D data such as CAD data and design data of a modeling object is created using a computer device. The CAD data and design data include shape information and color information of the modeled object. The 3D data created by the computer device is captured by the control block 10 (3D data input unit 11) of the three-dimensional object modeling apparatus and transferred to the device control unit 12, and the device control unit 12 analyzes the 3D data, Slice data defining the shape and color of each layer is generated. Then, the device control unit 12 transmits mechanism control information to the head moving mechanism block 20 (and the UV lamp 50) according to the slice data, and sends modeling data and printing data to the modeling material handling block 30. Send and start modeling and printing.

  Specifically, the apparatus control unit 12 performs modeling of the first layer of the lowest layer as shown in FIG. 4A (S101) and confirms completion of modeling of the first layer (S102). When the first layer modeling is completed, the apparatus control unit 12 performs the second layer modeling as shown in FIG. 4B (S103), and confirms the completion of the second layer modeling (S104). Here, the completion of modeling means that the surface of the modeling material is cured or semi-cured by drying, heat dissipation, UV curing, or the like, and is ready for printing.

  When the second layer modeling is completed, the apparatus control unit 12 performs printing on the surface (or the surface and the side surface) of the first layer modeling material as shown in FIG. 4C (S105). Then, as shown in FIG. 4D, the third layer is formed (S106). When the completion of modeling of the third layer is confirmed (Y in S107), printing is performed on the surface (or the surface and the side surface) of the modeling material of the second layer as shown in FIG. 4E (S108). The fourth layer is formed (S109). Then, this operation is repeated up to the uppermost layer (S110, S111), and a series of modeling and printing operations is completed.

  Next, the procedure in the case of performing modeling and printing for every two layers will be described with reference to the flowchart of FIG. 5 and the schematic diagram of FIG. In this example, two layers are printed every time two layers are formed, and the insertion of the printing operation is halved compared to the method of printing one layer for each layer, so the total modeling time is reduced. There is a merit that can be shortened. On the other hand, in order to perform printing after stacking every two layers, the distance between the print head and the lower layer is increased, so that the landing accuracy of ink ejection is lowered and the image quality of printing may be lowered. is there. Therefore, it is preferable to determine whether printing is performed for each layer stack or for each of a plurality of layers in consideration of the modeling speed and the printing accuracy. In addition, although the case where 2 layers printing is performed for every 2 layers of shaping | molding is demonstrated here, when printing 3 layers for every 3 layers shaping, or the case of printing 4 layers for every 4 layers shaping The same applies to the above.

  Similarly to the above, 3D data such as CAD data and design data of the modeling object created by the computer apparatus is taken in by the control block 10 (3D data input unit 11) of the three-dimensional object modeling apparatus, and the apparatus control unit 12 The apparatus control unit 12 analyzes the 3D data and generates slice data that defines the shape and color of each layer. Then, the device control unit 12 transmits mechanism control information to the head moving mechanism block 20 (and the UV lamp 50) according to the slice data, and sends modeling data and printing data to the modeling material handling block 30. Send and start modeling and printing.

  Specifically, the apparatus control unit 12 performs modeling of the first layer of the lowest layer as shown in FIG. 6A (S201) and confirms completion of modeling of the first layer (S202). When modeling of the first layer is completed, modeling of the second layer is performed as shown in FIG. 6B (S203), and completion of modeling of the second layer is confirmed (S204). When the formation of the second layer is completed, the third layer is formed as shown in FIG. 6C (S205), and the completion of the formation of the third layer is confirmed (S206). Here, the modeling completion is as described in the modeling for each layer.

  When the modeling of the third layer is completed, as shown in FIG. 6 (d), printing on the surface (or surface and side surface) of the modeling material of the first layer and the second layer is performed at a time (S207), then As shown in FIGS. 6 (e) and 6 (f), the fourth layer and the fifth layer are sequentially checked for modeling and completion of modeling (S208 to S211). When the modeling of the fifth layer is completed, as shown in FIG. 6G, printing on the surface (or surface and side surface) of the modeling material of the third layer and the fourth layer is performed at a time (S212). Then, this operation is repeated up to the top layer (S213, S214), and a series of modeling and printing operations is completed.

  By simultaneously performing modeling and printing by such a method, not only the shape of the modeling object but also the color and pattern can be accurately reproduced.

  That is, as a method of printing on the surface of a three-dimensional object, it is common to perform painting or printing after modeling, but in the conventional process of printing after modeling, a cylindrical shape as shown in FIG. Inside, the structure of the three-dimensional object after modeling becomes an obstacle, and since tools and means for printing (such as pens, brushes, airbrushes, and inkjet heads) cannot be inserted, patterns and colors are printed accurately on the modeled object. It was difficult. However, in the method of the present embodiment, since printing can be performed before a part that can be an obstacle to the modeled object is formed, a part that cannot be obtained by printing after modeling, for example, a cylindrical shape as shown in FIG. Printing is also possible on the inner side surface (the lower surface side of the inside).

  As described above, the basic operation of the three-dimensional object forming apparatus of the present embodiment has been described. In this embodiment, the stacking of the modeling material and the application of the printing paint are repeatedly performed. If the resulting modeling material is not ready for printing, the printing paint will not be properly applied to the surface of the modeling material (that is, the printing paint will soak, bleed or melt into the modeling material) and print There is a risk that the accuracy of the will decrease. In addition, since the printing material oozes on the modeling material side, the modeling material expands or changes in quality, which may prevent high-precision modeling.

  In the present embodiment, in order to avoid such a problem, information notified from the layer stacking completion determination data providing unit 40 whether or not the newly stacked layer is in a printable state (for example, after modeling) The apparatus control unit 12 determines based on the elapsed time, the temperature of the modeling material, the color of the modeling material, whether or not the UV lamp emits light (ultraviolet irradiation amount), and the like. It is confirmed that the shape has been confirmed and / or the printing paint has changed to a state in which it does not mix with the modeling material (does not soak, penetrate, or dissolve).

  That is, immediately after being discharged from the modeling material discharge part 32 (modeling material head), the resin is in a liquid state if it is a UV curing type modeling apparatus, and if it is a hot melting type modeling apparatus, it is heated. If the resin is soft, it is in a semi-cured gel state, and if the particles are laminated, it is in a fine powder state. In such a state, the shape of the part to be applied is not fixed, and the surface cannot be printed.

  Therefore, it is confirmed that fluidity is lost, heat shrinkage is confirmed, physical property change from monomer to polymer, color change (acrylic resin changes from milky white to transparent when dried) ) Or the like, it is determined whether or not it is in a printable state, and after confirming that it has changed to a printable surface state, printing is performed.

  FIG. 8 to FIG. 11 are flowcharts of procedures for determining whether printing is possible based on the UV irradiation amount of the UV lamp 50, the elapsed time after modeling, the temperature of the modeling material surface, and the color information of the modeling material surface. The description will be given with reference.

[When judging based on the UV irradiation amount of the UV lamp 50: see FIG. 8]
After stacking one or more layers of modeling material (here, UV curable material) (S301), the apparatus control unit 12 transmits mechanism control information to the UV lamp 50 and starts irradiation of the UV lamp 50 (S302). ). Irradiation of the UV lamp 50 causes a photopolymerization reaction in the UV curable material. That is, the photopolymerization initiator contained in the UV curable material becomes a radical when irradiated with ultraviolet rays, and this radical approaches the polymerizable double bond (unsaturated group) of the prepolymer or monomer, so that the double bond portion is active. Then, they are joined together in a chain and cured.

  The layer stacking completion determination data providing unit 40 measures the irradiation time of the UV lamp 50 and transmits it to the apparatus control unit 12. Then, when the irradiation amount of the UV lamp 50 reaches a certain level or more based on the irradiation time of the UV lamp 50 (Y in S303), the apparatus control unit 12 changes the formed layer to a printable state (double). It is determined that the binding portion has been activated and has been sufficiently linked in a chain, and mechanism control information is transmitted to the UV lamp 50 to finish irradiation of the UV lamp 50 (S304), and printing on the surface of the modeling material (S305). Thereafter, this process is repeated until the modeling is completed.

  As described above, when a UV curable material is used as a modeling material, it is ensured whether the modeling material has changed to a printable surface state by using the irradiation time of the UV lamp 50 (that is, the UV irradiation amount). Can be judged.

[When judging based on the elapsed time after modeling: see FIG. 9]
After stacking one or more layers of modeling material (in this case, the modeling material heated by the heater 35) (S401), the layer stacking completion determination data providing unit 40 sets a countdown timer in advance (the surface of the modeling material). Is set to a time required for cooling to become a cured or semi-cured state), a countdown is started (S402), an elapsed time after lamination is measured, and transmitted to the apparatus control unit 12. Then, when the value of the timer reaches 0 (Y in S403), the apparatus control unit 12 determines that the time necessary for cooling and curing has elapsed, and performs printing on the surface of the modeling material (S404). Thereafter, this process is repeated until the modeling is completed.

  Thus, when heating a modeling material, it is judged reliably whether the modeling material changed to the surface state which can be printed by utilizing the elapsed time (namely, cooling time of modeling material) after lamination | stacking. be able to. In addition, since the solvent contained in a modeling material may evaporate and harden | cure with progress of time, this method is applicable also when not heating a modeling material.

[When judging based on the temperature of the modeling material surface: see FIG. 10]
After stacking one or more layers of modeling material (modeling material heated by the heater 35) (S501), the layer stacking completion determination data providing unit 40 measures the surface temperature of the modeled layer with a non-contact temperature sensor or the like. And transmitted to the device control unit 12 (S502). Then, when the surface temperature of the shaped layer decreases to a predetermined temperature (a temperature at which the surface of the modeling material is considered to be cured or semi-cured) (Y in S503), the device control unit 12 prints the shaped layer. It is determined that the state has changed to a possible state, and printing on the surface of the modeling layer is performed (S504). Thereafter, this process is repeated until the modeling is completed.

  Thus, when heating a modeling material, it can be judged reliably whether the modeling material changed to the surface state which can be printed also by utilizing the surface temperature of the modeling material which has been modeled.

[When judging based on color information on the surface of the modeling material: see FIG. 11]
After one or more layers of modeling material (modeling material heated by the heater 35) are stacked (S601), the layer stacking completion determination data providing unit 40 measures the surface color of the modeled layer with a color sensor such as a CCD camera. Then, color information (information such as color, density, transparency, and gloss) is transmitted to the apparatus control unit 12 (S602). And the apparatus control part 12 confirms the color change of modeling material based on color information, and if the surface changes to a desired color (for example, it changes from milky white to transparent) (Y of S603), the modeling completed layer will print It is determined that the state has changed to a possible state, and printing on the surface of the modeling layer is performed (S604). Thereafter, this process is repeated until the modeling is completed.

  As described above, when the modeling material is heated, it is possible to reliably determine whether the modeling material has changed to a printable surface state by using the color of the surface of the modeling material that has already been modeled. In addition, since the solvent contained in a modeling material may evaporate with time and a color may change, this method is applicable also when not heating a modeling material.

  As described above, based on the irradiation time (ultraviolet ray irradiation amount) of the UV lamp 50, the elapsed time after modeling, the surface temperature of the modeling material, and the color of the modeling material, whether or not the modeled modeling material has become printable. Although the case of determination has been described, the elements of determination are not limited to these. Although the determination is based on one element here, it can be determined by combining a plurality of elements. In addition to or together with this determination, if a material that does not penetrate the modeling material (ie, does not bleed, penetrate, or melt) is selected as the printing paint, higher-precision modeling and printing can be realized. be able to.

  As described above, the printing accuracy can be improved by preventing the printing paint from penetrating into the modeling material, but the printing accuracy can also be improved by reducing the application size of the printing paint. That is, in the conventional method, the modeling material of different colors is switched to change the surface color to change the region, so the resolution is the modeling pitch. However, in the method of this embodiment, the surface is coated with a substance different from the modeling material. Therefore, the printing accuracy is not limited by the modeling pitch, and high-definition expression is possible.

  Referring to the drawings, the conventional three-dimensional object modeling apparatus has a plurality of modeling material heads (for example, two modeling material heads A and B) as shown in FIG. Laminate while discharging molding materials of different colors from the head. Even in this conventional three-dimensional object modeling apparatus, it is possible to form characters and patterns on the modeling material surface by utilizing the color difference of the material. However, since this method is a method of expressing the color difference for each part by switching (sometimes mixing) the modeling material, the printing definition is the same as the modeling pitch (minimum unit of modeling material). The size of this modeling pitch can be controlled by device design, but since the modeling material is for generating the shape of the modeled object, the modeling time becomes enormous if the modeling pitch is reduced. Considering the characteristics, it is not a good idea to reduce the molding pitch. Therefore, the conventional three-dimensional object modeling apparatus cannot perform high-definition printing on the modeled object.

  On the other hand, as shown in FIG. 12B, the three-dimensional object formation apparatus of the present embodiment has an ink head for applying printing ink, in addition to the formation head for discharging the formation material. Furthermore, the ink head is configured to be able to eject ink smaller than the size of the modeling material. In such a configuration, after the modeling material is discharged from the modeling material head in advance and stacked to generate the shape of the modeled object, surface printing can be performed on the surface by ink application with the ink head. At that time, since the ink is not restricted by the pitch of the modeling material, it can be made smaller than the modeling material, so the printing pitch can be made smaller than the modeling pitch (minimum unit of modeling material) Fine printing can be realized. Increasing the accuracy of the printing ink (decreasing the ink droplets) increases the number of ink ejections, so the modeling time becomes slightly longer. However, the ink application covers only the surface of the modeled object, so There is no significant effect on the overall modeling time.

  As described above, since the three-dimensional object shaping apparatus of the present embodiment includes the print head separately from the shaping head, the modeling time can be greatly increased by applying ink having a size smaller than the shaping pitch of the modeling material. In addition, high-definition printing can be performed on the surface of the modeled object.

  8 to 11, control for the purpose of curing the modeling material is performed, but it may be preferable to apply the printing paint in a state where the modeling material is not sufficiently cured. For example, when UV curable resin or photo curable resin is used for modeling material and UV curable ink or photo curable ink is used for printing paint, it is semi-cured rather than laminating a new resin on a fully cured resin. The adhesive strength with the lower layer can be increased by laminating an uncured resin on the cured resin and hardening it together by UV curing.

  Therefore, in this embodiment, when the modeling material and the printing paint UV or a photocurable member are used, the UV irradiation amount by the UV lamp 50 is changed from uncured to semi-cured by the first UV irradiation, and the second time. The amount of change from semi-cured to cured by UV irradiation is adjusted so that the printing material is applied while the modeling material is semi-cured. Hereinafter, description will be made with reference to the flowchart in FIG. 13 and the schematic diagram in FIG. 14.

  First, as shown in FIG. 14A, the device control unit 12 stacks the first layer modeling material on the lowermost layer (S701). At this time, the UV curable resin of the modeling material is an uncured liquid and cannot be printed on this surface. Therefore, UV light emission for curing the laminated modeling material is performed following the first modeling lamination (S702). This UV light emission is performed by causing the UV lamp 50 provided in the three-dimensional object forming apparatus to emit light for a certain period of time. In the present embodiment, the amount of UV irradiation by the UV lamp 50 is adjusted to an amount that changes from uncured to semi-cured by the first UV irradiation and changes from semi-cured to cured by the second UV irradiation. Then, as shown in FIG.14 (b), the modeling material of the 2nd layer is laminated | stacked (S703). At this time, since the first layer of the modeling material is in a semi-cured state, the second layer of the modeling material can be stacked.

  Following the second layering, the second UV emission is performed (S704). By the second UV emission, the first layer of the modeling material is in a cured state, and the second layer of the modeling material is in a semi-cured state. In this state, as shown in FIG. 14C, printing is performed with UV curable ink on the surface (or the surface and the side surface) of the first modeling material in the cured state (S705). At this time, ink droplets are also applied to a part of the lower part of the side surface of the second layer, but the second layer is also semi-cured and can be painted.

  Then, as shown in FIG.14 (d), the 3rd modeling material is laminated | stacked (S706). At this time, the first-layer modeling material is in a cured state, the second-layer modeling material is in a semi-cured state, and the third-layer modeling material is in an uncured state. Subsequent to the third layering, the third UV emission is performed (S707). By the third UV emission, the second layer of the molding material is in a cured state, and the third layer of the molding material is in a semi-cured state. Further, the ink applied to the first layer by the UV emission also changes from an uncured state to a cured state (or a semi-cured state), and the printing paint is fixed to the surface of the modeling material. This third UV emission (same for the third and subsequent times) can not only change the state of the modeling material but also the state of the printing ink, so that the light emission energy can be used effectively. .

  Subsequently, as shown in FIG. 14E, printing is performed with UV curable ink on the surface (or the surface and the side surface) of the second layer of the molding material in a cured state (S708). At this time, ink droplets are also applied to part of the lower part of the side surface of the modeling material of the third layer, but the third layer is also semi-cured and can be painted. Then, as shown in FIG.14 (f), the 4th modeling material is laminated | stacked (S709). This operation is repeated up to the top layer (S710, S711), and a series of operations of modeling and printing by the UV curing method is completed.

  In this series of operations, the energy emitted from the UV lamp 50 is not only changed from a non-cured modeling material that is a UV curable resin to a semi-cured material, but from a semi-cured material to a cured material. Can be changed from semi-cured to semi-cured and cured to semi-cured.

  In this way, in the UV curable three-dimensional object modeling apparatus that uses UV curable resin for modeling material and UV curable ink for printing paint, the energy of ultraviolet irradiation is used for both curing of the modeled object and ink. can do. With this effect, the irradiation time of the UV lamp 50 can be reduced, the emission energy can be reduced, and the life of the UV lamp 50 can be extended. In the above description, the UV curable resin and the UV curable ink have been described as examples. However, the present invention can be similarly applied to a visible light curable resin and a visible light curable ink that are cured by visible light.

  In addition, this invention is not limited to the said Example, The structure and control can be changed suitably, unless it deviates from the meaning of this invention. Further, the present invention can be applied to any of a melt deposition method (FDM), an ink jet method, an ink jet binder method, an optical modeling method (SL), and a powder sintering method (SLS).

  For example, in the melt deposition method (FDM), the molding material is not cured at high temperature immediately after the melt of the modeling material is discharged from the head. After confirming the cooling and hardening by elapse of time or measuring the surface temperature, the surface may be printed. Moreover, when using the modeling material which changes color when it hardens | cures, after completion | finish of lamination | stacking of one layer or several layers, after confirming hardening by a color change, you may print on the surface.

  In addition, the inkjet method is a method in which a modeling material melted at a high temperature is dropped from an inkjet nozzle, and the modeling material is cured at a high temperature immediately after the melt of the modeling material is discharged from the head, similarly to the melt deposition method. Therefore, after completion of the lamination, until the curing and the heat shrinkage are settled, after confirming the cooling and curing by elapse of a predetermined time or by measuring the surface temperature, the surface may be printed. Further, if a UV curable resin is used as the modeling material, the modeling material does not need to be melted at a high temperature, and if the UV curable ink is used in combination, the method shown in FIGS. 13 and 14 can be applied.

  In addition, in the inkjet binder method (3DP), the method of the present invention can be used if printing is performed after a binder is dropped and the powders are bonded and solidified. If the binder is a UV curable resin, the powder is adhesively cured by UV. Therefore, when a UV curable ink is used in combination, the method shown in FIGS. 13 and 14 can be applied.

  Moreover, since the stereolithography (SL) is a method using a photocurable resin, the method shown in FIGS. 13 and 14 can be applied if a photocurable ink is used in combination.

  In addition, in the powder sintering method (SLS), the molding material is not cured at a high temperature immediately after melting with the laser, and therefore, after completion of the lamination, until the curing and thermal shrinkage are settled, a certain time elapses or the surface temperature is measured and cured. After confirming the above, printing may be performed on the surface.

  INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY The present invention can be used for a three-dimensional object modeling apparatus such as a 3D printer that models a three-dimensional object and a three-dimensional object modeling method using the apparatus.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 Control block 11 3D data input part 12 Apparatus control part 20 Head moving mechanism block 21 Head moving block 21a X direction moving part 21b Y direction moving part 22 Stage moving block 22a Z direction moving part 30 Modeling material handling block 31 Modeling material supply part 32 Modeling Material Discharge Unit 33 Print Paint Supply Unit 34 Print Paint Application Unit 35 Heater 40 Layer Layer Completion Determination Data Providing Unit 50 UV Lamp

Claims (14)

  1. In a three-dimensional object modeling apparatus that forms a three-dimensional object by sequentially stacking modeling materials,
    A data input unit for inputting data including three-dimensional shape information and color information of the modeling target;
    Based on the data, a modeling material stacking unit that performs modeling by sequentially stacking the modeling material,
    Based on the data, a printing unit that performs printing by applying a printing material different from the modeling material to at least a part of the modeling material;
    An apparatus control unit that executes printing on at least a part of the modeling material by the printing unit every time one or more layers of the modeling material are completed by the modeling material stacking unit;
    Examples build material, using a UV curable resin or a photo-curing resin is cured by light irradiation, as the printing material, using a UV curable ink or light-curable ink is cured by light irradiation,
    The apparatus control unit does not perform light irradiation after causing the printing unit to execute printing and before causing the modeling material stacking unit to stack the next modeling material. Modeling equipment.
  2.   The three-dimensional object modeling apparatus according to claim 1, wherein at least a part of the modeling material is a region exposed when the next layer is laminated.
  3.   The three-dimensional object modeling apparatus according to claim 2, wherein the exposed region includes a side surface of the modeling material.
  4.   The apparatus controller prints based on at least one of an elapsed time after the modeling material is stacked, a surface temperature of the modeling material, color information of the modeling material, and a light irradiation amount with respect to the photocurable modeling material. It is determined whether the modeling material of one or more layers as a target is in a printable state, and after determining that the modeling material is in a printable state, the printing unit executes printing. The three-dimensional object formation apparatus as described in any one of Claims 1 thru | or 3.
  5.   The printable state is a state in which the shape of the modeling material that is liquid, gel, or powder is fixed, and / or a state in which the modeling material is not mixed with the printing material. The three-dimensional object shaping apparatus according to claim 4.
  6.   The three-dimensional object modeling apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein a printing pitch of the printing material by the printing unit is finer than a modeling pitch of the modeling material by the modeling material stacking unit.
  7. A three-dimensional object forming method using a three-dimensional object forming apparatus for forming a three-dimensional object by sequentially stacking modeling materials,
    After inputting the data including the three-dimensional shape information and color information of the modeling object,
    Based on the data, a modeling material laminating step for laminating one or more layers of the modeling material,
    Based on the data, the printing material different from the modeling material is newly laminated one or more layers of the modeling material, or the one or more layers of the modeling material are laminated immediately before, or newly A printing step of applying to at least a part of the one or more layers of the modeling material stacked on and the one or more layers of the modeling material stacked immediately before,
    Examples build material, using a UV curable resin or a photo-curing resin is cured by light irradiation, as the printing material, using a UV curable ink or light-curable ink is cured by light irradiation,
    After performing the said printing step, before the next said modeling material lamination | stacking step, light irradiation is not performed, The solid-object modeling method characterized by the above-mentioned.
  8.   The three-dimensional object modeling method according to claim 7, wherein at least a part of the modeling material is a region exposed when the next layer is laminated.
  9.   The three-dimensional object modeling method according to claim 8, wherein the exposed region includes a side surface of the modeling material.
  10. After executing the modeling material stacking step, at least one of the elapsed time after stacking the modeling material, the surface temperature of the modeling material, the color information of the modeling material, and the light irradiation amount on the photocurable molding material A determination step of determining whether the modeling material of one or more layers to be printed is in a printable state,
    The solid object forming method according to any one of claims 7 to 9, wherein the printing step is executed after it is determined in the determining step that the printing is possible.
  11.   The printable state is a state in which the shape of the modeling material that is liquid, gel, or powder is fixed, and / or a state in which the modeling material is not mixed with the printing material. The three-dimensional object modeling method according to claim 10.
  12.   The three-dimensional object modeling method according to any one of claims 7 to 11, wherein a printing pitch of the printing material in the printing step is made finer than a modeling pitch of the modeling material in the modeling material stacking step. .
  13. In a three-dimensional object modeling apparatus that forms a three-dimensional object by sequentially stacking modeling materials,
    A data input unit for inputting data including three-dimensional shape information and color information of the modeling target;
    Based on the data, a modeling material stacking unit that performs modeling by sequentially stacking the modeling material,
    Based on the data, a printing unit that performs printing by applying a printing material different from the modeling material to at least a part of the modeling material;
    An apparatus control unit that executes printing on at least a part of the modeling material by the printing unit every time one or more layers of the modeling material are completed by the modeling material stacking unit;
    Examples build material, using a UV curable resin or a photo-curing resin is cured by light irradiation, as the printing material, using a UV curable ink or light-curable ink is cured by light irradiation,
    The apparatus control unit, after causing the printing unit to execute printing, maintains a semi-cured state of the modeling material in the uppermost layer, and causes the modeling material stacking unit to execute stacking of the next modeling material. A three-dimensional object shaping apparatus.
  14. A three-dimensional object forming method using a three-dimensional object forming apparatus for forming a three-dimensional object by sequentially stacking modeling materials,
    After inputting the data including the three-dimensional shape information and color information of the modeling object,
    Based on the data, a modeling material laminating step for laminating one or more layers of the modeling material,
    Based on the data, the printing material different from the modeling material is newly laminated one or more layers of the modeling material, or the one or more layers of the modeling material are laminated immediately before, or newly A printing step of applying to at least a part of the one or more layers of the modeling material stacked on and the one or more layers of the modeling material stacked immediately before,
    Examples build material, using a UV curable resin or a photo-curing resin is cured by light irradiation, as the printing material, using a UV curable ink or light-curable ink is cured by light irradiation,
    After the printing step is executed, the next modeling material stacking step is executed while maintaining the semi-cured state of the modeling material in the uppermost layer.
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CN104275799B (en) * 2014-05-26 2017-02-15 深圳市七号科技有限公司 Colored 3D printing device and method
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JP6386273B2 (en) * 2014-07-07 2018-09-05 株式会社ミマキエンジニアリング Three-dimensional object forming apparatus and three-dimensional object forming method
CN104260341B (en) * 2014-08-19 2016-09-21 英华达(上海)科技有限公司 A kind of bond material shower nozzle and the 3D Method of printing of paint sprayer and system
CN104191616A (en) * 2014-08-29 2014-12-10 马驰 Three-dimensional Ink jetting printing equipment and three-dimensional ink jetting printing method
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JP6801254B2 (en) * 2015-08-20 2020-12-16 株式会社リコー Image forming device, stereoscopic image modeling method and program
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