JP5599878B2 - Process for preparing 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane - Google Patents

Process for preparing 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane Download PDF

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JP5599878B2
JP5599878B2 JP2012516588A JP2012516588A JP5599878B2 JP 5599878 B2 JP5599878 B2 JP 5599878B2 JP 2012516588 A JP2012516588 A JP 2012516588A JP 2012516588 A JP2012516588 A JP 2012516588A JP 5599878 B2 JP5599878 B2 JP 5599878B2
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acid
mixture
pentamethylcyclohexane
water
amino
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JP2012531390A (en
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ヘルベルト コレル,
ミヒャエル ピイェリン,
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メルツ・ファルマ・ゲーエムベーハー・ウント・コ・カーゲーアーアー
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C209/00Preparation of compounds containing amino groups bound to a carbon skeleton
    • C07C209/54Preparation of compounds containing amino groups bound to a carbon skeleton by rearrangement reactions
    • C07C209/58Preparation of compounds containing amino groups bound to a carbon skeleton by rearrangement reactions from or via amides
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C2601/00Systems containing only non-condensed rings
    • C07C2601/12Systems containing only non-condensed rings with a six-membered ring
    • C07C2601/14The ring being saturated

Description

  The present invention relates to a process for preparing 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane (neramexane) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
  1-Amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane (neramexane), and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt, is a persistent agent in patients with diseases and symptoms such as tinnitus and nystagmus. It is a useful drug for treatment.
  Several methods for preparing these drugs are already known.
In one method, commercially available isophorone is converted to neramexane by a series of five steps (reaction sequence) according to the following reaction scheme (W. Danysz et al; Current Pharmaceutical Design, 2002, 8, 835- 843).
  In the first step of the above reaction sequence, isophorone (1) is converted to 3,3,5,5-tetramethylcyclohexanone (2) by conjugate addition of methylmagnesium iodide using a copper chloride catalyst.
  In the second step, 3,3,5,5-tetramethylcyclohexanone (2) is converted to 1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexanol (3) by Grignard reaction using methylmagnesium iodide. Convert.
  In the third step, the cyclohexanol (3) is converted to 1-chloroacetamido-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane (6) by chloroacetonitrile in a liter reaction.
  In the subsequent fourth step (step (iv)), the chloroacetamide group in amide (6) is cleaved with thiourea in acetic acid. In the fifth step at the end of the reaction sequence, the resulting amine is acidified with hydrochloric acid to give the hydrochloride form of neramexane (1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane) (7) is generated.
  Cleavage of the chloroacetamide group in amide (6) has also been extensively studied by Jirgensons et al. (Jirgensons et al .; Synthesis 2000, No. 12, 1709-1712). According to it, 1-chloroacetamido-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane was refluxed in a 5: 1 mixture of ethanol and acetic acid. After 10 hours of reaction, the reaction mixture was diluted with water and the resulting precipitate was separated. The filtrate was alkalinized and extracted with hexane. After the addition of hydrochloric acid, the hydrochloride form of 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane was isolated in a yield of 89% by weight.
Jirgensons et al .; Synthesis 2000, No. 12, 1709-1712.
  One object of the present invention is to provide 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof that enables advantageous implementation on an economical industrial scale. In order to provide a preparation method of the above, one or more of the reaction steps in the reaction sequence described above are improved. Another object is to minimize the amount of waste and / or unreacted material (ie, at least one of these) produced in the process of producing neramexane or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. Further objectives are optimal with respect to yield and / or selectivity and / or product quality (ie, any or any combination thereof) for neramexane or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. Or to improve. In particular, the present application seeks to improve the above step (iv), ie, the reaction of 1-chloroacetamido-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane with thiourea. is there. Such an improved process can be considered a prerequisite for the advantageous production of neramexane, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, on an economical industrial scale.
The present invention relates to a process for preparing 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane comprising step (iv). :
Step (iv): reacting a mixture containing 1-chloroacetamide-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane, thiourea and water.
  In one embodiment, the mixture is substantially free of organic solvent.
  In one embodiment, the weight ratio of thiourea to water is in the range of 1: 0.5 to 1:50.
  In another embodiment, the weight ratio of thiourea to water is in the range of 1: 1 to 1:20.
  In another embodiment, the weight ratio of thiourea to water is in the range of 1: 2 to 1:10.
  In one embodiment, the mixture further includes an acid.
  In one embodiment, the mixture includes 0.1 to 20 wt% acid based on the amount of water.
  In one embodiment, the acid is hydrochloric acid.
  In one embodiment, the mixture is heated to a temperature in the range from 50 ° C. to the reflux temperature of the mixture.
  In one embodiment, the mixture is heated to a temperature in the range from 80 ° C. to the reflux temperature of the mixture.
  In one embodiment, per mole of 1-chloroacetamido-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane, (1) 1.0-2 moles of thiourea and (2) 1-3 moles of The acid and (3) thiourea and 1-chloroacetamido-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane are used at reflux temperature with 500-1500% by weight of water.
  In one embodiment, after heating the mixture, alkali is added to separate the 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane from the mixture to a pH value of 7 or higher.
In one embodiment, the method further comprises step (v). :
Step (v): An acid is added to 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane obtained in step (iv).
  In one embodiment, the acid is methanesulfonic acid.
  It was unexpectedly revealed that the reaction time was considerably reduced by the method of the present invention compared to the reaction time disclosed in the prior art method. Furthermore, since the addition of water and the filtration of precipitates described in the background art section are unnecessary, the series of operations for extracting and separating the produced amine is considerably simplified according to the method of the present invention. The amine yield is high and almost quantitative. That is, this novel method can be preferably implemented on an economical industrial scale.
The present invention relates to a process for preparing 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane comprising step (iv). :
Step (iv): reacting a mixture containing 1-chloroacetamide-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane, thiourea and water.
  In one embodiment, the mixture used in step (iv) further includes an organic solvent.
  In one embodiment, the organic solvent is a solvent that is water miscible under the reaction conditions of step (iv), such as a solvent such as an alcohol.
  In one embodiment, the organic solvent is an alcohol selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, and ethylene glycol.
  In one embodiment, the amount of the organic solvent is 0 to 200% by weight based on the amount of water. In another embodiment, the amount of the organic solvent is 0 to 150 wt%, 0 to 100 wt%, 0 to 50 wt%, 0 to 10 wt%, or 0 to 5 wt% based on the amount of water. %.
  In another embodiment, the mixture used in step (iv) is substantially free of organic solvent or free of any organic solvent.
  The term “substantially free of organic solvent” means that the organic solvent content of the mixture is 0 to 5 wt%, 0 to 3 wt%, or 0 to 1 wt% based on the amount of water. Is assumed.
  In one embodiment, the weight ratio of thiourea to water is in the range of 1: 0.5 to 1:50, 1: 1 to 1:20, or 1: 2 to 1:10.
  The reaction of step (iv) can be carried out without the addition of acid, but from 1-chloroacetamido-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane to 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5- Conversion to the pentamethylcyclohexane salt can be facilitated by the addition of an acid.
  Accordingly, in one embodiment, the mixture of step (iv) further comprises an acid.
  Acids that can be used include, but are not limited to, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, methanesulfonic acid, acetic acid, and benzoic acid. Therefore, not only organic acids but also inorganic acids can be used.
  In one embodiment, the mixture of step (iv) does not include acetic acid.
  When any acid is used, the amount of acid used is within a relatively wide range.
  In one embodiment, the mixture of step (iv) comprises 0.1 to 20% by weight acid based on the amount of water.
  In one embodiment, the acid used is hydrochloric acid.
  In order to further promote the conversion of 1-chloroacetamido-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane, the mixture used in step (iv) is heated.
  The term “heating” assumes that the mixture of step (iv) is raised above ambient temperature (25 ° C.).
  In one embodiment, the mixture of step (iv) is heated to a temperature in the range from 50 ° C. to the reflux temperature of the mixture.
  In another embodiment, the mixture is heated to a temperature in the range from 80 ° C. to the reflux temperature of the mixture.
  In yet another embodiment, the mixture is heated to the reflux temperature of the mixture.
  When a mixture containing substantially no organic solvent is used in step (iv), the reflux temperature is usually around 100 ° C., that is, in the range of 95 to 105 ° C. Depending on the amount and boiling point of the organic solvent used, the reflux temperature when using the mixture containing the organic solvent in step (iv) is higher than the reflux temperature of the mixture containing water but substantially free of the organic solvent. Can be cold. That is, the temperature may be higher or lower depending on the amount and boiling point of the organic solvent used.
  The conversion of 1-chloroacetamido-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane into 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane in step (iv) It can be managed by a graphical method such as gas liquid chromatography.
  In one embodiment, in step (iv), per mole of 1-chloroacetamido-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane, (1) 1.0-2 moles of thiourea and (2 ) 1-3 mol of acid and (3) 500 to 1,500% by weight water based on thiourea and 1-chloroacetamido-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane at reflux temperature. use.
  In one embodiment, the conversion ends as early as 6 hours later, 5 hours later, or only after 4 hours, after only 3 hours, or after a time shorter than 3 hours.
  In one embodiment, the 1-chloroacetamido-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane, about 1.2 molar equivalents of thiourea and 2 molar equivalents of hydrochloric acid are added in an 8-fold amount (thiourea). And 1-chloroacetamido-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane (weight ratio based on water) at a reflux temperature.
  The conversion in the mixture containing water in step (iv) usually proceeds relatively quickly.
  In one embodiment, step (iv) is performed in water. That is, the mixture is substantially free of organic solvent. Heating is performed at a reflux temperature, that is, a temperature around 100 ° C. Furthermore, an acid is added. In such a case, the conversion can be completed in 2 hours. Or it can be completed in just one hour.
  When the conversion is catalyzed by an acid, at least a portion of the amine formed, i.e., at least a portion of 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane, is converted to water by protonation of the amino group. Dissolves and forms a salt.
  In one embodiment, to isolate the produced amine, the method of the present invention comprises (1) adding an alkali to the mixture to bring the pH value to 7 or more, and (2) 1- Including isolating amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane.
  In the above embodiment, the amine comes out from the aqueous phase after alkali addition. Preferably, the mixture is cooled and then separated out of the aqueous phase. The amine can then be separated.
  In another embodiment, the amine may be extracted with a water-immiscible organic solvent from the mixture that forms an organic phase and an aqueous phase after alkali addition. Suitable solvents are solvents such as methylene chloride, toluene, or petroleum ether. After extraction, the extract can be dried (dehydrated) with sodium sulfate or the like. After evaporation to remove the solvent, the crude amine is obtained.
  In one embodiment, the yield of the crude product is approximately higher than 95% by weight of the theoretical value or close to a quantitative value. The crude product usually contains the target compound in a very high content of 95% by weight or more, 97% by weight or more, or 99% by weight or more (according to gas liquid chromatography test).
  In one embodiment, the crude amine is further purified by distillation, if necessary.
<Conversion of 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane to 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane salt (step (v))>
In the next step, 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane can be converted to its salt by adding a suitable acid. In one embodiment, the salt is a pharmaceutically acceptable salt.
  For the purposes of this disclosure, the term “pharmaceutically acceptable salt” refers to a neramexane salt that is physiologically acceptable when administered to a mammalian organism (eg, a human), Those that do not usually cause harmful reactions. The term “pharmaceutically acceptable salt” is usually approved by the federal or state government regulators for use on mammalian organisms, particularly humans, or the US Pharmacopoeia or other generally approved It means what is listed in the pharmacopoeia list.
  Conversion of 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane to its pharmaceutically acceptable salt can be accomplished by conventional methods with the base and one or more molar equivalents of the selected acid. Is mixed in an inert organic solvent. Isolation of the salt is performed by known techniques in the art, such as inducing precipitation with a non-polar solvent (eg, ether) with low salt solubility. The nature of the salt is not critical as long as it is non-toxic and does not substantially interfere with the desired pharmacological activity.
  Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable salts are the salts formed with hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, methanesulfonic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, citric acid, and similar acids.
  Additional pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, but are not limited to, acid addition salts such as: That is, hydroiodic acid, perchloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, propionic acid, glycolic acid, lactic acid, pyruvic acid, malonic acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, benzoic acid, carbonic acid, cinnamic acid, mandelic acid, ethanesulfone Formed with acids such as acid, hydroxyethanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, cyclohexanesulfamic acid, salicic acid, p-aminosalicylic acid, 2-phenoxybenzoic acid, and 2-acetoxybenzoic acid Acid addition salts are included.
  In one embodiment, 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane produced and isolated in step (iv) is replaced with one of the solvents or a mixture of solvents. Dissolved or dispersed or suspended.
  Suitable solvents are acetone, anisole, butyl acetate, t-butyl methyl ether, cumene, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethyl acetate, ethyl ether, ethyl formate, heptane, isobutyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, methyl acetate, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, pentane. , Propyl acetate, tetrahydrofuran, 1,1-diethoxypropane, 1,1-dimethoxymethane, 2,2-dimethoxypropane, isooctane, isopropyl ether, methyl isopropyl ketone, and methyltetrahydrofuran.
  In one embodiment, a mixture of solvent and water may be used, such as a mixture of methyl ethyl ketone and water.
  Following dissolution or dispersion or suspension, a suitable acid is added to allow salt formation. The acid may be dissolved or dispersed or suspended in one or more of the solvents defined above.
  The above-mentioned precipitated and / or crystallized salt can be separated from the reaction mixture by filtration.
  The solvent adhering to such a precipitate can be removed by reduced pressure and / or heating.
  In one embodiment, the acid used is hydrochloric acid or methanesulfonic acid and the salt is hydrochloride or mesylate.
  In one embodiment, methanesulfonic acid is added to 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane.
  In one embodiment, the salt yield is greater than 95 wt% and has a purity greater than 99.9 wt%.
<Example 1>
A mixture of 245 g of 1-chloroacetamido-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane, 91 g of thiourea, 2,700 g of water and 220 g of hydrochloric acid (33% acid) was refluxed. Heat with. After 6 hours of reaction, the mixture is cooled to ambient temperature. Then, sodium hydroxide is added to make the pH value of the mixture higher than 7. The mixture is then extracted twice with petroleum ether. Merge the extracts from the two extractions. After distilling off the petroleum ether, 159 g of crude 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane is obtained (yield 97%). This crude product contains 97% by weight of the target compound (according to gas liquid chromatography test). Next, distillation is performed to further purify the crude product.
<Example 2>
Example 1 is repeated. The yield of the crude target compound is 100% and the content of the target compound is 99% by weight.

Claims (11)

  1. A method for preparing 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, comprising the following step (iv):
    Step (iv): see contains a 1-chloroacetamide -1,3,3,5,5- pentamethylcyclohexane thiourea and water, the amount of the organic solvent is at 0-5% by weight the amount of water as a reference There, the including mixtures also hydrochloric acid are reacted by heating at a temperature in the range of up to the reflux temperature of the mixture from 50 ° C..
  2. The process according to claim 1, wherein the weight ratio of thiourea to water is in the range of 1: 0.5 to 1:50.
  3. The process according to claim 1 or 2 , wherein the weight ratio of thiourea to water is in the range of 1: 1 to 1:20.
  4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3 , wherein the weight ratio of thiourea to water is in the range of 1: 2 to 1:10.
  5. The method according to claim 1 , wherein the mixture comprises hydrochloric acid in an amount of 0.1 to 20% by weight, based on the amount of water.
  6. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 5 , wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature in the range from 80 ° C to the reflux temperature of the mixture.
  7. In step (iv), 1.0 to 2 moles of thiourea, 1 to 3 moles of acid and thiourea per mole of 1-chloroacetamido-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane and a 500 to 1,500% by weight of water the amount of 1-chloroacetamide -1,3,3,5,5- pentamethylcyclohexane as a reference according to any one of claims 1 to 6 used at the reflux temperature the method of.
  8. The method further comprises adding an alkali to the mixture to have a pH value of 7 or more, and separating 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane from the mixture. 8. The method according to any one of 7 .
  9. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 8 , further comprising the following step (v).
    Step (v): An acid is added to 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane obtained in step (iv).
  10. The method according to claim 9 , wherein the acid is methanesulfonic acid.
  11. The method of claim 9, wherein the acid is hydrochloric acid.
JP2012516588A 2009-06-29 2010-06-28 Process for preparing 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane Expired - Fee Related JP5599878B2 (en)

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PCT/EP2010/003924 WO2011000541A1 (en) 2009-06-29 2010-06-28 Method of preparing 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexane

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