JP5570396B2 - Welding method and welding apparatus - Google Patents

Welding method and welding apparatus Download PDF

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JP5570396B2
JP5570396B2 JP2010259622A JP2010259622A JP5570396B2 JP 5570396 B2 JP5570396 B2 JP 5570396B2 JP 2010259622 A JP2010259622 A JP 2010259622A JP 2010259622 A JP2010259622 A JP 2010259622A JP 5570396 B2 JP5570396 B2 JP 5570396B2
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beam
welding
laser beam
beam portion
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JP2012110905A (en
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誠二 熊澤
出 中井
功 田代
英俊 宇津呂
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パナソニック株式会社
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  The present invention relates to a welding method and welding apparatus for welding two members with a laser beam, and in particular, even if there are a gap, a curved portion, a double scanning portion, etc. in the scanning path of the welding target portion of the two members. The present invention relates to a welding method and a welding apparatus capable of stable welding with high quality at low cost.

  In recent years, sealed secondary batteries have been widely used for power sources for driving portable devices and the like. In addition, electric double layer capacitors are widely used as backup power sources for electronic devices. Further, as secondary power sources for hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles, sealed secondary batteries and electric double layer capacitors are attracting attention. Increasingly, there are increasing demands for high capacity, high reliability, low cost, and the like for sealed secondary batteries and electric double layer capacitors. And in the energy device represented by such a battery, it is necessary to seal a case and a sealing board so that electrolyte solution may not leak. For this reason, the manufacture of these energy devices requires high quality and stable welding. On the other hand, various techniques have been proposed for welding the case of these energy devices and the sealing plate.

  Here, as an example, a case will be described in which a laser beam is scanned once around the edge of the case while intermittently irradiating the laser beam onto the welded portion between the case and the sealing plate.

  In this case, as shown in FIG. 24, when the laser beam returns to the point A (welding start point) around the butted portion 53 (welding portion) between the case 51 and the sealing plate 52, the double scanning portion O ( The section from point A to point B) is melted again. At this time, a part of the double scanning portion O flows into the battery, and a through hole is generated in the double scanning portion O. On the other hand, a technique has been proposed in which the input energy in the double scanning portion O is gradually reduced from E1 (see, for example, Patent Document 1). As a result, in the double scanning portion O, it is possible to realize good welding without a through hole.

  Further, as shown in FIG. 25, cracks are likely to occur in a section with a high degree of bending, such as a corner 51a. On the other hand, a technique for reducing the scanning speed of the laser beam at the corner 51a has been proposed (see, for example, Patent Document 2). As a result, the irradiation density of the laser beam is higher in the corner portion 51a than in the straight line portion 51b, and the overlap rate of the irradiated portion of the laser beam is increased. Accordingly, it is possible to realize high-quality welding without cracks.

JP 09-007560 A JP 11-144692 A

  However, in practice, there are many dimensional tolerances of members such as cases and sealing plates, variations in positioning, and variations in movement of the welding position of the apparatus. In particular, at corners with a high degree of bending, it is practically impossible to make the gap between the case and the sealing plate (four corners) zero.

  Further, due to design limitations, the plate thickness of the case varies depending on the location, and the contact area between the jig holding the case and the case varies depending on the location. That is, the heat capacity varies depending on the location.

  Moreover, a slight crack has occurred near the welding start point. Further, during welding, metal powder (sputter) that causes a short circuit jumps out from the surface or inside of the device and enters the device.

From the above, it is difficult to stabilize the welding quality, increase the speed, and reduce the cost in the conventional technology when applied to a mass production process.
Therefore, in view of the above problems, the present invention provides a case and a sealing plate for manufacturing a high-capacity, high-reliability, low-cost energy device (sealed secondary battery, electric double layer capacitor, etc.) It is an object of the present invention to provide a welding method and a welding apparatus that perform high-quality and stable welding.

In order to achieve the above object, the welding method according to the present invention has the following characteristics.
The welding method according to the present invention is a welding method in which a portion to be welded between the first member and the second member is welded by scanning with a laser beam, wherein the laser beam includes the first beam portion and the first member. A beam having a third beam portion in addition to the second beam portion, wherein the second beam portion exists inside the first beam portion and is higher than the first power density. A portion having a second power density, wherein the spot of the second beam portion is swung with respect to the scanning direction of the welding target portion, and the third beam portion is the first beam portion. And having a third power density higher than the first power density, and the second beam portion and the third beam with respect to the scanning direction of the welding target portion. Each spot with part It is swung together.

In addition, this invention may be implement | achieved as a welding apparatus shown below besides implement | achieving as a welding method.
Welding apparatus according to the present invention, the welded portion between the first member and the second member a welding apparatus for welding by scanning a laser beam, a laser oscillator for oscillating a record laser light, before Symbol comprising a diffractive optical element for converting the laser beam to the laser beam, and a control unit for controlling the movement of the pre-Symbol diffractive optical element, before Symbol laser beam, having a first beam portion and a second beam portion a beam, prior Symbol first beam portion is a portion having a first power density before Symbol second beam portion is present inside the first beam portion, and the first a portion having a second power density higher than the power density, pre-Symbol controller, the scanning direction of the welded portion, as the spot of the second beam portion is swung, the diffraction Control the movement of the optical element.

  According to the present invention, the spot of the laser beam is adjusted to the optimum intensity distribution for the formation of the keyhole even if there is a dimensional tolerance of the member, a variation in the positioning of the member, or a variation in the movement of the welding position of the apparatus. can do. For this reason, cracks, blowholes and the like are hardly generated in the welded portion, and high-quality welding can be realized. Furthermore, it is possible to realize welding with a stable melting depth and melting width.

  Also, the spot of the laser beam can be adjusted in accordance with the change in the heat capacity even for the portion where the heat capacity changes. For this reason, it is possible to suppress the occurrence of cracks, blowholes and the like in the welded portion even at the portion where the heat capacity changes, and high quality welding can be realized. Furthermore, it is possible to realize welding with a stable melting depth and melting width.

  Further, when welding the entire circumference of the case and the sealing plate, the laser beam spot can be adjusted in the vicinity of the welding start point so as not to melt even if the welded portion is reheated. For this reason, it is possible to suppress the occurrence of slight cracks in the welded portion in the vicinity of the welding start point, and it is possible to realize welding without cracks.

  From these facts, by using the present invention, a high-capacity, high-reliability, low-cost energy device (sealed secondary battery, electric double layer capacitor, etc.) can be manufactured.

The figure which shows the welding method in Embodiment 1. FIG. (A), (B) The figure which shows distribution of the power density of the laser beam in Embodiment 1 The figure which shows the time change of the surface temperature and beam intensity in the observation point in Embodiment 1. The figure which shows the time change of the surface temperature and beam intensity in the observation point by the comparative example in Embodiment 1. FIG. The figure which shows the welding method in Embodiment 2. (A), (B) The figure which shows distribution of the power density of the laser beam in Embodiment 2 The figure which shows the welding method in Embodiment 3. (A)-(C) The figure which shows the cross section of the laser beam and welding part in each point in Embodiment 3 The figure which shows the welding method in Embodiment 4. The figure which shows the welding method in the modification of Embodiment 4. The figure which shows the welding method in the modification of Embodiment 4. The figure which shows the square battery case used as the welding object by the welding method in Embodiment 4. The figure which shows the welding method in Embodiment 5. (A), (B) The figure which shows distribution of the power density of the laser beam which is scanning the curve part in Embodiment 5 The figure which shows the welding method in the modification of Embodiment 5. The figure which shows the welding method in Embodiment 6. (A)-(C) The figure which shows the cross section of the laser beam and welding part in each point in Embodiment 6 The figure which shows the welding method in the modification of Embodiment 6. FIG. The figure which shows the structure of the welding apparatus in Embodiment 7. FIG. The figure which shows the structure of the welding apparatus in Embodiment 8. FIG. The figure which shows the structure of the welding apparatus in Embodiment 9. FIG. (A), (B) The figure which shows the diffractive optical element in Embodiment 9 (A), (B) is a diagram showing a modification of the diffractive optical element in the ninth embodiment The figure which shows the scanning state in the welding start point by the conventional welding method The figure which shows the scanning state in the corner part by the conventional welding method

(Embodiment 1)
Embodiment 1 of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.
FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a welding method in the present embodiment.

  As shown in FIG. 1, in the welding method in the present embodiment, member 102 is superimposed on member 103. A laser beam 101 is irradiated on the surface of the member 102. The surface of the member 102 is scanned with the laser beam 101 in the direction of the arrow. Accordingly, a keyhole 105 is formed in the members 102 and 103 immediately below the portion irradiated with the laser beam 101 (hereinafter referred to as an irradiation point). Around the keyhole 105, a melted portion 104 in which the members 102 and 103 are melted is formed. As a result, the members 102 and 103 are welded by the laser beam 101.

  Hereinafter, the spot intensity is the beam intensity at the irradiation point. The spot diameter is the beam diameter at the irradiation point. The spot center is the position of the beam center line at the irradiation point. The spot interval is an interval between beam center lines at irradiation points. The power density is the density of the beam intensity at the irradiation point, and is a physical quantity that is proportional to the spot intensity and inversely proportional to the spot area (the square of the spot diameter).

2A and 2B are diagrams showing the power density distribution of the laser beam 101. FIG.
As shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B, the laser beam 101 is a beam having beam portions 101a and 101b. The beam portion 101b is a portion that exists inside the beam portion 101a and has a higher power density than the beam portion 101a. The spot center of the beam portion 101 b is deviated from the spot center of the laser beam 101.

  Here, focusing on a predetermined irradiation point (hereinafter referred to as an observation point), at the observation point, the beam portions 101a and 101b pass in the scanning direction in the order of the beam portion 101a, the beam portion 101b, and the beam portion 101a. To do.

  FIG. 3 is a diagram showing temporal changes in surface temperature and beam intensity at the observation point. FIG. 3 shows a change from when the laser beam 101 approaches the observation point to when it passes through the observation point. The horizontal axis is the elapsed time t, and the vertical axis is the surface temperature T and the beam intensity P.

  As shown in FIG. 3, the temperature of the observation point starts to rise immediately before the beam portion 101a reaches the observation point. When the beam portion 101a reaches the observation point after t1 seconds, the temperature at the observation point rises rapidly. When the beam portion 101b reaches the observation point after t2 seconds, the temperature of the observation point reaches the melting point Tm of the member 102 in a short time. The observation point begins to melt, and the observation point temperature gradually rises. Eventually, a keyhole 105 is formed in the portion of the members 102 and 103 immediately below the observation point.

  Furthermore, when the beam portion 101b passes through the observation point after t3 seconds, the temperature of the observation point gradually decreases. As the beam portion 101b moves, the keyhole 105 also moves. Along with this, the keyhole at the observation point is closed. The temperature of the melting part 104 is lowered to the melting point Tm, and the surface of the member 102 at the observation point is solidified. When the beam portion 101a passes the observation point after t4 seconds, the observation point is gradually cooled by natural cooling.

  That is, in the present embodiment, before the front portion of the beam portion 101b reaches the observation point, the temperature of the observation point is raised to near the melting point Tm in the beam portion 101a. As a result, when the temperature of the observation point is increased to the melting point Tm in the beam portion 101b, the temperature increase range can be reduced. Along with this, the temperature change at the observation point becomes small, so that bumping from the surface after melting can be suppressed, and the occurrence of sputtering can be greatly reduced.

  Further, in the present embodiment, after the rear part of the beam portion 101b passes through the observation point, the temperature of the observation point is gradually lowered at the beam portion 101a. Thereby, the temperature change at the time of descent can be made small. As a result, cracks, blowholes, and the like are less likely to occur at the observation point, and high-quality welding can be realized.

  In the present embodiment, a beam portion 101 b is arranged at the rear portion of the laser beam 101. For this reason, the time (t1 to t2) from when the front portion of the beam portion 101a reaches the observation point until the front portion of the beam portion 101b reaches the observation point becomes longer. Accordingly, the temperature at the observation point can be increased to near the melting point Tm.

<Example 1>
Next, an example in the present embodiment (hereinafter referred to as Example 1) will be described.

  In this embodiment, the member 102 is a metal plate made of nickel and having a thickness of 0.2 mm. The member 103 is a metal plate made of copper and having a thickness of 0.5 mm. The spot diameter of the beam portion 101a is 0.4 mm. The spot diameter of the beam portion 101b is 0.05 mm. The spot intensity of the beam portion 101a is 300W. The spot intensity of the beam portion 101b is 600W. The spot center of the beam portion 101b is shifted 0.05 mm backward from the spot center of the laser beam 101 along the scanning direction. The surface of the member 102 is continuously irradiated with the laser beam 101. The surface of the member 102 is scanned with the laser beam 101 at a scanning speed of 100 mm / second.

In this embodiment, the superposition welding of the members 102 and 103 was performed with the laser beam 101 based on these conditions.
In this case, as a result of observing the surface of the member 102 during scanning, almost no spatter was scattered from the surface of the member 102. Further, as a result of observing the welded portions (melted portion 104 after solidification) of the members 102 and 103, the welded portions were free from cracks, blowholes, etc., and the quality of the welded portions was high.

  Furthermore, as a result of performing the above superposition welding 30 times over a length of 300 mm, the weld width of the interface portion of the members 102 and 103 is all within the range of 0.3 to 0.35 mm. Was stable. Even when the back surface of the member 103 was observed, there was no evidence of penetration through the portion corresponding to the melted portion 104.

<Comparative Example 1>
Next, a comparative example of Example 1 (hereinafter referred to as Comparative Example 1) will be described.
In this comparative example, the laser beam 101 consists only of the beam portion 101b. The spot diameter of the beam portion 101b is 0.05 mm. The spot intensity of the beam portion 101b is 600W. Other than these conditions, the conditions are the same as in Example 1.

  In this case, as a result of observing the surface of the member 102 during scanning, more spatters were scattered from the surface of the member 102 than in Example 1. When the surface of the member 102 was observed after welding, a large amount of metal powder made of nickel adhered to the vicinity of the welded portion. Small blowholes were generated at several points in the weld. Small cracks were seen in the melted part.

  Furthermore, the weld width of the welded portion was in the range of 0.05 to 0.1 mm, and the weld width was narrower than that in Example 1. When the members 102 and 103 were pulled strongly, the members 102 and 103 were disconnected.

<Comparative example 2>
Next, another comparative example of Example 1 (hereinafter referred to as Comparative Example 2) will be described.
In this comparative example, the spot intensity of the beam portion 101b is 800W. Other than this condition, the conditions are the same as in Comparative Example 1.

  In this case, as a result of observing the surface of the member 102 during scanning, the amount of spatter scattered from the surface of the member 102 was larger and larger than that of the comparative example 1. When the surface of the member 102 was observed after welding, a large amount of metal powder made of nickel adhered to the vicinity of the welded portion. Blow holes were generated at several tens of welds. Cracks were seen in the melted part.

  Furthermore, the weld width of the welded portion was within the range of 0.3 to 0.4 mm, and the weld width was wider than that of Comparative Example 1. The bonding strength was also higher than that of Comparative Example 1. However, when the back surface of the member 103 was observed, the melted part was exposed at several places. Metal powder made of copper adhered to the periphery of the melted portion that was exposed.

Here, the observation results of Comparative Examples 1 and 2 are considered to be caused by the following causes.
FIG. 4 is a diagram showing temporal changes in surface temperature and beam intensity at observation points according to Comparative Examples 1 and 2. In FIG. Note that FIG. 4 shows a change from when the laser beam 101 approaches the observation point to when it passes through the observation point. The horizontal axis is the elapsed time t, and the vertical axis is the surface temperature T and the beam intensity P.

  In Comparative Examples 1 and 2, the spot diameter of the laser beam 101 (beam portion 101b) is smaller and the spot intensity of the laser beam 101 (beam portion 101b) is the same or higher than in the first embodiment. That is, in Comparative Examples 1 and 2, the power density of the laser beam 101 (beam portion 101b) is higher than that in Example 1. For this reason, as shown in FIG. 4, the temperature of the observation point hardly increases until t2 seconds. After t2 seconds, the laser beam 101 (beam portion 101b) reaches the observation point, and the temperature at the observation point rapidly increases. The temperature at the observation point rises to a very high temperature beyond the melting point. Along with this, bumping occurs at the observation point, and many large spatters are scattered. A large hole called a pit remains at a place where a large spatter is generated. After t3 seconds, the laser beam 101 (beam portion 101b) passes through the observation point, and the temperature at the observation point rapidly decreases. At the time of solidification, since the temperature decrease width is larger than that in Example 1, a crack occurs at the observation point.

(Embodiment 2)
Hereinafter, a second embodiment according to the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. In addition, about the component same as Embodiment 1, the same referential mark is attached | subjected and description is abbreviate | omitted.

FIG. 5 is a diagram showing a welding method in the present embodiment.
As shown in FIG. 5, in the welding method in the present embodiment, the end portion of member 102 and the end portion of member 103 are abutted. The laser beam 201 is applied to the butted portions of the members 102 and 103 so that the beam portions 201b and 201c are individually disposed on the members 102 and 103 with the butting surface interposed therebetween. The butted portions of the members 102 and 103 are scanned in the direction of the arrow with the laser beam 201 so that the beam portions 201b and 201c do not intersect the butting surface. As a result, the members 102 and 103 are welded by the laser beam 201.

6A and 6B are diagrams showing the power density distribution of the laser beam 201. FIG.
As shown in FIGS. 6A and 6B, the laser beam 201 is a beam having beam portions 201a, 201b, and 201c. The beam portions 201b and 201c are portions that exist inside the beam portion 201a and have a higher power density than the beam portion 201a. The centers of the beam portions 201 b and 201 c are deviated from the spot center of the laser beam 201.

  Thus, as described in the first embodiment, when the members 102 and 103 are welded, it is possible to avoid abrupt heating or abrupt cooling. For this reason, it is possible to realize high-quality welding with less spatter and cracks.

  Further, beam portions 201 b and 201 c are arranged at the rear portion of the laser beam 201. As a result, the time from t1 seconds to t2 seconds in the graph shown in FIG. 3 becomes longer. For this reason, when the temperature of the observation point is increased to the melting point Tm in the beam portions 201b and 201c, the temperature increase range can be reduced. Along with this, the temperature change at the observation point becomes small, so that bumping from the surface after melting can be suppressed, and the occurrence of sputtering can be greatly reduced.

  Further, since the beam portions 201b and 201c are not directly irradiated onto the abutting surfaces, no keyhole is formed on the abutting surfaces. Further, spatter generated near the butting surfaces does not enter between the members 102 and 103.

<Example 2>
Next, an example in the present embodiment (hereinafter referred to as Example 2) will be described.

  In the present embodiment, the member 102 is a metal plate having a thickness of 1 mm and made of high-purity aluminum No. 1050. The member 103 is a metal plate having a thickness of 1 mm made of 3003 aluminum added with Mn. The spot diameter of the beam portion 201a is 0.4 mm. Each spot diameter of the beam portions 201b and 201c is 0.05 mm. The spot intensity of the beam portion 201a is 300W. Each spot intensity of the beam portions 201b and 201c is 300W. The center of each spot of the beam portions 201b and 201c is shifted 0.05 mm rearward from the spot center of the laser beam 201 along the scanning direction. The spot interval between the beam portions 201b and 201c is 0.2 mm. The laser beam 201 is continuously irradiated on the butted surfaces of the members 102 and 103. The butted surfaces of the members 102 and 103 are scanned with the laser beam 201 at a scanning speed of 100 mm / second.

  In this example, butt welding of the members 102 and 103 was performed with the laser beam 201 based on these conditions. The spot intensities of the beam portions 201a, 201b, and 201c are the same. However, the spot diameters of the beam portions 201b and 201c are smaller than the spot diameter of the beam portion 201a. For this reason, the power densities of the beam portions 201b and 201c are higher than the power density of the beam portion 201a.

  In this case, as a result of observing the surface near the butt surface during scanning, spatter hardly scattered from the surface near the butt surface. Further, as a result of observing the welded portions (melted portion 104 after solidification) of the members 102 and 103, the welded portions were free from cracks, blowholes, etc., and the quality of the welded portions was high.

  Furthermore, as a result of performing the butt welding 30 times over a length of 300 mm, all the melt depths of the welded portions were within the range of 0.5 to 0.6 mm. The melt width of the welded portion was within the range of 0.8 to 0.9 mm. Even if there was a gap of 0.1 mm or less on the butted surfaces, the melt depth and melt width were stable.

  Moreover, as a result of performing welding by shifting the irradiation position by 0 to 0.1 mm as a test, the melting depth was stable without significantly changing the melting depth. Further, as a result of performing similar welding with the gap between the butted surfaces being 0 to 0.2 mm, the melting depth was stable without greatly changing.

(Embodiment 3)
Embodiment 3 according to the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. In addition, about the component same as Embodiment 2, the same referential mark is attached | subjected and description is abbreviate | omitted.

FIG. 7 is a diagram showing a welding method in the present embodiment.
As shown in FIG. 7, in the welding method in the present embodiment, the butted portions of the members 102 and 103 are scanned in the direction of the arrow with the laser beam 201 while the direction of the laser beam 201 is changed. At this time, the direction of the laser beam 201 is changed so that the beam portions 201b and 201c do not intersect the abutting surface.

  Here, the direction of the laser beam 201 is a direction perpendicular to the alignment direction of the beam portions 201b and 201c. By changing the direction of the laser beam 201, the spot of the laser beam 201 changes with the spot center of the laser beam 201 as the rotation center.

  In the second embodiment, when the keyhole is formed at a certain distance from the abutting surfaces of the members 102 and 103, the melting depth is stable, the bonding strength is high, and the quality is the highest. However, in practice, the ends of the members 102 and 103 are rarely processed into a complete straight line. For this reason, a gap is generated partially or entirely on the abutting surface, or the position of the abutting surface itself is shifted.

  In contrast, in the present embodiment, the abutting portions of the members 102 and 103 are scanned in the direction of the arrow with the laser beam 201 while the direction of the laser beam 201 is changed. As a result, many portions optimal for the formation of the keyhole 105 and the beam portions 201b and 201c intersect each other. Stable penetration can be obtained in the same manner as when the optimal portion for forming the keyhole 105 is scanned.

FIGS. 8A to 8C are views showing cross sections of the laser beam 201 and the welded portion at each point.
As shown in FIGS. 8A to 8C, the keyholes 105b and 105c and the melted portion 104 are abutted even if there are no gaps in the butted portions of the members 102 and 103. Formed in part. At this time, the beam portions 201b and 201c intersect with the optimal portions for forming the keyholes 105b and 105c. Accordingly, welding with a stable melt width can be realized without depending on the gap or the positional accuracy of the members 102 and 103.

  Further, since the beam portions 201b and 201c are not directly irradiated onto the abutting surfaces, no keyhole is formed on the abutting surfaces. Further, spatter generated near the butting surfaces does not enter between the members 102 and 103.

<Example 3>
Next, an example of the present embodiment (hereinafter referred to as Example 3) will be described.

  In this embodiment, the spot centers of the beam portions 201b and 201c are arranged on a line passing through the spot center of the laser beam 201 with the spot center of the laser beam 201 interposed therebetween. During scanning, the direction of the laser beam 201 periodically changes at a deflection angle of ± 30 degrees or less and a frequency of 10 Hz. Except for these conditions, the conditions are the same as in Example 2.

  In this case, as a result of performing the butt welding 30 times over a length of 300 mm, the melting depth of the welded portion was all within the range of 0.5 to 0.6 mm. The melt width of the welded portion was within the range of 0.9 to 1 mm. Even when there was a gap of 0.2 mm or less on the butted surfaces, the melt depth and melt width were stable.

  Moreover, as a result of performing welding by shifting the irradiation position by 0 to 0.15 mm as a test, the melting depth was stable without greatly changing the melting depth. Even when the back surfaces of the members 102 and 103 during scanning were observed, no spatter was observed on the back surfaces of the members 102 and 103.

  In the present embodiment, compared with the second embodiment, the allowable width with respect to the gap between the members, the laser beam irradiation position shift, and the like is large. There are no cracks or blowholes in the welded part, and the melting depth and welding width are stable. Butt welding with high quality and stable welded parts can be realized.

(Embodiment 4)
Embodiment 4 according to the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. In addition, about the component same as Embodiment 2, the same referential mark is attached | subjected and description is abbreviate | omitted.

FIG. 9 is a diagram showing a welding method in the present embodiment.
As shown in FIG. 9, the member 102 is a metal plate having a constant width. The member 103 is a metal plate composed of a wide portion 103a and a narrow portion 103b. At one end of the member 103, each end of the portions 103a and 103b is linear. At the other end of the member 103, each end of the portions 103a and 103b is uneven. The members 102 and 103 are abutted so that one end portion of the member 103 faces the end portion of the member 102. The member 103 is scanned in the order of the portion 103a and the portion 103b.

  Here, since the width of the portion 103b is narrower than that of the portion 103a, the heat capacity is smaller than that of the portion 103a. For this reason, the heat capacity of the member 103 decreases when the portion 103b is scanned. Along with this, the portion 103b is rapidly heated, and the generation of spatter is increased as compared with the scanning of the portion 103a. In the portion 103b, the melt width spreads toward the member 103 side. In some cases, in the portion 103b, the member 103 melts to the back surface, and the shape and size change. A defective product occurs in the welded material of the members 102 and 103.

  On the other hand, in the welding method in the present embodiment, the beam portion 201c sequentially moves so that the beam portion 201c approaches the abutting surface at the portion 103b where the heat capacity of the member 103 decreases. Thereby, in the part 103b, after the members 102 and 103 are melted and brought into contact with each other, the amount of heat released to the member 102 can be increased. Sputtering and melting of the end face of the member 103 can be suppressed.

  Actually, in addition to the width, the members 102 and 103 are made of the same material depending on the heat capacity of the jig itself holding the members 102 and 103 or the contact area between the members 102 and 103 and the jig. In addition, the heat capacities of the members 102 and 103 may change in the middle. Even in this case, in the welding method in the present embodiment, the beam portion 201c sequentially moves so that the beam portion 201c approaches the abutting surface at the portion where the heat capacity of the member 103 decreases.

<Modification>
10 and 11 are diagrams showing a welding method in a modification of the present embodiment.
As shown in FIG. 10, in the portion 103 b, the entire laser beam 201 may move toward the member 102 having a larger heat capacity than the member 103. Alternatively, as shown in FIG. 11, in the portion 103b, the direction of the laser beam 201 may be changed so that the beam portion 201c approaches the abutting surface. By these, the same effect as the welding method shown in FIG. 9 is acquired.

<Example 4>
Next, an example in the present embodiment (hereinafter referred to as Example 4) will be described.

FIG. 12 is a diagram showing a rectangular battery case to be welded by the welding method in the present embodiment.
As shown in FIG. 12, in this embodiment, the sealing plate 109 is a metal plate with a plate thickness of 1 mm made of high purity aluminum of 1050th. The dimension of the sealing plate 109 is 150 × 15 mm. A corner portion of the sealing plate 109 is formed in an R shape having a radius of 2 mm. The case 110 is a hollow metal body made of 3003 aluminum added with Mn. The plate thickness (dB) of the short side portion of the case 110 is larger than the plate thickness (dB) of the long side portion of the case 110. The plate thickness (dA) of the short side portion of the case 110 is 0.7 mm. The plate thickness (dB) of the long side portion of the case 110 is 0.5 mm.

  Further, the sealing plate 109 is fitted into the case 110, and one of the long side portions of the case 110 is pressed against a holding jig (not shown). A holding jig (not shown) contacts the other long side portion of the case 110, and a load is applied to the case 110 toward the sealing plate 109. Positioning and holding of the sealing plate 109 and the case 110 are performed simultaneously.

  The spot diameter of the beam portion 201a is 0.4 mm. The spot intensity of the beam portion 201a is 300W. Each spot diameter of the beam portions 201b and 201c is 0.05 mm. Each spot intensity of the beam portions 201b and 201c is 300W. The spot centers of the beam portions 201b and 201c are arranged on a line passing through the spot center of the laser beam 201 with the spot center of the laser beam 201 interposed therebetween. The spot interval between the beam portions 201b and 201c is 0.2 mm.

  The laser beam 201 is continuously applied to the abutting surface between the sealing plate 109 and the case 110. Scanning is started from the short side portion of the abutting surface, and the abutting surface between the sealing plate 109 and the case 110 is scanned by the laser beam 201 at a scanning speed of 100 mm / sec.

  At this time, the beam portion 201 a is disposed on the abutting surface between the sealing plate 109 and the case 110. A beam portion 201 b is disposed on the inner sealing plate 109. A beam portion 201 c is disposed on the outer case 110. In the short side portion of the butt surface, both the beam portions 201b and 201c are arranged at a distance of 0.1 mm from the butt surface. In the long side portion of the abutting surface, only the beam portion 201c is disposed at a distance of 0.04 mm from the abutting surface. At the corner portion of the abutting surface, the beam portion 201c sequentially moves inward by 0.06 mm when the scanning object transitions from the short side portion to the long side portion. Alternatively, when the scanning target transitions from the long side portion to the short side portion, the beam portion 201c sequentially moves outward by 0.06 mm.

  In this example, butt welding of the entire circumference of the sealing plate 109 and the case 110 was performed with the laser beam 201 based on these conditions. The spot intensities of the beam portions 201a, 201b, and 201c are the same. However, the spot diameters of the beam portions 201b and 201c are smaller than the spot diameter of the beam portion 201a. For this reason, the power densities of the beam portions 201b and 201c are higher than the power density of the beam portion 201a.

  That is, the short side portion of the case 110 corresponds to the portion 103a shown in FIG. The long side portion of the case 110 corresponds to the portion 103b shown in FIG. When the scanning object transitions from the short side portion to the long side portion, the heat capacity decreases. For this reason, in this embodiment, the beam portion 201c is sequentially moved at the corner portion of the abutting surface.

  In this case, less spatter was generated than when the beam portion 201c was not moved at the corner portion of the abutting surface. When the beam portion 201c was not moved at the corner portion of the abutting surface, the side surface of the long side portion of the case 110 was melted and expanded. However, in this example, there was no evidence of melting on the side surface of the case 101 and, of course, there was no change in the case size.

  Moreover, in the present Example, the fusion depth of the welding part was in the range of 0.5-0.6 mm. The melt width of the welded portion was within the range of 0.9 to 1 mm. In the welded portion, the melting depth and the welding width were stable.

<Example 5>
Next, another example (hereinafter referred to as Example 5) in the present embodiment will be described.

  In this embodiment, the beam portion 201c is not sequentially moved at the corner portion of the butt surface. Instead, the spot center of the laser beam 201 is arranged on the abutting surface in the short side portion of the abutting surface. In the long side portion of the butted surface, the spot center of the laser beam 201 is disposed at a position 0.05 mm away from the butted surface toward the sealing plate 109 side. At the corner portion of the abutting surface, when the scanning object transitions from the short side portion to the long side portion, the spot center of the laser beam 201 sequentially moves to a position separated by 0.05 mm from the abutting surface to the sealing plate 109 side. Alternatively, when the scanning object transitions from the long side portion to the short side portion, the scanning object sequentially moves from the position separated by 0.05 mm from the abutting surface to the sealing plate 109 side. Other than these conditions, the conditions are the same as in Example 4.

  In this case, the generation of spatter was less than when the entire laser beam 201 did not move. When the entire laser beam 201 did not move, the side surface of the long side portion of the case 110 was melted and expanded. However, in this embodiment, there was no evidence of melting on the outer side surface of the case 110 and, of course, there was no change in the case size.

<Example 6>
Next, another example (hereinafter referred to as Example 6) in the present embodiment will be described.

  In this embodiment, the beam portion 201c is not sequentially moved at the corner portion of the butt surface. Instead, the direction of the laser beam 201 is tilted by 20 degrees toward the sealing plate 109 at the corner portion of the abutting surface. Except for this condition, the conditions are the same as in Example 4.

  In this case, the occurrence of spatter was less than when the direction of the laser beam 201 did not change. When the direction of the laser beam 201 did not change, the side surface of the long side portion of the case 110 was melted and expanded. However, in this embodiment, there was no evidence of melting on the outer side surface of the case 110 and, of course, there was no change in the case size.

Note that the same result was obtained even when the direction of the laser beam 201 was tilted 20 degrees toward the case 110 when scanning the long side portion of the butted surfaces.
(Embodiment 5)
Embodiment 5 according to the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. In addition, about the component same as Embodiment 4, the same referential mark is attached | subjected and description is abbreviate | omitted.

  In Example 4, the heat capacity balance between the inner side and the outer side is lost at the curved portion (corner portion) of the abutting surface between the sealing plate 109 and the case 110. Along with this, in the inner side and the outer side, the one with the smaller heat capacity is in a state of being heated rapidly, and the occurrence of spatter is increased as compared with the scanning of the straight part (short side part, long part) of the butt surface. To do. Further, the melt width spreads to the case 110 side at the curved portion of the butt surface. In some cases, in the curved portion of the butt surface, the outer side surface of the case 110 is melted, and the shape and size change. A defective product is generated in the welded material between the sealing plate 109 and the case 110.

FIG. 13 is a diagram showing a welding method in the present embodiment.
On the other hand, in the welding method according to the present embodiment, the curved portion of the sealing plate 109 and the case 110 is scanned with the laser beam 201 so that the beam portions 201b and 201c do not intersect the abutting surface. At this time, as shown in FIG. 13, the direction of the laser beam 201 is sequentially changed so that the alignment direction of the beam portions 201b and 201c is orthogonal to the tangential direction of the curved portion.

14A and 14B are diagrams showing the power density distribution of the laser beam 201 during scanning of the curved portion.
As shown in FIG. 14, in the curved portion, the power density of the beam portion 201b is higher than the power density of the beam portion 201a. The power density of the beam portion 201c is higher than the power density of the beam portion 201b.

<Modification>
FIG. 15 is a diagram showing a welding method in a modification of the present embodiment.
Note that, in the curved portion, the entire laser beam 201 may move toward the larger heat capacity between the inside and the outside. Alternatively, as illustrated in FIG. 15, the direction of the laser beam 201 may change in the curved portion so as to be inclined inward from the tangential direction of the curved portion.

  Accordingly, in the curved portion, the beam portion 201c is positioned before the beam portion 201b. For this reason, the sealing plate 109 having a larger heat capacity than the case 110 can be heated quickly. The balance between heat input and heat dissipation is improved between the inside and outside.

  Further, even after the beam portion 201a passes, heat is conducted from the case 110 heated by the beam portion 201c to the sealing plate 109 side. For this reason, the heat input balance between the sealing plate 109 and the case 110 is improved.

<Example 7>
Next, an example (hereinafter referred to as Example 7) in the present embodiment will be described.

  In this embodiment, the beam portion 201c is not sequentially moved along the curved portion of the butt surface. Instead, only the spot intensity of the beam portion 201b is lowered from 300 W to 250 W at the curved portion of the butt surface. That is, only the power density of the beam portion 201b is lowered. Except for this condition, the conditions are the same as in Example 4.

  In this case, less spatter was generated than when the power density of the beam portion 201b was not lowered. When the power density of the beam portion 201b was not lowered, the side surface of the curved portion of the case 110 was melted and expanded. However, in this embodiment, there was no evidence of melting on the outer side surface of the case 110 and, of course, there was no change in the case size.

<Example 8>
Next, another example (hereinafter referred to as Example 8) in the present embodiment will be described.

  In this embodiment, the power density of the beam portion 201b is not lowered. Instead, the entire laser beam 201 is moved along the curved portion of the abutting surface. In the straight part of the abutting surface, the spot center of the laser beam 201 is on the abutting surface. In the curved part of the abutting surface, the spot center of the laser beam 201 is located 0.05 mm outside the abutting surface. Other than these conditions, the conditions are the same as in Example 7. It should be noted that the spot intensities of the beam portions 201b and 201c are also the same in the curved portion of the butt surface. That is, the power density of the beam portions 201b and 201c is the same even in the curved portion of the butt surface.

In this case, the generation of spatter was less than when the entire laser beam 201 did not move. Further, compared to Example 7, the occurrence of spatter was small.
When the entire laser beam 201 did not move, the side surface of the curved portion of the case 110 was melted and expanded. However, in this embodiment, there was no evidence of melting on the outer side surface of the case 110 and, of course, there was no change in the case size.

<Example 9>
Next, another example (hereinafter referred to as Example 9) in the present embodiment will be described.

  In this embodiment, the entire laser beam 201 does not move at the curved portion of the butt surface. Instead, when the curved portion is scanned, the direction of the laser beam 201 is sequentially changed so that the beam portions 201b and 201c do not intersect the abutting surface. At this time, the direction of the laser beam 201 is a straight portion along the butting surface. The direction of the laser beam 201 is a curved portion that is shifted from the tangential direction of the abutting surface to the sealing plate 109 side. Other than these conditions, the conditions are the same as in Example 8.

In this case, the occurrence of spatter was less than when the direction of the laser beam 201 did not change. Sputtering was similar to that in Example 8.
In the present embodiment, there was no evidence of melting on the outer side surface of the case 110 and, of course, there was no change in the case size.

<Summary>
As described above, in this embodiment, the behavior of the laser beam 201 at the curved portion of the abutting surface is set to any one of the following (1) to (3). Thereby, generation | occurrence | production of a sputter | spatter can be suppressed and melting | fusing of the outer side surface of case 110 can be suppressed.

(1) Decrease the spot intensity of the beam portion 201b.
(2) The spot center of the laser beam 201 is shifted outward.
(3) The direction of the laser beam 201 is tilted inward from the tangential direction of the curved portion.

In the present embodiment, any one of the above (1) to (3) has been described. However, the same effect can be obtained by combining the above (1)-(3).
(Embodiment 6)
Embodiment 6 according to the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. In addition, about the component same as Embodiment 4, the same referential mark is attached | subjected and description is abbreviate | omitted.

  In Example 4, the entire circumference of the abutting surface between the sealing plate 109 and the case 110 is welded. At this time, the welding start point of the butt surface is scanned again with the laser beam 201. For this reason, there is a problem that cracks are likely to occur at the welding start point.

  In addition, at the welding start point, since the portion once melted is melted again, the amount of heat input is increased and the melt width and the melt depth are increased as compared with other portions that are melted only once. For this reason, it is necessary to consider penetration or damage to other members.

In particular, in the case of welding the entire circumference of the butt surface, it has a direct effect on the high yield or cost reduction of the welded object depending on whether the vicinity of the welding start point can be stably welded with high quality.
FIG. 16 is a diagram showing a welding method in the present embodiment.

  As shown in FIG. 16, until the laser beam 201 returns to the welding start point, the power densities of the beam portions 201a, 201b, and 201c remain constant at the points (a), (b), and (c). It is. When the laser beam 201 returns to the welding start point, the power density of the beam portions 201b and 201c gradually decreases to the power density of the beam portion 201a while the power density of the beam portion 201a remains constant. When the laser beam 201 reaches the point (c), the power density of the beam portion 201a also decreases, and the power densities of the beam portions 201b and 201c also decrease in accordance with the power density of the beam portion 201a.

  Here, the point (a), the point (b), and the point (c) are points before and after the welding start point. The point (a) is a point behind the welding start point, and is a point where the laser beam 201 is irradiated only once. The points (b) and (c) are points in front of the welding start point, and are points where the laser beam 201 is irradiated again. Immediately after the start of welding, since it is immediately after heating, the melt width and the melt depth are unstable from the scanning start point to the point (c). The melting width and the melting depth are stabilized from the point (c). For this reason, at the point (b) between the scanning start point and the point (c), the melting width is narrower and the melting depth is shallower than at the point (c).

FIGS. 17A to 17C are views showing cross sections of the laser beam and the welded portion at each point.
At the point (a), as shown in FIG. 17A, the beam portions 201b and 201c form keyholes 105b and 105c deeper than the keyhole at the point (b) immediately after the start of welding. The beam portion 201a forms a melted portion 104 that is wider and larger than the melted portion at the point (b) immediately after the start of welding, around the keyholes 105b and 105c. Thereby, high quality and stable welding can be realized.

  At the point (b) at the time of the first irradiation, the power densities of the beam portions 201a, 201b, and 201c are the same as the power densities at the point (a). At this time, the melting part 104 at the point (b) is smaller than the melting part 104 at the point (a) and is in the middle of gradually becoming deeper and deeper.

  At the point (b) at the time of the second irradiation, the power density of the beam portion 201a is the same as the power density at the point (a). Each power density of the beam portions 201b and 201c is lower than the power density at the point (a). At this time, as shown in FIG. 17B, the welded portion 113 at the point (b) is reheated and melted. Along with this, in the welded portion 113 at the point (b), the melting width and the melting depth increase as compared with the first irradiation. Finally, the melt width and melt depth at point (b) are the same as the melt width and melt depth at point (a).

  That is, at the point (b) at the time of the second irradiation, the power densities of the beam portions 201b and 201c are lower than the power density at the point (a). Thereby, the temperature difference until the molten metal solidifies can be reduced, and high-quality welding without solidification cracking can be realized. Furthermore, since the total heat input gradually decreases, the occurrence of spatter can be suppressed.

  At the point (c) at the time of the first irradiation, the power densities of the beam portions 201a, 201b, and 201c are the same as the power densities at the point (a). At this time, the melt width and the melt depth at the point (b) are the same as the melt width and the melt depth at the point (a). At the time of the first irradiation, the melting width and the melting depth at the point (b) are sufficiently secured.

  At the point (c) at the time of the second irradiation, the power densities of the beam portions 201b and 201c are reduced to the power density of the beam portion 201a. The laser beam 201 is in the same state as that formed only by the beam portion 201a. At this time, as shown in FIG. 17C, the welded portion 113 at the point (c) is reheated, but does not reach melting. As a result, solidification cracks do not occur, and the melt width and melt depth remain constant.

  By passing through such behavior of the laser beam 201, it is possible to realize welding in which there is no crack or spatter at the welding start point, and the melt width and melt depth are constant. High quality and stable welding can be realized.

<Modification>
FIG. 18 is a diagram illustrating a welding method in a modification of the present embodiment.
For example, as shown in FIG. 18, the spot diameters of the beam portions 201b and 201c may be increased as long as the power density per unit time is decreased. Alternatively, the scanning speed may be increased. Accordingly, the same effect can be obtained by the same principle as the welding method shown in FIG.

<Example 10>
Next, an example in the present embodiment (hereinafter referred to as Example 10) will be described.

  In this embodiment, when the laser beam 201 returns to the welding start point, the spot intensities of the beam portions 201b and 201c are gradually decreased from 300W while the spot intensity of the beam portion 201a is maintained at 300W. That is, the power densities of the beam portions 201b and 201c are gradually lowered while the power density of the beam portion 201a is maintained. When the power densities of the beam portions 201b and 201c reach the power density of the beam portion 201a, the spot intensities of the beam portions 201a, 201b and 201c are simultaneously reduced to 0W. Accordingly, the power densities of the beam portions 201a, 201b, and 201c are simultaneously lowered. Other than these conditions, the conditions are the same as in Example 4.

  In this case, as a result of observing the vicinity of the welding start point, no cracks or spatters were observed near the welding start point. Moreover, as a result of measuring the melt depth near the welding start point along the scanning direction, the melt depth near the weld start point was in the range of 0.5 to 0.6 mm. As a result of measuring the melt width near the welding start point in the same manner, the melt width near the welding start point was within the range of 0.8 to 0.9 mm. High quality and stable welding was realized near the welding start point.

<Example 11>
Next, another example (hereinafter referred to as Example 11) in the present embodiment will be described.

  In this embodiment, when the laser beam 201 returns to the welding start point, the spot diameters of the beam portions 201b and 201c are gradually increased from 0.05 mm while the spot diameter of the beam portion 201a is maintained at 0.4 mm. Is done. That is, the power densities of the beam portions 201b and 201c are gradually lowered while the power density of the beam portion 201a is maintained. When the outer circumferences of the spots of the beam portions 201b and 201c reach the outer circumference of the spot of the beam portion 201a, the spot diameters of the beam portions 201a, 201b, and 201c are simultaneously increased. At this time, by changing the focal position of the laser beam 201, the spot diameter of the laser beam 201 is increased, and the spot diameters of the beam portions 201a, 201b, and 201c are simultaneously increased. Accordingly, the power densities of the beam portions 201a, 201b, and 201c are simultaneously lowered. Other than these conditions, the conditions are the same as in Example 4.

  In this case, as a result of observing the vicinity of the welding start point, no cracks or spatters were observed near the welding start point. Moreover, as a result of measuring the melt depth near the welding start point along the scanning direction, the melt depth near the weld start point was in the range of 0.5 to 0.6 mm. As a result of measuring the melt width near the welding start point in the same manner, the melt width near the welding start point was within the range of 0.8 to 0.9 mm. High quality and stable welding was realized near the welding start point.

(Embodiment 7)
Embodiment 7 according to the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. In addition, about the component same as Embodiment 1, the same referential mark is attached | subjected and description is abbreviate | omitted.

<Overview>
FIG. 19 is a diagram showing a configuration of the welding apparatus in the present embodiment.
As shown in FIG. 19, a welding apparatus 100 is an apparatus that scans and welds portions to be welded of the members 102 and 103 with a laser beam 101.

  Here, the spot of the laser beam 101 is characterized by the diffractive optical element 117. Furthermore, the spot of the laser beam 101 changes as the diffractive optical element 117 moves.

  The diffractive optical element 117 is an optical element on which a pattern is formed. The diffractive optical element 117 is arranged so that the laser beam that has been collimated by the collimator lens 116 enters the pattern. The control unit 124 controls the diffractive optical element 117 so that the pattern of the diffractive optical element 117 is displaced about the optical axis of the diffractive optical element 117.

The pattern is designed so that the laser beam converted into parallel light by the collimator lens 116 is converted into the laser beam 101.
Specifically, a pattern for converting the intensity distribution of the laser beam converted into parallel light by the collimating lens 116 into an intensity distribution like the laser beam 101 shown in the first embodiment is formed in the central portion of the diffractive optical element 117. . The diffractive optical element 117 is disposed so as to be rotatable about the center of the diffractive optical element 117 as a rotation axis.

  During the scanning of the welding target portion, the laser beam converted into parallel light by the collimator lens 116 enters the central portion of the diffractive optical element 117. At this time, when the control unit 124 controls the diffractive optical element 117 to displace the diffractive optical element 117 around the optical axis of the diffractive optical element 117, the spot of the laser beam 101 changes in conjunction with it. Accordingly, as shown in the first embodiment, the spot of the beam portion 101b oscillates with respect to the scanning direction of the welding target portion.

<Configuration>
Here, as an example, the welding apparatus 100 includes a laser oscillator 114, a fiber 115, a collimator lens 116, a diffractive optical element 117, a scanning unit 118, and a condenser lens 119.

  The laser beam continuously oscillated by the laser oscillator 114 is incident on the collimating lens 116 via the fiber 115 having a small diameter and NA (numerical aperture). The laser beam incident on the collimating lens 116 becomes parallel light.

  The laser beam converted into parallel light by the collimator lens 116 enters the diffractive optical element 117. The laser beam incident on the diffractive optical element 117 is converted so that the intensity distribution becomes the intensity distribution shown in FIGS.

  The laser beam converted by the diffractive optical element 117 is incident on a scanning unit 118 having a plurality of galvano scanners that can be driven with high accuracy and high speed. The laser beam incident on the scanning unit 118 is reflected in a direction corresponding to the scanning path.

  The laser beam reflected by the scanning unit 118 enters a condenser lens 119 that is a telecentric fθ lens. The laser beam incident on the condensing lens 119 is irradiated as a laser beam 101 to the welding target portions of the members 102 and 103.

<Supplement>
The diameter and NA (numerical aperture) of the fiber 115 are small. From this, even if the focal length of the condensing lens 119 is larger than the focal length of the collimating lens 116, the spot diameter of the laser beam 101 can be reduced. Accordingly, the distance (working distance) from the condensing lens 119 to the members 102 and 103 can be increased. For this reason, even if the protrusion 120 exists in the vicinity of the spot of the laser beam 101, the protrusion 120 does not obstruct the irradiation range of the laser beam 101.

  In addition, when the projection 120 is small or there is no projection 120, the irradiation range of the laser beam 101 is hardly limited. Therefore, in these cases, a non-telecentric fθ lens that is less expensive than a telecentric fθ lens can be used for the condenser lens 119.

  The members 102 and 103 are held by a holding jig 121 during welding. The holding jig 121 is fixed to a pedestal unit 122 that is movable in the horizontal direction. The condenser lens 119 is fixed to an elevating unit 123 that can move in the vertical direction.

<Operation>
Next, the operation of the welding apparatus 100 will be described.
The welding apparatus 100 includes a control unit 124. The control unit 124 includes information about the laser beam 101 (for example, spot diameter, spot center, spot intensity, etc.), information about the members 102 and 103 (for example, material, shape, dimensions, etc.), and information about scanning (for example, , Scanning path, scanning speed, etc.). Based on these pieces of information, the laser oscillator 114, the diffractive optical element 117, the scanning unit 118, the pedestal unit 122, and the elevating unit 123 are controlled.

  For example, the control unit 124 controls the output of the laser oscillator 114 when changing the spot intensity of the laser beam 101. When the spot of the laser beam 101 is rotated, the movement (for example, rotation, movement, etc.) of the diffractive optical element 117 is controlled. When the spot of the laser beam 101 is moved one-dimensionally or two-dimensionally, driving of the scanning unit 118 (a plurality of galvano scanners) is controlled. When the members 102 and 103 are moved, the drive of the pedestal unit 122 is controlled. When changing the spot diameter of the laser beam 101, the drive of the elevating unit 123 is controlled.

  The conditions of the laser beam 101 (for example, spot diameter, spot center, spot intensity, etc.) and scanning conditions (for example, scanning path, scanning speed, etc.) are the materials, surface states, dimensions, and holding of the members 102 and 103. It depends on the total heat capacity including the jig 121.

<Operation example>
Here, as an example, the members 102 and 103 are metal plates extending in the horizontal direction. The member 102 is superimposed on the member 103. The welding target portion is a portion where the members 102 and 103 overlap. The scanning path is a straight path that passes through the parts to be welded of the members 102 and 103.

  In the initial state, the control unit 124 controls the laser oscillator 114, the diffractive optical element 117, the scanning unit 118, the pedestal unit 122, and the lifting unit 123 so that the spot of the laser beam 101 satisfies the following condition (state A1). .

  (State A1) A beam portion 101b spot is arranged at the spot rear portion of the laser beam 101. Each spot center of the beam portions 101a and 101b is arranged along the scanning direction.

  When the laser beam 101 is used to scan the portions to be welded of the members 102 and 103, the control unit 124 controls the laser oscillator 114 and the diffractive optical element so that the spot of the laser beam 101 satisfies the following condition (state A2). 117, the scanning unit 118, the pedestal unit 122, and the lifting unit 123 are controlled.

(State A2) The alignment direction of each spot center of the beam portions 101a and 101b is aligned with the scanning direction.
Actually, there is a case where the keyhole 105 is desired to be formed at a position slightly deviated from the scanning path. Accordingly, the control unit 124 scans the laser beam 114, the diffractive optical element 117, and the scanning unit 118 so that the spot of the laser beam 101 also satisfies the following condition (state A3) during scanning of the welding target portions of the members 102 and 103. The pedestal unit 122 and the lifting unit 123 may be controlled.

  (State A3) Within the range of the rear portion of the spot of the laser beam 101, the spot of the beam portion 101b is displaced with the spot center of the laser beam 101 as the rotation center. Alternatively, the entire laser beam 101 is displaced in a direction orthogonal to the scanning direction.

<Summary>
As described above, in this embodiment, the spot of the beam portion 101b can be swung by rotating the diffractive optical element 117. Thereby, when finely adjusting the scanning path of the welding target portion, it is possible to make fine adjustment with high accuracy as compared with the case where the pedestal unit 122 is driven.

<Modification>
Note that a plurality of beam portions higher than the power density of the beam portion 101a may exist in the beam portion 101a. In addition, a beam portion that is higher than the power density of the beam portion 101a and lower than the power density of the beam portion 101b is a beam portion so as to change stepwise from the power density of the beam portion 101a to the power density of the beam portion 101b. There may be a plurality of pieces inside 101a.

(Embodiment 8)
Embodiment 8 according to the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. Note that the same components as those in the seventh embodiment are denoted by the same reference numerals and description thereof is omitted.

<Overview>
FIG. 20 is a diagram showing the configuration of the welding apparatus in the present embodiment.
As shown in FIG. 20, the welding apparatus 200 is different from the welding apparatus 100 according to the seventh embodiment in that a diffractive optical element 217 and a control unit 224 are provided instead of the diffractive optical element 117 and the control unit 124.

  The diffractive optical element 217 is an optical element on which a pattern is formed. The diffractive optical element 217 is arranged so that the laser beam that has been collimated by the collimator lens 116 enters the pattern. The control unit 224 controls the diffractive optical element 217 so that the pattern of the diffractive optical element 217 is displaced about the optical axis of the diffractive optical element 217.

The pattern is designed to convert the laser beam that has been collimated by the collimator lens 116 into a laser beam 201.
Specifically, a pattern for converting the intensity distribution of the laser beam that has been collimated by the collimator lens 116 into an intensity distribution like the laser beam 201 shown in the second, third, fifth, and sixth embodiments is the diffractive optical element 217. It is formed in the central part. The diffractive optical element 217 is disposed so as to be rotatable about the center of the diffractive optical element 217 as a rotation axis.

  During the scanning of the welding target portion, the laser beam converted into parallel light by the collimator lens 116 enters the central portion of the diffractive optical element 217. At this time, when the control unit 224 controls the diffractive optical element 217 to displace the diffractive optical element 217 around the optical axis of the diffractive optical element 217, the spot of the laser beam 201 changes in conjunction with it. Accordingly, as shown in Examples 2, 3, 5, 6 and the like, the spots of the beam portions 201b and 201c oscillate together with respect to the scanning direction of the welding target portion.

<Operation>
Next, the operation of the welding apparatus in the present embodiment will be described.
Here, as an example, the members 102 and 103 are metal plates extending in the horizontal direction. The members 102 and 103 are disposed so as to abut the end portions of the metal plate in the horizontal direction. The portions to be welded of the members 102 and 103 are end portions of the metal plates that are brought into contact with each other. The scanning path of the welding target portion is a path that follows the butted surfaces of the members 102 and 103.

  In the initial state, the control unit 224 controls the laser oscillator 114, the diffractive optical element 217, the scanning unit 118, the pedestal unit 122, and the lifting unit 123 so that the spot of the laser beam 201 satisfies the following condition (state B1). .

  (State B1) Beam portions 201b and 201c are individually arranged in the rear portion of the laser beam 201. The spot centers of the beam portions 201b and 201c are arranged along a direction orthogonal to the scanning direction of the welding target portion. The distance between the beam portions 201b and 201c is equal to or greater than the maximum width of the gap between the members 102 and 103.

  When the control unit 224 scans the welding target portions of the members 102 and 103 with the laser beam 201, the laser oscillator 114, the diffractive optical element so that the spot of the laser beam 201 satisfies the following condition (state B2). 217, the scanning unit 118, the pedestal unit 122, and the lifting unit 123 are controlled.

  (State B2) The spot of the beam portion 201b is arranged on the member 102. The spot of the beam portion 201 c is disposed on the member 103. The alignment direction of each spot center of the beam portions 201b and 201c is aligned with the direction orthogonal to the scanning direction.

In practice, there is a gap between the end of the member 102 and the end of the member 103. The gap is not constant and may be wide or narrow depending on the location.
Therefore, the control unit 224 may control the laser oscillator 114, the diffractive optical element 217, the scanning unit 118, the pedestal unit 122, and the lifting unit 123 so that the spot of the laser beam 201 also satisfies the following condition (state B3). Good.

  (State B3) The spot of the beam portion 201b does not protrude from the member 102. The spot of the beam portion 201 c does not protrude from the member 103. At this time, the spots of the beam portions 201b and 201c are displaced with the center of the spot of the laser beam 201 as the rotation center while maintaining the distance between the beam portions 201b and 201c. Alternatively, the spot of the laser beam 201 is displaced in a direction orthogonal to the scanning direction of the welding target portion.

<Summary>
As described above, in the present embodiment, the spots of the beam portions 201b and 201c are individually arranged on the members 102 and 103 with the butting surfaces of the members 102 and 103 interposed therebetween. The spots of the beam portions 201b and 201c are displaced so that the spot of the beam portion 201b does not protrude from the member 102 and the spot of the beam portion 201c does not protrude from the member 103.

  Thereby, the variation in the distance from the end surface of the member 102 to the keyhole 105b can be suppressed. Similarly, variation in the distance from the end surface of the member 103 to the keyhole 105c can be suppressed. Accordingly, the beam portions 201b and 201c can follow the optimum path for forming the keyholes 105b and 105c.

  Further, the beam portions 201b and 201c are not arranged in the gap between the members 102 and 103. Therefore, the beam portions 201b and 201c do not enter the gap between the members 102 and 103.

  Further, depending on the width of the gap between the members 102 and 103, the beam portions 201b and 201c can be separated from the abutting surface or brought close to the abutting surface. Thereby, it is possible to make it difficult for the spatter to enter from the gap between the members 102 and 103.

From the above, the welding apparatus 200 is optimal for welding devices such as a sealed secondary battery and an electric double layer capacitor.
<Modification>
Note that a plurality of beam portions 201b may exist inside the beam portion 201a so that each spot of the plurality of beam portions 201b is disposed on the member 102. Further, a plurality of beam portions 201c may exist inside the beam portion 201a so that each spot of the plurality of beam portions 201c is arranged on the member 103.

(Embodiment 9)
Embodiment 9 according to the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. In addition, about the component same as Embodiment 8, the same referential mark is attached | subjected and description is abbreviate | omitted.

<Overview>
FIG. 21 is a diagram showing a configuration of the welding apparatus in the present embodiment.
As shown in FIG. 21, welding apparatus 300 is different from welding apparatus 200 in Embodiment 8 in that diffractive optical element 317 and control unit 324 are provided instead of diffractive optical element 217 and control unit 224.

  The diffractive optical element 317 is an optical element in which a pattern group is formed. The diffractive optical element 317 is arranged so that the laser beam that has been collimated by the collimator lens 116 enters one of the plurality of pattern groups. The control unit 324 controls the diffractive optical element 317 so as to switch the pattern on which the laser beam is incident from the pattern group of the diffractive optical element 317.

22A and 22B are diagrams showing the diffractive optical element 317. FIG.
As shown in FIGS. 22A and 22B, the pattern group (pattern portions 317a, 317b,...) Is designed so that the laser beam 201 changes stepwise. Each pattern is designed so that the laser beam converted into parallel light by the collimating lens 116 is converted into a laser beam 201 at each stage.

  Specifically, the intensity distribution of the laser beam that has been collimated by the collimator lens 116 is gradually changed to the behavior of the intensity distribution like the laser beam 201 shown in the fourth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh embodiments. A pattern group to be converted is formed on the outer peripheral portion of the diffractive optical element 317. The diffractive optical element 217 is arranged so as to be rotatable about the center of the diffractive optical element 317 as a rotation axis.

  During the scanning of the welding target portion, the laser beam converted into parallel light by the collimator lens 116 enters the outer peripheral portion of the diffractive optical element 317. At this time, when the control unit 324 controls and rotates the diffractive optical element 317, the spot of the laser beam 201 changes stepwise. Accordingly, as shown in Examples 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, etc., at least one spot center, spot intensity, spot diameter, etc. of the beam portions 201b, 201c change.

FIG. 23A and FIG. 23B are diagrams showing modifications of the diffractive optical element.
Instead of being formed on the outer peripheral portion of the diffractive optical element 317, the pattern group is formed on the diffractive optical element 317 in one or two rows as shown in FIGS. 23 (A) and 23 (B). It may be. In this case, the control portion 314 moves the diffractive optical element 317 in one or two dimensions instead of rotating the diffractive optical element 317.

(Other)
The members 102 and 103 are not particularly limited as long as they can be welded. The members 102 and 103 may be the same type or different types. The dimensions of the members 102 and 103 may be the same or different.

  In addition, this invention is not limited to Embodiment 1-9, What combined the embodiment is also included. Furthermore, modifications within the scope of the present invention are also included within the scope of the present invention.

  The present invention is a welding method and welding apparatus for welding two members with a laser beam, and in particular, even if there are gaps, curved portions, double scanning portions, etc. in the scanning path of the welding target portion of the two members, It can be used as a welding method and apparatus capable of stable welding at low cost, high quality, and is optimal for welding devices such as sealed secondary batteries and electric double layer capacitors.

51 Case 51a Corner portion 51b Linear portion 52 Sealing plate 53 Butting portion 100 Welding apparatus 101 Laser beam 101a, 101b Beam portion 102, 103 Member 104 Melting portion 105 Keyhole 105b, 105c Keyhole 109 Sealing plate 110 Case 113 Welding portion 114 Laser Oscillator 115 Fiber 116 Collimating lens 117 Diffractive optical element 118 Scanning unit 119 Condensing lens 120 Protrusion 121 Holding jig 122 Base unit 123 Lifting unit 124 Control unit 201 Laser beam 201a, 201b, 201c Beam part 217 Diffractive optical element 224 Control unit 317 Diffractive optical element 317a, 317b Pattern portion 324 Control unit

Claims (10)

  1. A welding method in which a welding target portion between a first member and a second member is welded by scanning with a laser beam,
    The laser beam is a beam having a third beam portion in addition to the first beam portion and the second beam portion;
    The first beam portion is a portion having a first power density;
    The second beam portion is a portion present inside the first beam portion and having a second power density higher than the first power density;
    The spot of the second beam portion is swung with respect to the scanning direction of the welding target portion.
    With
    The third beam portion is a portion present inside the first beam portion and having a third power density higher than the first power density;
    To the scanning direction of the welded portion, welding how to said swinging the respective spots of the second beam portion and the third beam portion together.
  2. The welding target portion is a portion where the first member and the second member are butted together,
    Irradiating the portion to be welded with the laser beam such that the spot of the second beam portion is disposed on the first member and the spot of the third beam portion is disposed on the second member;
    The second beam portion from the first member and the third beam portion from the second member do not protrude from the first member along the abutting surface of the second member. The welding method according to claim 1 , wherein the portion to be welded is scanned with the laser beam.
  3. A scanning direction of the welding target portion is a direction orthogonal to an alignment direction of the second beam portion and the third beam portion;
    The at least one spot of the second beam portion and the third beam portion is displaced in the alignment direction in accordance with a change in heat capacity between the first member and the second member. The welding method according to claim 1 .
  4. A scanning direction of the welding target portion is a direction orthogonal to an alignment direction of the second beam portion and the third beam portion;
    The scanning path of the welding target part is a path having a curved part,
    When the curved portion is scanned with the laser beam, the curved portion of the second beam portion and the third beam portion is adjusted so that the scanning direction of the welding target portion matches the tangential direction of the curved portion. 2. The welding method according to claim 1 , wherein a power density located inside the portion is made lower than a power density located outside the curved portion.
  5. A scanning direction of the welding target portion is a direction orthogonal to an alignment direction of the second beam portion and the third beam portion;
    The scanning path of the welding target part is a path having a curved part,
    The welding method according to claim 1 , wherein when the curved portion is scanned with the laser beam, the scanning direction of the welding target portion is shifted from the tangential direction of the curved portion to the inside of the curved portion.
  6. The scanning path of the welding target portion is a closed path that returns to the scanning start point,
    When the laser beam returns to the scanning start point, while maintaining the spot intensity of the first beam part, gradually reduce the spot intensity of the second beam part and the third beam part,
    When each power density of the second beam portion and the third beam portion is reduced to the first power density, the first beam portion, the second beam portion, and the third beam portion 2. The welding method according to claim 1 , wherein the spot intensities are simultaneously reduced.
  7. The scanning path of the welding target portion is a closed path that returns to the scanning start point,
    When the laser beam returns to the scanning start point, while maintaining the spot diameter of the first beam portion, gradually increasing the spot diameter of the second beam portion and the third beam portion,
    When the outer periphery of each spot of the second beam portion and the third beam portion reaches the outer periphery of the spot of the first beam portion, the first beam portion, the second beam portion, and the third beam portion The welding method according to claim 1 , wherein each spot diameter with the beam portion is simultaneously increased.
  8. A welding device that scans and welds a portion to be welded between a first member and a second member with a laser beam,
    A laser oscillator that oscillates laser light;
    A diffractive optical element that converts the laser light into the laser beam;
    A control unit for controlling the movement of the diffractive optical element,
    The laser beam is a beam having a first beam portion and a second beam portion;
    The first beam portion is a portion having a first power density;
    The second beam portion is a portion that exists inside the first beam portion and has a second power density higher than the first power density;
    The welding apparatus, wherein the control unit controls movement of the diffractive optical element so that a spot of the second beam portion swings with respect to a scanning direction of the welding target portion.
  9. A pattern for converting the laser light into the laser beam is formed on the diffractive optical element,
    The diffractive optical element is arranged so that the laser beam is incident on the pattern,
    The welding apparatus according to claim 8 , wherein the control unit controls the diffractive optical element so as to displace the pattern about the optical axis of the diffractive optical element.
  10. A pattern group for stepwise converting the laser light into the behavior of the laser beam is formed in the diffractive optical element,
    The diffractive optical element is arranged so that the laser beam is incident on any pattern of the pattern group,
    The welding apparatus according to claim 8 , wherein the control unit controls the movement of the diffractive optical element so as to switch a pattern on which the laser beam is incident from the pattern group.
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