JP4992055B2 - Guided travel control device for unmanned vehicles - Google Patents

Guided travel control device for unmanned vehicles Download PDF

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JP4992055B2
JP4992055B2 JP2007155142A JP2007155142A JP4992055B2 JP 4992055 B2 JP4992055 B2 JP 4992055B2 JP 2007155142 A JP2007155142 A JP 2007155142A JP 2007155142 A JP2007155142 A JP 2007155142A JP 4992055 B2 JP4992055 B2 JP 4992055B2
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unmanned vehicle
target
width
vehicle
target speed
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JP2008065808A (en
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章治 西嶋
次男 須藤
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株式会社小松製作所
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  The present invention relates to an unmanned vehicle guided travel control device, and more particularly to an apparatus for guiding an unmanned vehicle at a target speed along a target travel course so that a guidance error between the target travel course and the current position of the unmanned vehicle is eliminated. .

  In wide-area work sites such as crushed stone sites and mines, unmanned vehicles, that is, unmanned dump trucks are run when carrying out sediment transport operations. As shown in FIG. 1, the unmanned vehicle 10 feeds back a guidance error ΔP between the target position Q on the target travel course 70 and the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10 so that the guidance error ΔP becomes zero. Guided traveling is performed at the target speed V along the target traveling course 70. The unmanned vehicle 10 is guided to travel by automatically controlling the steering mechanism and the traveling mechanism.

The wide-area work site is usually rough terrain, and the runway width 80 in which the unmanned vehicle 10 can travel is narrowed or widened depending on the location. Outside the boundary line 81 of the road width 80 is an area where the unmanned vehicle 10 cannot travel, such as a road shoulder, a cliff, and a facing lane.

When the unmanned vehicle 10 is guided and controlled, an error in control and an error due to wheel slip occur. For this reason, the induction error ΔP is unavoidable.

In general, it is known that the guidance error ΔP tends to increase as the target speed V is increased and the guidance speed of the unmanned vehicle 10 is increased. For this reason, the target speed V cannot be increased to a speed at which the unmanned vehicle 10 may protrude from the runway width 80.

Therefore, conventionally, the target speed V has been set on the basis of the place where the traveling road width 80 is the narrowest in the traveling road of the unmanned vehicle 10. That is, the target speed V is set at a low level where the unmanned vehicle 10 does not protrude from the runway width 80 even in the place where the runway width 80 becomes the narrowest.

In addition, the guideable width 90 was set in accordance with the width of the place where the runway width 80 becomes the narrowest. The unmanned vehicle 10 is guided and controlled within the range of the guideable width 90.

While the unmanned vehicle 10 is guided in the guideable width 90, the guide error ΔP between the target position Q on the target travel course 70 and the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10 exceeds a certain level, and the boundary line of the guideable width 90 When approaching 91, speed control such as decelerating or stopping the unmanned vehicle 10 is performed. As a result, the unmanned vehicle 10 is prevented from protruding the guideable width 90 and approaching the boundary line 81 of the runway width 80.

  In a wide-area work site, there is a demand for improving the efficiency of earth and sand transport work by increasing the speed of unmanned vehicles.

  The present invention has been made in view of such circumstances, and an object of the present invention is to improve work efficiency by increasing the guiding speed while preventing unmanned vehicles from protruding from the width of the road.

  According to the first invention, as shown in FIG. 2, a distance d from a current point Q on the target traveling course 70 to a travelable boundary line 81 indicating a boundary of a travel path width 80 where the unmanned vehicle 10 can travel. The larger the is, the larger the target speed V of the unmanned vehicle 10 is set. The unmanned vehicle 10 is guided to travel along the target travel course 70 so that the set target speed V is obtained.

For this reason, in the place where the runway width 80 is narrow, the low target speed V1 is set and the unmanned vehicle 10 travels at a low guide speed, so that it is prevented from protruding from the runway width 80 as in the past. In a place where the runway width 80 is wide, the high target speed V2 is set and the unmanned vehicle 10 travels at a high guidance speed. Even if the guidance speed increases at a place where the runway width 80 is wide and the guidance error increases accordingly, the unmanned vehicle 10 does not protrude from the runway width 80 because the runway width 80 is wide. Since the unmanned vehicle 10 can travel at a higher guidance speed as the travel path width 80 is wider, the working efficiency is improved as compared with the conventional case.

According to the second invention, as shown in FIG. 3, a distance d from a current point Q on the target traveling course 70 to a travelable boundary line 81 indicating a boundary of a travel path width 80 where the unmanned vehicle 10 can travel. The larger the is, the larger the guideable width 90 is set. Then, the target speed V is set so that the target speed V of the unmanned vehicle 10 increases as the guideable width 90 increases. And
The unmanned vehicle 10 is guided to travel along the target travel course 70 so that the set target speed V is obtained.

For this reason, since the unmanned vehicle 10 can travel at a higher guidance speed as the travel path width 80 is wider, the work efficiency is improved as compared with the conventional invention. Furthermore, the wider the runway width 80, the wider the guideable width 90, and the wider the width in which the unmanned vehicle 10 is guided and controlled.

According to the third invention, as shown in FIGS. 7C and 7D, the target speed V of the unmanned vehicle 10 increases as the distance ε from the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10 to the guideable boundary 91 increases. The target speed V of the unmanned vehicle 10 decreases as the distance ε from the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10 to the guideable boundary 91 decreases. For this reason, when the place where the runway width 80 is wide is compared with the narrow place, the unmanned vehicle 10 is traveling with a deviation from the target travel course 70 as well as the unmanned vehicle 10 traveling without a guidance error. Even in this case, if the deviation amount ΔP is the same, a higher target speed V is set when traveling in a place where the road width 80 is wider than when traveling in a narrow place, Drive at a higher induction speed.

In this way, as the traveling road width 80 (guideable width 90) becomes wider, a higher target speed V is set, and the unmanned vehicle 10 travels at a higher guidance speed, so that work efficiency is improved. In addition, as the positional deviation from the target traveling course 70 increases and approaches the boundary 91 of the guideable width 90, the target speed V decreases and the vehicle 10 travels at a lower guide speed. It is prevented that it protrudes and approaches the boundary line 81 of the runway width 80.

According to the fourth aspect of the invention, as shown in FIG. 4, the unmanned vehicle 10 travels face-to-face along a travel path 60 that includes adjacent reciprocating lanes 61 and 62. When it is determined that the vehicle 10 ′ in the facing lane 62 has approached the unmanned vehicle 10, the target speed V of the unmanned vehicle 10 is reduced and the vehicle travels at a lower guidance speed. As a result, the danger of interference with the vehicle 10 'traveling in a face-to-face manner is prevented, and the guided traveling can be performed more safely.

  DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS Embodiments of an unmanned vehicle guided travel control apparatus according to the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. In the present embodiment, a dump truck is assumed as the unmanned vehicle.

FIG. 3A and FIG. 4 are top views of a traveling path 60 on which the unmanned vehicle 10 travels.

FIG. 3A shows a case where the unmanned vehicle 10 travels on the travel path 60 of a single lane. FIG. 4 shows a case where the unmanned vehicles 10, 10 ′ travel in a face-to-face manner along a travel path 60 having adjacent round-trip lanes 61, 62.

FIG. 11 shows the positional relationship of each component when the embodiment apparatus is applied to a wide-area work site such as an unmanned crushed stone site or a mine.

In a wide-area work site, a loading field 61, a dumping field 62, a traveling path 60 connecting the loading field 61 and the dumping field 62, and a work vehicle 11 for loading work existing in the loading field 61. And managing and monitoring the work vehicle 12 for earth removal work existing in the earth removal site 62, the plurality of unmanned vehicles 10, 10 '... traveling on the traveling path 60, and the plurality of unmanned vehicles 10, 10' ... A control station 20 is arranged. A GPS (Global Positioning System) satellite 63 is flying in the sky.

In the following, the unmanned vehicle 10 will be described as a representative of the unmanned vehicles 10, 10 ′, except when it is necessary to list a plurality of unmanned vehicles 10, 10 ′.

The unmanned vehicle 10 travels on the traveling path 60 toward the earth removal site 62 when loaded at the loading site 61. The unmanned vehicle 10 travels on the traveling path 60 toward the loading place 61 when the load is discharged at the discharge place 62.

When the unmanned vehicle 10 travels on the travel path 60, the unmanned vehicle 10 is guided to travel along the target travel course 70. The unmanned vehicle 10 is trained by an operator during teaching work before actual guided travel, and the teaching work is performed to teach the target travel course 70, that is, each target position Q on the target travel course 70. In addition, you may acquire the data of the target driving | running | working course 70 by actual surveying before actual guidance driving | running | working.

In addition, before the actual guided traveling of the unmanned vehicle 10, the terrain data of the traveling path 60 is acquired in advance. The terrain data of the travel path 60 includes information on survey lines (boundary lines) of the travel path 60. The survey line of the travel path 60 is information on a boundary between a travelable area such as a shoulder of the travel path 60 and a travel impossible area. From the information of the survey line, the runway width 80 in which the unmanned vehicle 10 can travel and the boundary line 81 of the runway width 80 are obtained. The traveling road width 80 is a width from the target traveling course 70 to the left or right boundary line 81. Outside the boundary line 81 of the road width 80 is an area where the unmanned vehicle 10 cannot travel, such as a road shoulder, a cliff, and a facing lane 62.

A control station 20 that manages and monitors a plurality of unmanned vehicles 10, 10 'is provided at the work site.

In this embodiment, the target travel course 70 of each unmanned vehicle 10, 10 'is created in the control station 20, and the data of the target travel course 70 is distributed from the control station 20 to each unmanned vehicle 10, 10'. Thus, each unmanned vehicle 10, 10 ′ is guided to travel along the target travel course 70.

The unmanned vehicle 10 is guided and controlled within a guideable width 90 that is set narrower than the road width 80. The guideable width 90 is a width from the target travel course 70 to the left or right boundary line 91. The guideable width 90 is provided in order to prevent the unmanned vehicle 10 from protruding from the guideable width 90 and approaching the boundary line 81 of the traveling road width 80.

There are two methods, the case where the navigable width 90 is created by the control station 20 and the case where it is created by the unmanned vehicle 10.

FIG. 5 shows the internal configuration of the unmanned vehicle 10 and the internal configuration of the control station 20.

The control station 20 is provided with a wireless communication system 21 and a control guidance system 22. On the other hand, the unmanned vehicle 10 is provided with a vehicle control system 11, a position measurement system 12, a guidance system 13, and a wireless communication system 14.

FIG. 12 is a configuration diagram of the vehicle control system 11. 13A, 13B, and 13C are a configuration diagram of the position measurement system 12, a configuration diagram of the guidance system 13, and a configuration diagram of the wireless communication system 14, respectively.

14A and 14B are a configuration diagram of the control guidance system 22 and a configuration diagram of the wireless communication system 21, respectively.

The other unmanned vehicle 10 'has the same configuration.

In the position measurement system 12 of the unmanned vehicle 10, position information is input by the position information input device 12A, and the current position and traveling direction of the host vehicle are measured by the vehicle position measurement module 12B. As the means for measuring the position and the traveling direction, that is, the position information input device 12A, for example, GPS is used. Further, the vehicle position and the vehicle traveling direction may be measured based on an output signal of a distance meter such as a tire rotation speed sensor and an output signal of a gyro. The measurement results of the vehicle position and the vehicle traveling direction are output from the vehicle position output module 12C.

Further, the vehicle speed of the unmanned vehicle 10 is output from the vehicle position output module 12C by performing differential processing on the vehicle position.

The position and speed information input module 13A of the guidance system 13 fetches measurement data of the position and the traveling direction from the position measurement system 12 when the operator gets on the unmanned vehicle 10 during the teaching work and takes the vehicle guidance target. In the calculation module 13 </ b> B, processing for setting the measurement data of the position and the traveling direction at that time as teaching data (position and traveling direction) of the target traveling course 70 is performed. The vehicle guidance target output module 13 </ b> C of the guidance system 13 performs processing for sending teaching data to the wireless communication system 14. The transmission module 14B of the wireless communication system 14 transmits the teaching data to the wireless communication system 21 of the control station 20 by wireless communication.
When the unmanned vehicle 10 is guided to travel along the target travel course 70, the position and speed information input module 13A of the guidance system 13 receives the position P, the traveling direction, and the vehicle speed of the host vehicle 10 measured by the position measurement system 12. Are fetched every predetermined time.

The vehicle position output module 12 </ b> C of the position measurement system 12 performs a process of sending sequential data of the vehicle position P, the traveling direction, and the vehicle speed of the unmanned vehicle 10 to the wireless communication system 14. The transmission module 14 </ b> B of the wireless communication system 14 transmits the sequential data of the vehicle position P, the traveling direction, and the vehicle speed to the wireless communication system 21 of the control station 20 by wireless communication.

In the reception module 14A of the wireless communication system 14, data of the target traveling course 70 transmitted from the wireless communication device 21 of the control station 20 is received. When the controllable width 90 is created by the control station 20, the data of the guideable width 90 transmitted from the radio communication system 21 of the control station 20 is received by the reception module 14A of the radio communication system 14. .

Data of the target traveling course 70 is taken into the vehicle guidance target calculation module 13B of the guidance system 13. When the navigable width 90 is created by the control station 20, data of the navigable width 90 is also captured.

When the guideable width 90 is created by the unmanned vehicle 10, data of the guideable width 90 is created by the vehicle guidance target calculation module 13B of the guidance system 13.

In the vehicle guidance target calculation module 13B of the guidance system 13, the target speed V is set based on the data of the guideable width 90.

The vehicle guidance target output module 13 </ b> C of the guidance system 13 outputs the target travel course 70, the guideable width 90, and the target speed data, and controls the vehicle so that the own vehicle 10 is steered along the target travel course 70. Instruct the system 11. Further, the vehicle control system 11 is instructed to control the speed of the host vehicle 10 so that the target speed V is reached.

The position information and speed input module 11A of the vehicle control system 11 captures the data of the position P, the traveling direction, and the vehicle speed of the host vehicle 10 measured by the position measurement system 12 every predetermined time. The vehicle guidance target input module 11B of the vehicle control system 11 inputs data of the target traveling course 70, the guideable width 90, and the target speed from the vehicle guidance target output module 13C of the guidance system 13.

When the vehicle guidance actuator control module 11C of the vehicle control system 11 receives the steering control and speed control instructions from the guidance system 13 and inputs the data of the target traveling course 70, the guideable width 90, and the target speed, Based on the current position P of the vehicle 10, the current traveling direction, and the current vehicle speed, a traveling mechanism and a steering mechanism (not shown) are configured to cause the host vehicle 10 to travel along the target traveling course 70 at the target speed V. To control. That is, while comparing the current vehicle position P and the vehicle traveling direction of the own vehicle 10 measured by the position measurement system 12 with the target position Q and the target traveling direction of successive passing points on the target traveling course 70, A traveling command and a steering command are generated so that the vehicle 10 follows the successive passing point positions Q on the target traveling course 70 without deviation from the target position P and the target traveling direction, and the traveling mechanism unit and the steering mechanism unit Output to. Further, an acceleration / deceleration command is output to the traveling mechanism unit so that the guided speed of the unmanned vehicle 10 becomes the target speed V. As a result, the unmanned vehicle 10 is guided to travel at the target speed V along the scheduled traveling course 70. The vehicle induction actuator control module 11C drives the actuators 11E that operate the steering, brake, accelerator, and transmission based on the sensors 11D that detect the steering angle, the brake operation, the accelerator opening, the selected speed stage of the transmission, and the like. Control.

When the guided traveling along the current target traveling course 70 is completed, the vehicle control system 11 sends a message to that effect to the guiding system 13. When the data indicating that the guided travel along the current target travel course 70 has been completed is taken in, the guidance system 13 generates course request data to perform the guided travel along the next target travel course. Even in the initial state where the power of the unmanned vehicle 10 is turned on, the course request data is similarly generated. The guidance system 13 performs processing for sending the generated course request data to the wireless communication system 14. The transmission module 14 </ b> B of the wireless communication system 14 transmits the course request data to the wireless communication system 21 of the control station 20 by wireless communication. The course request data is provided with a code for identifying the vehicle (unmanned vehicle 10, 10 ') that requested the course.

Next, the control station 20 side will be described.

In the reception module 21A of the wireless communication system 21 of the control station 20, data transmitted from the wireless communication system 14 on the unmanned vehicle 10 side is received. The received data is sent to the control guidance system 22.

The control guidance system 22 includes a vehicle guidance control module 22A. The vehicle guidance control module 22A mainly includes an unmanned vehicle guidance permission calculation module 22C and an unmanned vehicle guidance width calculation module 22B. The unmanned vehicle guidance permission calculation module 22 </ b> C is provided for calculating a target travel course 70 that permits the unmanned vehicle 10 to travel. The unmanned vehicle guidance width calculation module 22 </ b> B is provided for calculating the guideable width 90 of the unmanned vehicle 10.

In the vehicle position and speed input module 22D of the unmanned vehicle guidance permission calculation module 22C, data on the vehicle position P and the traveling direction and the vehicle speed of the unmanned vehicle 10, teaching data of the unmanned vehicle 10, and course requests from the unmanned vehicle 10 are received. Data is captured in the vehicle position and speed input module 22C of the control guidance system 22.

Further, the boundary area input module 22E of the unmanned vehicle guidance permission calculation module 22C takes in the terrain data of the traveling road 60, that is, the survey line information of the traveling road 60, from the database.

The vehicle position and speed input module 22G of the unmanned vehicle guidance permission calculation module 22C captures the position and vehicle speed data of the manned vehicle in the wide area work site. In the manned vehicle interference area calculation module 22F of the unmanned vehicle guidance permission calculation module 22C, a manned vehicle interference area in which guided driving of the unmanned vehicle 10 is not permitted is calculated based on the position and vehicle speed of the manned vehicle. The manned vehicle interference area calculation module 22F is provided to prevent the unmanned vehicle 10 from interfering with the manned vehicle 10 by not permitting the unmanned vehicle 10 to enter the manned vehicle interference area.

When the data of the course request from the unmanned vehicle 10 side is taken into the unmanned vehicle guidance permission calculation module 22C, the teaching data, the current vehicle position P and the current traveling direction and the current vehicle speed of the unmanned vehicle 10, and the travel path Based on the 60 terrain data (survey line information) and the manned vehicle interference area, the current target traveling course 70 that permits the guided traveling of the unmanned vehicle 10 that requested the course is generated.

The generated data of the target traveling course 70 is sent to the wireless communication system 21. The transmission module 21B of the wireless communication system 21 transmits the data of the target traveling course 70 toward the wireless communication system 14 of the unmanned vehicle 10 that is the course request source.

When the guideable width 90 is created by the control station 20, the vehicle position P and vehicle speed data of the unmanned vehicle 10 are taken into the vehicle position and speed input module 22H of the unmanned vehicle guidance width calculation module 22B. The boundary area input module 22I of the unmanned vehicle guidance width calculation module 22B receives the terrain data of the travel path 60, that is, the survey line information of the travel path 60, from the database.

In the unmanned vehicle guidance width calculation module 22B, a guideable width 90 is created based on the current position P and the current vehicle speed of the unmanned vehicle 10 and the topographic data (survey line information) of the travel path 60. The data of the guideable width 90 is transmitted to the wireless communication system 21. The transmission module 21 </ b> B of the wireless communication system 21 transmits the data having the guideable width 90 toward the wireless communication system 14 of the unmanned vehicle 10.

When the guideable width 90 is created by the unmanned vehicle 10, the terrain data of the travel path 60 is sent to the wireless communication system 14 of the unmanned vehicle 10 via the wireless communication system 21.

As shown in FIG. 4, when the unmanned vehicle 10 is traveling on a facing road 60, information on the current position of the unmanned vehicle 10 ′ traveling on the facing lane 62 is obtained from the wireless communication system 21. To the wireless communication system 14 of the unmanned vehicle 10.

Hereinafter, each embodiment will be described with reference to each flowchart.

(First embodiment: When the controllable station 20 creates a guideable width 90)
In the present embodiment, it is assumed that the navigable width 90 is created by the control station 20.

  FIG. 6 is a flowchart showing the processing procedure of the first embodiment.

  FIG. 6A shows processing performed in the unmanned vehicle 10, and FIG. 6B shows processing performed in the control station 20.

  The control station 20 reads the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10, the target travel course 70, and the terrain data (survey line information) of the travel path 60 (step 106).

Next, a guideable width 90 is set based on the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10, the target travel course 70, and the topographic data (survey line information) of the travel path 60.

  The control station 20 determines which target point Q the unmanned vehicle 10 is traveling on the target traveling course 70 from the data of the current position P sent from the unmanned vehicle 10. Therefore, as shown in FIG. 3A, the guideable width 90 is set to be larger as the distance d from the current point Q on the target travel course 70 to the travelable boundary 81 increases. For example, when the current point on the target travel course 70 is Q1, the travel width 80 is narrow, so the distance d1 to the travelable boundary line 81 is small, and a narrow guideable width 90 is set. Is done. On the other hand, when the current point on the target traveling course 70 is Q2, since the traveling road width 80 is wide, the distance d2 to the travelable boundary line 81 is small, and the guide width is large. 90 is set. The guideable width 90 is created every time the unmanned vehicle 10 travels the target travel course 70 for a certain section (step 107).

  Details of the process of creating the navigable width 90 are shown in FIG. This process corresponds to steps 106 and 107 described above.

  The current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10, the target travel course 70, and the terrain data (survey line information) of the travel path 60 are read out. The initial value of the guideable width 90 is stored in advance, and the initial value of the guideable width 90 is read (step 301).

From the data of the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10, it is determined which target point Q on the target travel course 70 the unmanned vehicle 10 is traveling. As shown in FIG. 3A, the current point Q on the target travel course 70 and the travelable boundary line 81 are compared, and the current point Q on the target travel course 70 to the travelable boundary line 81 is compared. A distance d is determined. The process for obtaining the distance d is performed every time the unmanned vehicle 10 travels in a certain section. (N) The distance d obtained this time is defined as dn (step 302).

  Next, the distance dn obtained this time is compared with the distance dn-1 obtained last time, and the difference Δd is obtained. Whether the distance dn obtained this time is larger than the distance dn-1 obtained last time. It is determined whether or not. FIG. 7A shows the relationship between the distance difference Δd and the increase / decrease amount ΔS that increases or decreases the guideable width 90 (step 303).

When the distance dn determined this time is larger than the distance dn-1 determined last time (determination YES in step 303), the current guideable width 90 is compared with the current guideable width 90 by the amount ΔS corresponding to the distance difference Δd. The guideable width 90 is set so as to widen the guideable width 90. For example, as shown in FIG. 3B, when the initial value of the guideable width 90 is S0, the value S1 of the first guideable width 90 for the first time is set to S0 + ΔS. If the value of the navigable width 90 of the previous n-1 was Sn-1, the value Sn of the navigable width 90 of the current n is set to Sn-1 + ΔS (step 304).

When the distance dn obtained this time is smaller than the distance dn-1 obtained last time (determination NO in step 303), the current guideable width 90 is compared with the current guideable width 90 by the amount ΔS corresponding to the distance difference Δd. The guideable width 90 is set so that the guideable width 90 is narrowed. For example, when the initial value of the guideable width 90 is S0, the value S1 of the first guideable width 90 is set to S0−ΔS. If the value of the guideable width 90 of the previous n-1 is Sn-1, the value Sn of the guideable width 90 of the current n is set to Sn-1-ΔS (step 305).

Information on the created guideable width 90 and the target travel course 70 is transmitted from the control station 20 to the unmanned vehicle 10 (step 108).

  In the unmanned vehicle 10, information on the guideable width 90 and the target travel course 70 is received, and information on the guideable width 90 and the target travel course 70 is read out. Further, data of the current position P of the own vehicle 10 is read (step 101).

Next, the target speed V of the unmanned vehicle 10 is set based on the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10, the data of the target travel course 70, and the guideable width 90. The target speed V is set so that the target speed V of the unmanned vehicle 10 increases as the guideable width 90 increases. For example, as shown in FIG. 3A or 4, when the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10 is P1 and the point Q1 on the target travel course 70 is the target position, a narrow guideable width 90 is obtained. Is set. Therefore, a low target speed V1 is set corresponding to the narrow guideable width 90. On the other hand, when the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10 is P2 and the point Q2 on the target travel course 70 is the target position, a wide guideable width 90 is set. Therefore, a high target speed V2 is set corresponding to the wide guideable width 90 (step 102).

Details of the processing for setting the target speed V are shown in FIG. This process corresponds to step 102 described above.

In the unmanned vehicle 10, the current position P of the host vehicle 10, the data of the target traveling course 70, and the guideable width 90 are read out. The initial value of the target speed V is stored in advance and read (step 401).

Next, a guidance error ΔP between the target position Q and the current position P is calculated, and a distance ε from the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10 to the guideable boundary line 91 is calculated.

The process for obtaining the distance ε is performed every time the unmanned vehicle 10 travels in a certain section. This time (n) the obtained distance ε is εn ((step 402)).

  Next, the distance εn obtained this time is compared with the distance εn-1 obtained last time, and the difference Δε is obtained. Is the distance εn obtained this time larger than the distance εn-1 obtained last time? It is determined whether or not. FIG. 7C shows the relationship between the distance difference Δε and the increase / decrease amount ΔV that increases or decreases the target speed V (step 403).

When the distance εn obtained this time is larger than the distance εn-1 obtained last time (determination YES in step 403), the current target speed V with respect to the previous target speed V by the amount ΔV corresponding to the distance difference Δε. The target speed V is set so that the speed V is high. For example, when the previous value of the target speed V is V1, the current target speed V2 is set to V1 + ΔV (step 404).

When the distance εn obtained this time is smaller than the distance εn-1 obtained last time (determination NO in step 403), the current target speed V with respect to the previous target speed V by the amount ΔV corresponding to the distance difference Δd. The speed V becomes low. For example, when the previous value of the target speed V is V1 ′, the current target speed V2 ′ is set to V1′−ΔV (step 405).

  FIG. 7C shows the distribution of the size of the target speed V1 that is set when the narrow guideable width 90 is set, corresponding to the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10. Assuming that the unmanned vehicle 10 is positioned without deviation to the target point Q1, the distance ε to the boundary 91 of the guideable width 90 is the maximum, and the maximum target speed V1max is set. When the unmanned vehicle 10 deviates from the target point Q1, as the guidance error ΔP, which is the deviation amount, increases, that is, as the distance ε from the current position P to the boundary 91 of the guideable width 90 decreases, The target speed V1 gradually decreases. When the amount of deviation from the target point Q1 becomes maximum and the distance ε from the current position P to the boundary line 91 of the guideable width 90 becomes 0, the minimum target speed V1min is set.

FIG. 7C shows the distribution of the size of the target speed V2 that is set when the wide guideable width 90 is set, corresponding to the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10. Similarly, it changes in the range from the maximum target speed V2max to the minimum target speed V2min according to the magnitude of the distance ε from the current position P to the boundary line 91 of the guideable width 90.

As can be seen from FIGS. 7C and 7D, the target speed V of the unmanned vehicle 10 increases as the distance ε from the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10 to the guideable boundary 91 increases. The target speed V of the unmanned vehicle 10 decreases as the distance ε from the current position P to the guideable boundary 91 decreases. When a place where the runway width 80 (guideable width 90) is wide is compared with a narrow place, if the unmanned vehicle 10 is running without a guidance error, the vehicle travels in a place where the runway width 80 (guideable width 90) is wide. A higher target speed V is set (V2max> V1max) than when traveling in a narrower place (FIG. 7 (d)) when traveling (FIG. 7 (d)). Further, even when the unmanned vehicle 10 is traveling away from the target traveling course 70, if the displacement amount ΔP is the same, the vehicle 10 is traveling in a place where the traveling road width 80 (inducible width 90) is wide ( In FIG. 7D, a higher target speed V is set (V2> V1) than when traveling in a narrow place (FIG. 7C).

  Next, it is determined whether or not the unmanned vehicle 10 ′ in the facing lane 62 is approaching. This determination is made by comparing information on the current position of the unmanned vehicle 10 ′ on the facing lane 62 sent from the control station 20 with information on the current position P of the host vehicle 10.

  In addition, when the radio | wireless communications system between vehicles is mounted in each vehicle 10, 10 ', position information is directly transmitted / received between vehicles 10, 10', and the positional information on other vehicle 10 'acquired is acquired. The comparison and determination may be performed based on the above (step 103).

As a result, as shown in FIG. 4, when it is determined that the unmanned vehicle 10 traveling in the lane 61 has approached another unmanned vehicle 10 ′ traveling in the adjacent facing lane 62 (step 103). YES), the target speed V set in step 102 is changed to a speed subtracted by a predetermined amount. Then, the unmanned vehicle 10 is guided to travel along the target travel course 70 so that the changed target speed V is obtained (step 104).

If it is not determined that the unmanned vehicle 10 traveling in the lane 61 is approaching another unmanned vehicle 10 ′ traveling in the adjacent facing lane 62 (determination in step 103). NO), the unmanned vehicle 10 is guided to travel along the target travel course 70 so that the target speed V set in step 102 is obtained (step 105).

As described above, according to the present embodiment, in a place where the road width 80 is narrow, the low target speed V1 is set and the unmanned vehicle 10 is driven at a low guidance speed. It is prevented. In a place where the runway width 80 is wide, the high target speed V2 is set and the unmanned vehicle 10 travels at a high guidance speed. The unmanned vehicle 10 does not protrude from the runway width 80 even if the guidance speed increases at a place where the runway width 80 is wide and the guidance error ΔP increases accordingly. Since the unmanned vehicle 10 can travel at a higher guidance speed as the travel path width 80 is wider, the working efficiency is improved as compared with the conventional case.

Furthermore, according to the present embodiment, the wider the runway width 80, the wider the guideable width 90, and the wider the range in which the unmanned vehicle 10 is guided and controlled.

Further, according to the present embodiment, as shown in FIGS. 7C and 7D, the target of the unmanned vehicle 10 increases as the distance ε from the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10 to the guideable boundary 91 increases. The target speed V of the unmanned vehicle 10 decreases as the speed V increases and the distance ε from the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10 to the guideable boundary 91 decreases. For this reason, when comparing the place where the runway width 80 (guideable width 90) is wide with the narrow place, the unmanned vehicle 10 is traveling from the target travel course 70 as well as the unmanned vehicle 10 traveling without a guidance error. Even when the vehicle is traveling with a deviation, if the deviation amount ΔP is the same, the vehicle is traveling in a place where the road width 80 (guideable width 90) is wider than when traveling in a narrow place. Also, a higher target speed V is set and the vehicle travels at a higher induction speed.

In this way, as the traveling road width 80 (guideable width 90) becomes wider, a higher target speed V is set, and the unmanned vehicle 10 travels at a higher guidance speed, so that work efficiency is improved. In addition, as the positional deviation from the target traveling course 70 increases and approaches the boundary 91 of the guideable width 90, the target speed V decreases and the vehicle 10 travels at a lower guide speed. It is prevented that it protrudes and approaches the boundary line 81 of the runway width 80.

According to the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 4, when the unmanned vehicle 10 travels face-to-face, if it is determined that the vehicle 10 ′ in the facing lane 62 has approached the unmanned vehicle 10, the target of the unmanned vehicle 10 The speed V is reduced and the vehicle is driven at a lower induction speed. As a result, the danger of interference with the vehicle 10 'traveling in a face-to-face manner is prevented, and the guided traveling can be performed more safely.

(2nd Example; When creating the guideable width | variety 90 with the unmanned vehicle 10)
In this embodiment, it is assumed that the guideable width 90 is created by the unmanned vehicle 10.

  FIG. 8 is a flowchart showing the processing procedure of the second embodiment.

  In the unmanned vehicle 10, the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10, the target travel course 70, and the terrain data (survey line information) of the travel path 60 are read (step 201).

Next, a guideable width 90 is created based on the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10, the target travel course 70, and the terrain data (survey line information) of the travel path 60.

  In the unmanned vehicle 10, it is determined from the data of the current position P of the own vehicle 10 which target point Q on the target travel course 70 the unmanned vehicle 10 is traveling. As shown in FIG. 3A, the guideable width 90 is set larger as the distance d from the current point Q on the target travel course 70 to the travelable boundary 81 increases. For example, when the current point on the target travel course 70 is Q1, the travel width 80 is narrow, so the distance d1 to the travelable boundary line 81 is small, and a narrow guideable width 90 is set. Is done. On the other hand, when the current point on the target traveling course 70 is Q2, since the traveling road width 80 is wide, the distance d2 to the travelable boundary line 81 is large, and a large guideable width. 90 is set. The guideable width 90 is created every time the unmanned vehicle 10 travels the target travel course 70 for a certain section (step 202).

  The process of creating the guideable width 90 is performed as shown in FIG. This process corresponds to steps 201 and 202 described above.

  Next, the target speed V of the unmanned vehicle 10 is set based on the guideable width 90 created and set as described above. The target speed V is set such that the target speed V of the unmanned vehicle 10 increases as the guideable width 90 increases. For example, as shown in FIG. 3A or 4, when the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10 is P1 and the point Q1 on the target travel course 70 is the target position, a narrow guideable width 90 is obtained. Is set. Therefore, a low target speed V1 is set corresponding to the narrow guideable width 90. On the other hand, when the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10 is P2 and the point Q2 on the target travel course 70 is the target position, a wide guideable width 90 is set. Therefore, a high target speed V2 is set corresponding to the wide guideable width 90 (step 203).

The process of setting the target speed V is performed as shown in FIG. This process corresponds to step 103 above.

  Next, it is determined whether or not the unmanned vehicle 10 ′ in the facing lane 62 is approaching. This determination is made by comparing information on the current position of the unmanned vehicle 10 ′ on the facing lane 62 sent from the control station 20 with information on the current position P of the host vehicle 10. In addition, when the radio | wireless communications system between vehicles is mounted in each vehicle 10, 10 ', position information is directly transmitted / received between vehicles 10, 10', and the positional information on other vehicle 10 'acquired is acquired. The comparison and determination may be performed based on the above (step 204).

As a result, as shown in FIG. 4, when it is determined that the unmanned vehicle 10 traveling in the lane 61 has approached another unmanned vehicle 10 'traveling in the adjacent facing lane 62 (step 204). YES), the speed is changed to a speed obtained by subtracting a predetermined amount from the target speed V set in step 203. Then, the unmanned vehicle 10 is guided to travel along the target travel course 70 so that the changed target speed V is obtained (step 205).

If it is not determined that the unmanned vehicle 10 traveling in the lane 61 is approaching another unmanned vehicle 10 'traveling in the adjacent facing lane 62 (determination in step 204). NO), the unmanned vehicle 10 is guided to travel along the target travel course 70 so that the target speed V set in step 203 is obtained (step 206).

According to the second embodiment, the same effect as in the first embodiment can be obtained.

In the above embodiment, the target speed V is set according to the size of the guideable width 90. However, when it is not necessary to provide the guideable width 90 and perform the guidance traveling control, The target speed V may be set according to the size of the road width 80 without setting the guideable width 90. That is, as shown in FIG. 2, the target speed V of the unmanned vehicle 10 increases as the distance d from the current point Q on the target travel course 70 to the travelable boundary line 81 indicating the boundary of the travel path width 80 increases. Is set. For example, as shown in FIG. 2, when the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10 is P1, the runway width 80 is narrow, and the distance d from the current target point Q1 to the boundary line 81 is short. For this reason, a low target speed V1 is set corresponding to a narrow road width 80, that is, a short distance d1. On the other hand, when the current position P of the unmanned vehicle 10 is P2, the road width 80 is wide and the distance d from the current target point Q2 to the boundary line 81 is long. For this reason, a high target speed V2 is set corresponding to a wide road width 80, that is, a long distance d2.

The unmanned vehicle 10 is guided to travel along the target travel course 70 so that the set target speed V is obtained.

For this reason, in the place where the runway width 80 is narrow, since the low target speed V is set and the unmanned vehicle 10 travels at a low guide speed, it is prevented from protruding from the runway width 80 as before. In a place where the runway width 80 is wide, the target speed V is set high and the unmanned vehicle 10 travels at a high speed. Even if the guidance speed increases at a place where the runway width 80 is wide and the guidance error increases accordingly, the unmanned vehicle 10 does not protrude from the runway width 80 because the runway width 80 is wide. Since the unmanned vehicle 10 can travel at a higher guidance speed as the travel path width 80 is wider, the working efficiency is improved as compared with the conventional case.

FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating the prior art, and is a diagram illustrating a state in which guided travel control is performed so that an unmanned vehicle travels along a target travel course. FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating the relationship between the target travel course and the travel path width. FIG. 3 is a diagram for explaining the relationship between the target traveling course and the guideable width. FIG. 4 is a diagram for explaining a travel path in which face-to-face traffic is performed. FIG. 5 is a diagram showing the internal configuration of the unmanned vehicle and the internal configuration of the control station. FIGS. 6A and 6B are flowcharts showing the processing procedure of the first embodiment. FIGS. 7A, 7B, 7C, and 7D are diagrams used to explain each correspondence relationship of the embodiment. FIG. 8 is a flowchart showing the processing procedure of the second embodiment. FIG. 9 is a flowchart showing a procedure of processing for calculating the inducible width. FIG. 10 is a flowchart showing a procedure of processing for calculating the target speed. FIG. 11 is a diagram showing the positional relationship of each component when the embodiment apparatus is applied to a wide-area work site such as an unmanned crushed stone site or a mine. FIG. 12 is a configuration diagram of the vehicle control system. FIGS. 13A, 13B, and 13C are a configuration diagram of a position measurement system, a configuration diagram of a guidance system, and a configuration diagram of a wireless communication system, respectively. FIGS. 14A and 14B are a configuration diagram of a control guidance system and a configuration diagram of a wireless communication system, respectively.

Explanation of symbols

  10 unmanned vehicles, 60 runways, 61, 62 round-trip lanes, 70 target run courses, 80 runway widths, 90 guideable widths

Claims (3)

  1. An unmanned vehicle guided travel control device for guiding an unmanned vehicle at a target speed along a target travel course,
    A guideable width setting means for setting the guideable width to be larger as the distance from the current point on the target travel course to the travelable boundary line indicating the boundary of the travel path width where the unmanned vehicle can travel is increased;
    Target speed setting means for setting the target speed of the unmanned vehicle so that the target speed of the unmanned vehicle increases as the guideable width increases,
    A guided travel control device for an unmanned vehicle, comprising guided travel control means for guiding the unmanned vehicle to travel along a target travel course so as to obtain the set target speed.
  2. The target speed setting means is
    The target speed of the unmanned vehicle increases as the distance from the current position of the unmanned vehicle to the navigable boundary increases, and the target speed of the unmanned vehicle decreases as the distance from the current position of the unmanned vehicle to the navigable boundary decreases. 2. The guided travel control device for an unmanned vehicle according to claim 1, wherein the target speed of the unmanned vehicle is set by decreasing the speed.
  3. The unmanned vehicle travels face-to-face along a traveling path having adjacent round-trip lanes,
    A judging means for judging that the vehicle in the facing lane approaches the unmanned vehicle;
    Guided travel control means
    3. The guided travel control device for an unmanned vehicle according to claim 1 , wherein when the vehicle in the facing lane approaches the unmanned vehicle, the target speed of the unmanned vehicle is decreased.
JP2007155142A 2006-08-10 2007-06-12 Guided travel control device for unmanned vehicles Active JP4992055B2 (en)

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