JP4912814B2 - Non-invasive living body measurement device - Google Patents

Non-invasive living body measurement device Download PDF

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JP4912814B2
JP4912814B2 JP2006268931A JP2006268931A JP4912814B2 JP 4912814 B2 JP4912814 B2 JP 4912814B2 JP 2006268931 A JP2006268931 A JP 2006268931A JP 2006268931 A JP2006268931 A JP 2006268931A JP 4912814 B2 JP4912814 B2 JP 4912814B2
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living body
light source
source unit
imaging
unit
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JP2008086450A (en
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利行 小澤
成弘 沼田
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シスメックス株式会社
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Priority claimed from EP07018917.0A external-priority patent/EP1905351B1/en
Priority claimed from CN2007101513495A external-priority patent/CN101152088B/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/68Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient
    • A61B5/6801Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient specially adapted to be attached to or worn on the body surface
    • A61B5/6802Sensor mounted on worn items
    • A61B5/681Wristwatch-type devices

Description

  The present invention relates to a non-invasive living body measurement apparatus that measures a component contained in blood by analyzing a blood vessel in a living body image obtained by imaging a living body.

  There is known a noninvasive living body measurement apparatus that measures a blood component such as hemoglobin by imaging a living body using an imaging means and analyzing blood vessels in the living body image (see, for example, Patent Document 1). The device described in Patent Document 1 is provided side by side with a first light source unit that illuminates a blood vessel (vein) on a user's wrist and irradiates light in the same direction as the first light source. A second light source unit that illuminates the blood vessel by means of, a light receiving unit that detects optical information from the blood vessel illuminated by the first light source unit and the second light source unit, and a blood component that flows in the blood vessel based on the optical information And an analysis unit for analyzing the blood component of the user can be continuously measured simply by being worn on the wrist.

  The apparatus described in Patent Document 1 irradiates light from a light source disposed on one side of a living body toward the living body, and images the living body by an imaging unit disposed on the opposite side of the light source across the living body. Unlike the transmission type apparatus, the light source and the imaging means are both disposed on one side of the living body.

JP 2004-242859 A

  In the transmission type device, it is possible to place a light source in the field of view of the imaging means, and the light emitted from the light source is appropriately scattered while passing through the living body. The brightness (brightness) in the visual field of was kept substantially uniform.

  By the way, in the reflection type device described in Patent Document 1, since the light source and the imaging unit are both arranged on one side of the living body, the brightness in the field of view of the imaging unit is less uniform than in the transmission type device. . Therefore, the light amounts of the first light source and the second light source have a significant influence on the measurement accuracy. For this reason, it is important to adjust the light amounts of the first light source and the second light source in the reflective noninvasive living body measuring apparatus.

  However, Patent Document 1 does not describe a configuration for adjusting the light amounts of the first light source and the second light source, respectively.

  The present invention has been made in view of such circumstances, and an object of the present invention is to provide a non-invasive living body measuring apparatus capable of adjusting the light amount of a light source so as to obtain a light amount suitable for living body measurement. .

  A noninvasive living body measurement apparatus according to a first aspect of the present invention is a noninvasive living body measurement apparatus that measures a component contained in blood by analyzing blood vessels in a living body image obtained by imaging a living body including blood vessels. A first light source unit for illuminating the inside of the living body from the surface of the living body, a second light source unit arranged in parallel with the first light source unit at a predetermined distance, and for illuminating the inside of the living body from the surface of the living body. An imaging unit for imaging a living body, a first biological image obtained by imaging by the imaging unit when the first light source unit illuminates the inside of the living body, and an imaging unit when the second light source unit illuminates the inside of the living body Is provided with a light amount adjusting means for adjusting each light amount of the first light source unit and the second light source unit on the basis of the second biological image obtained by imaging.

  By adopting such a configuration, the first living body image reflecting the light amount of the first light source unit and the second living body image reflecting the light amount of the second light source unit are suitable for imaging a living body. The light quantity of a light source part and a 2nd light source part can be adjusted. Moreover, each light source can be adjusted only by illuminating each light source once to adjust the light amounts of the first light source and the second light source for imaging the living body.

  Also, the concentration of components contained in blood is calculated by analyzing the blood vessel image in the third living body image obtained by the imaging unit when the first light source unit and the second light source unit illuminate the inside of the living body. It is preferable to further include an analysis unit.

  In addition, the apparatus further includes a reception unit that receives a measurement instruction, and when the reception unit receives the measurement instruction, the light amount adjustment unit adjusts the light amounts of the first light source unit and the second light source unit to adjust the light amount. The first light source unit and the second light source unit thus illuminated illuminate the inside of the living body, the imaging unit images the living body illuminated by the first light source unit and the second light source unit, and the analysis unit captures the imaging It is preferable that the blood vessel image in the third living body image obtained by the imaging of the part is analyzed.

  Further, the light amount adjusting means extracts a first luminance distribution distributed across the blood vessel image in the first biological image, and extracts a second luminance distribution distributed across the blood vessel image in the second biological image, It is preferable that the light amounts of the first light source unit and the second light source unit are adjusted based on the first luminance distribution and the second luminance distribution.

  Further, it is preferable that the light amount adjusting means is configured to adjust the respective light amounts of the first light source unit and the second light source unit based on the respective maximum luminance values of the first luminance distribution and the second luminance distribution. .

  A noninvasive living body measurement apparatus according to a second aspect of the present invention measures a component contained in blood by analyzing a blood vessel in a living body image obtained by imaging a living body including a blood vessel. The imaging unit that images the living body, the first light source unit that illuminates the blood vessel, the second light source unit, and the first light source unit that are arranged across the central axis of the imaging region of the imaging unit, respectively. Based on the first living body image obtained by imaging the living body and the second living body image obtained by imaging the living body illuminated by the second light source unit, each of the first light source unit and the second light source unit And a light amount adjusting means for adjusting the light amount.

  Moreover, it is preferable that the 1st light source part and the 2nd light source part are arrange | positioned on the outer side of the imaging region about the axial length direction of the central axis.

  According to the noninvasive living body measurement apparatus of the present invention, the light amount of the light source can be adjusted with high accuracy in a short time, and the analysis speed and accuracy can be improved.

Hereinafter, embodiments of the noninvasive living body measurement apparatus of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a schematic configuration of a noninvasive living body measurement apparatus 1 according to an embodiment of the present invention. The noninvasive living body measurement apparatus 1 is a wristwatch-type blood component analyzer, and includes a device body 3 and a holder 4. The apparatus body 3 is attached to a human wrist by a holder 4. The apparatus main body 3 is mounted by a holder 4 so that the position of the apparatus main body 3 can be adjusted in the circumferential direction of the wrist. On the side surface of the apparatus main body 3, a power / execution key 38 and a menu key 39 are provided for the user to operate the noninvasive living body measurement apparatus 1. Further, a pressure band 2 (cuff) is attached to a user's arm part closer to the heart than the wrist. The pressurizing band 2 pressurizes the user's arm with a predetermined pressure, inhibits blood flow around the wrist, and expands blood vessels (veins) on the wrist. As described above, the measurement is performed in a state where the wrist is pressurized with the pressurizing belt 2, thereby facilitating imaging of blood vessels.

  FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional explanatory view showing the configuration of the noninvasive living body measurement apparatus 1. The apparatus main body 3 includes an outer case 35, a back cover 37 disposed on the back side of the outer case 35, and an engagement member 41 attached to a lower portion of the back cover 37. A cylindrical unit holding portion 35 a is formed at the center of the outer case 35 to accommodate a measurement unit 5 described later. On the other hand, a space for receiving the unit holding portion 35a is formed at the center of the back cover 37 and the engaging member 41. A pair of projecting portions 35c and 35d extend in the horizontal direction from an intermediate portion of the outer wall of the unit holding portion 35a. The protrusion 35c and the back cover 37 and the protrusion 35d and the back cover 37 are connected by compression springs 37a and 37b, respectively. The outer case 35 is biased toward the back cover 37 by the compression springs 37a and 37b. An engaging portion 41a that is recessed in a concave shape is formed on the side surface of the engaging member 41, and can be engaged with an inward protruding portion 42a of a support base 42 described later.

  The holder 4 includes a support base 42 and a wristband 43. The upper surface of the support base 42 is rectangular, and a circular opening for fitting the engagement member 41 of the apparatus main body 3 is formed at the center. An engaging portion 42a is provided at the end edge of the opening so that the engaging member 41 can be rotated about the axis AZ. An elastic rubber wristband 43 is attached to the support base 42. The outer case 35 and the back cover 37 are made of a material that does not transmit light.

  The measurement unit 5 is supported on the unit holding portion 35a. The measurement unit 5 includes a light source unit 51, an imaging unit 52, a control unit 53, and a display unit 54. The light source unit 51, the imaging unit 52, the display unit 54, and the control unit 53 are mutually connected. Are connected by a wiring cord, a flat cable (not shown) or the like so that electrical signals can be exchanged.

  Next, the light source unit 51 will be described. FIG. 3 is a plan view showing the configuration of the light source unit 51. The light source unit 51 includes a disk-shaped holding plate 51a and four light emitting diodes R1, R2, L1, and L2 held on the holding plate 51a. In the center of the holding plate 51a, a circular opening 51b for allowing light incident on the imaging unit 52 to pass is provided, and the above-described light emitting diodes are arranged around the opening 51b. .

  FIG. 4 is a diagram showing the positional relationship between the four light emitting diodes provided on the holding plate 51a. The light emitting diodes R1, R2, L1, and L2 are disposed symmetrically with respect to the first axis AY and the second axis AX that pass through the center of the opening 51b and are orthogonal to each other. In a state where the noninvasive living body measurement device 1 is attached to the wrist, the imaging region CR on the wrist surface is an area that is imaged by the imaging unit 52 and displayed on the display unit 54. A region 62c between the index line 62a on the light emitting diodes L1 and L2 (second light source unit) side and the index line 62b on the light emitting diodes R1 and R2 (first light source unit) side is suitable for imaging by the imaging unit 52. A region, that is, a region where a blood vessel is positioned during imaging. The indicator lines 62 a and 62 b are displayed on the display unit 54 by the control unit 53. When analyzing blood components, the mounting position of the apparatus main body 3 is adjusted so that an arbitrary blood vessel on the wrist is located in the region 62c. The blood vessel is illuminated with near infrared light (center wavelength = 805 nm) from both sides by the light emitting diodes R1, R2, L1, and L2.

  Next, the configuration of the imaging unit 52 will be described. As shown in FIG. 2, the imaging unit 52 includes a lens 52a for focusing the reflected light, a lens barrel 52b for fixing the lens 52a, and a CCD camera 52c for imaging an image. It is possible to take an image of the region CR. The lens 52a and the lens barrel 52b are inserted into a cylindrical light shielding cylinder 52d whose inside is black. The CCD camera 52c picks up the formed image and transmits it to the control unit 53 as an image signal.

  Next, the configuration of the control unit 53 will be described. The control unit 53 is provided on the upper part of the CCD camera 52c. FIG. 5 is a block diagram showing the configuration of the measurement unit 5. The control unit 53 includes a CPU 53a, a main memory 53b, a flash memory card reader 53c, a light source input / output interface 53d, a frame memory 53e, an image input interface 53f, an input interface 53g, a communication interface 53h, an image And an output interface 53i. The CPU 53a, main memory 53b, flash memory card reader 53c, light source input / output interface 53d, frame memory 53e, image input interface 53f, input interface 53g, communication interface 53h, and image output interface 53i can mutually transmit data. They are connected via data transmission lines as possible. With this configuration, the CPU 53a reads / writes data to / from the main memory 53b, the flash memory card reader 53c, and the frame memory 53e, and the light source input / output interface 53d, the image input interface 53f, the input interface 53g, and the image output interface 53i. And transmission / reception of data to / from the communication interface 53h.

The CPU 53a, which is an analysis unit, can execute a computer program loaded in a ROM (not shown) and the main memory 53b. And when this CPU53a runs the computer program which is mentioned later, this apparatus functions as a noninvasive living body measuring apparatus.
The main memory 53b is configured by SRAM, DRAM, or the like. The main memory 53b is used for reading a computer program stored in a ROM (not shown) and a flash memory card 53j. Further, when these computer programs are executed, they are used as a work area of the CPU 53a.

  The flash memory card reader 53c is used for reading data stored in the flash memory card 53j. The flash memory card 53j has a flash memory (not shown), and can hold data even when power is not supplied from the outside. The flash memory card 53j stores a computer program executed by the CPU 53a and data used for the computer program.

  Further, for example, an operating system compliant with the TRON specification is installed in the flash memory card 53j. Note that the operating system is not limited to this, and may be an operating system that provides a graphical user interface environment such as Windows (registered trademark) manufactured and sold by Microsoft Corporation. In the following description, it is assumed that the computer program according to the present embodiment operates on the operating system.

  The light source unit input / output interface 53d includes an analog interface including a D / A converter, an A / D converter, and the like. The light source unit input / output interface 53d is electrically connected to the four light emitting diodes R1, R2, L1, and L2 provided in the light source unit 51 through electric signal lines, and can control the operation of the light emitting diodes. Is possible. The light source input / output interface 53d controls the current applied to the light emitting diodes R1, R2, L1, and L2 based on a computer program as will be described later.

The frame memory 53e is configured by SRAM, DRAM, or the like. The frame memory 53e is used for storing data when an image input interface 53f described later executes image processing.
The image input interface 53f includes a video digitizing circuit (not shown) including an A / D converter. The image input interface 53f is electrically connected to the CCD camera 52c via an electric signal line, and an image signal is input from the CCD camera 52c. The image signal input from the CCD camera 52c is A / D converted by the image input interface 53f. The digitally converted image data is stored in the frame memory 53e.

  The input interface 53g is composed of an analog interface composed of an A / D converter. A power / execution key 38 and a menu key 39 are electrically connected to the input interface 53g. With this configuration, the user selects the operation item of the apparatus by using the menu key 39, and the operation in which the apparatus is turned on / off and selected by using the power / execution key 38. Can be executed by the apparatus.

  The communication interface 53h is configured by a serial interface such as USB, IEEE1394, RS232C, or a parallel interface such as SCSI. The control unit 53 can transmit and receive data to and from an external connection device such as a mobile computer or a mobile phone using the communication interface 53h using a predetermined communication protocol. Thereby, the control part 53 transmits measurement result data to the said external connection apparatus via this communication interface 53h.

  The image output interface 53i is electrically connected to the display unit 54, and outputs a video signal based on the image data given from the CPU 53a to the display unit 54.

  Next, the display unit 54 will be described. As shown in FIG. 2, the display unit 54 is provided on the upper part of the measurement unit 5 and supported by the outer case 35. The display unit 54 is configured by a liquid crystal display, and performs screen display according to the video signal input from the image output interface 53i. This screen display is switched according to the state of the non-invasive living body measurement apparatus 1. For example, a screen corresponding to the standby state, the blood vessel alignment, and the measurement end state is displayed on the display unit 54.

  FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating an example of a screen displayed when the noninvasive living body measurement apparatus 1 is in a standby state. When the noninvasive living body measurement apparatus 1 is in a standby state, the date / time is displayed in the center of the screen of the display unit 54. The lower right portion of the screen of the display unit 54 is a menu display area 54a. The operation of the noninvasive living body measurement apparatus 1 when the power / execution key 38 is pressed is displayed. “Measurement” is displayed.

  FIG. 7 is a diagram illustrating an example of a screen displayed during blood vessel alignment. In the noninvasive living body measurement apparatus 1 according to the present embodiment, an indicator indicating a region suitable for imaging by the imaging unit 52 is displayed on the display unit 54, and whether the blood vessel image is located in a region suitable for imaging. It is comprised so that determination can be made. When aligning the blood vessels, a blood vessel pattern 61 formed as described later and index lines 62a and 62b shown in red are displayed together with the captured image. Further, marks 63, 64, 65, and 66 indicating directions are displayed around the index lines 62a and 62b. Each mark can be lit, and when the blood vessel pattern 61 is not positioned so as to be within the region 62c between the index line 62a and the index line 62b, each mark is lit by the control unit 53. The user is instructed in the direction in which the apparatus main body 3 is moved so that the pattern 61 is positioned within the region 62c.

  Here, the movement of the apparatus main body 3 by lighting each mark will be briefly described. In FIG. 7, when the mark 63 and the mark 64 are lit, the user needs to move the apparatus main body 3 in the right direction in FIG. 7, and when the mark 65 and the mark 66 are lit, the user 3 must be moved to the left in FIG. When the mark 63 and the mark 65 are lit, the user needs to rotate the apparatus main body 3 clockwise. When the mark 64 and the mark 66 are lit, the user turns the apparatus main body 3 counterclockwise. It is necessary to rotate around. For example, when the blood vessel pattern 61 is positioned as shown in FIG. 7, the control unit 53 turns on the mark 63 and the mark 65 and prompts the user to rotate the apparatus main body 3 clockwise. With such a configuration, when the position of the imaging unit 52 is adjusted to an area suitable for imaging a blood vessel, the user can easily grasp which device body 3 should be moved to. Therefore, the operation of adjusting the position of the imaging unit 52 is facilitated.

When the blood vessel pattern 61 is not located in the region 62c (FIG. 4), the index line 62a and the index line 62b are displayed in red, and when the blood vessel pattern 61 is located within the region 62c, the indicator The line 62a and the index line 62b are displayed in blue. Thereby, the user can easily grasp whether or not the blood vessel pattern 61 is located in the region 62c.
At the time of such blood vessel alignment, “continue” is displayed in the menu display area 54a, and when the blood vessel pattern 61 is located in the area 62c, the indicator lines 62a and 62b are displayed in blue, and the power / execution key 38 becomes valid and measurement continues when the user presses it.

  FIG. 8 is a diagram illustrating an example of a screen when measurement by the noninvasive living body measurement apparatus 1 is completed. The measurement result of the hemoglobin concentration which is a blood component is “15.6 g / dl” and is displayed on the display unit 54 in a digital display so as to be easily seen by the user. At this time, “confirm” is displayed in the menu display area 54a.

  Next, the measurement operation of the noninvasive living body measurement apparatus 1 will be described. FIG. 9 is a flowchart showing a measurement operation by the noninvasive living body measurement apparatus 1. First, as shown in FIG. 1, the pressure band 2 is attached to the user's arm, and the noninvasive living body measuring device 1 is attached to the wrist. At this time, the user's arm is pressurized at a predetermined pressure by the pressurizing belt 2, the blood flow around the wrist is inhibited, and the blood vessels of the wrist are expanded. Next, when the user presses the power / execution key 38 provided in the non-invasive living body measurement apparatus 1 to turn on the non-invasive living body measurement apparatus 1, the software is initialized and the operation of each part is checked. (Step S1), the apparatus enters a standby state, and the standby screen shown in FIG. 6 is displayed on the display unit 54 (Step S2).

  If the user presses the power / execution key 38 while the standby screen is displayed on the display unit 54 (Yes in step S3), the positioning screen shown in FIG. (Step S4). At this time, the CPU 53a turns on the light emitting diodes R1, R2, L1, and L2 provided in the light source unit 51 with predetermined light amounts, illuminates the imaging region CR (FIG. 4), and images the illuminated imaging region CR. (Step S5).

  FIG. 10 is a diagram in which a rectangular region including the imaging region CR is coordinate-divided into two-dimensional coordinates of x and y within a range of 0 ≦ x ≦ 640 and 0 ≦ y ≦ 480. As shown in FIG. 10, the CPU 53a sets the coordinates of the upper left pixel of the rectangular area A including the image of the imaging area CR as (0, 0), and coordinates the area A to the two-dimensional coordinates of x and y. 4 points of (240, 60), (400, 60), (240, 420), (400, 420) are selected from the divided points and the average of the area B surrounded by these 4 points The luminance is obtained (step S6). Needless to say, the point of the area B for obtaining the average luminance is not limited to this, and may be other coordinates. Further, the region B may be a polygon other than a rectangle or a circle.

  Next, the CPU 53a determines whether or not the brightness of the area B is within the target range (step S7). When the brightness of the region B is outside the target range, the light source unit input / output interface 53d is used to adjust the amount of current flowing through the light emitting diodes R1, R2, L1, and L2, and the light quantity is adjusted (step S8). The process returns to step S1. When the brightness of the area B is within the target range (Yes in step S7), the CPU 53a sets a y-coordinate value to be calculated in a brightness profile, which will be described later, to an initial value (40) (step S9). Then, the luminance of the pixel from end to end of the x coordinate in the set y coordinate value (40) is obtained. Thereby, as shown in FIG. 11, the luminance profile (luminance profile PF) of the pixel in the x direction at a predetermined y coordinate is obtained (step S10). Further, the CPU 53a determines whether or not the set y coordinate value is the final value (440) (step S11). If the y-coordinate value is not the final value (440) (No in step S11), the CPU 53a increments the y-coordinate value by a predetermined value (20) (step S12), and returns the process to step S10. When the y-coordinate value is the closing price (440) (Yes in step S11), the CPU 53a extracts the point with the lowest luminance (hereinafter referred to as “luminance lowest point”) from among the extracted luminance profiles. And stored in the frame memory 53e (step S13).

  FIG. 12 is an explanatory diagram showing a method for obtaining the position of a blood vessel. That is, as shown in FIG. 12, the CPU 53a is adjacent to the lowest luminance point (a1, b1) in the vicinity of the center of the image of the imaging region CR in the vertical direction of the lowest luminance point (a1, b1). The lowest luminance points (a2, b2) and (a3, b3) are connected to each other. Next, the CPU 53a connects the lowest luminance point (a2, b2) and the point adjacent in the vertical direction, and connects the lowest luminance point (a3, b3) and the point adjacent in the vertical direction. To do. The CPU 53a repeats this operation in the entire area of the image, extracts blood vessels as line segments, and forms a blood vessel pattern 61 (step S14). As shown in FIG. 7, the CPU 53a displays the captured image of the imaging region CR on the display unit 54, and further, the blood vessel pattern 61 formed in step S5 and the index line 62a stored in the flash memory card 53j. The index line 62b (FIG. 4) and the marks 63, 64, 65, and 66 are displayed (step S15). Then, the CPU 53a determines whether or not the blood vessel pattern 61 is located in the region 62c (FIG. 4) (step S16). When the blood vessel pattern 61 is not located in the region 62c (No in step S16), the CPU 53a lights the marks 63, 64, 65, and 66, respectively, so that the user should move the apparatus main body 3. (Step S17), and the process returns to step S1.

  When the blood vessel pattern 61 is located in the region 62c (Yes in step S16), the CPU 53a enables the power / execution key 38 so that the measurement can be continued. At this time, the CPU 53a informs the user by sounding that the power / execution key 38 has been activated (step S18). Next, the CPU 53a waits for an input from the power / execution key 38 (step S19). When the user presses the power / execution key 38 and instructs to continue the measurement (Yes in Step S19), the CPU 53a measures the hemoglobin concentration (Step S20), and the measurement result is shown in FIG. Is displayed on the display unit 54 (step S21).

  FIG. 13 is a flowchart showing details of the hemoglobin concentration measurement process executed in step S20 of the flowchart shown in FIG. First, the CPU 53a controls the light source unit input / output interface 53d and includes blood vessels by the light emitting diodes R1 and R2 (first light source unit) which are one of the light sources arranged on both sides of the blood vessel. The living body is illuminated with an appropriate amount of light (step S101), and this is imaged by the imaging unit 52 (step S102). Further, the CPU 53a determines whether or not the average brightness of the region B exceeds 100 (step S103). If the brightness does not exceed 100, the light emitting diodes R1 and R2 are used using the light source input / output interface 53d. Is adjusted to adjust the amount of light (step S104), and the process returns to step S102.

  In this embodiment, the luminance value here is a digital conversion value (changes from 0 to 255) of an 8-bit A / D converter included in the image input interface 53f used. is there. This is because the luminance of the image and the magnitude of the image signal input from the CCD camera 52c are in a proportional relationship, and the A / D conversion value (0 to 255) of the image signal is used as the luminance value.

  When the average brightness of the region B exceeds 100 (Yes in Step S103), the CPU 53a obtains the brightness profile PF1 and the density profile NP1 independent of the incident light quantity for the image obtained in Step S102 (Step S105). Further, the CPU 53a controls the light source input / output interface 53d and includes blood vessels by the light emitting diodes L1 and L2 (second light source units) which are the other light sources among the light sources arranged on both sides of the blood vessel. The living body is illuminated with an appropriate amount of light (step S106), and this is imaged by the imaging unit 52 (step S107). Furthermore, the CPU 53a determines whether or not the average brightness of the region B exceeds 100 (step S108). If the brightness does not exceed 100, the light emitting diodes L1 and L2 are used using the light source input / output interface 53d. The amount of current flowing through is increased, the light quantity is adjusted (step S109), and the process returns to step S107.

  When the average brightness of the region B exceeds 100 (Yes in step S108), the CPU 53a performs the same process as in step S105 on the image obtained in step S107, and obtains the brightness profile PF2 and the density profile NP2 that does not depend on the incident light amount. Obtain (step S110).

  FIG. 15 is a diagram showing the distribution of the luminance B with respect to the position X. The luminance profile PF1 is formed in step S105, and the luminance profile PF2 is formed in step S110. FIG. 16 is a diagram showing the distribution of the density D with respect to the position X. The density profile NP1 is formed in step S105, and the density profile NP2 is formed in step S110.

The CPU 53a derives the peak height h1 and barycentric coordinate cg1 from the density profile NP1 obtained in step S105, and uses the peak height h2 and barycentric coordinate gc2 from the density profile NP2 obtained in step S110, respectively. Thus, the blood vessel depth index S is calculated by the following calculation formula (1). Further, the CPU 53a stores the calculation result in the frame memory 53e (step S111).
S = (cg2-cg1) / {(h1 + h2) / 2} (1)
Further, the CPU 53a, based on the luminance profile PF1 obtained in step S105 and the luminance profile PF2 obtained in step S110, the light quantity ratio of the left and right light sources (light emitting diodes R1, R2 and light emitting diodes L1, L2) of the blood vessel. Then, the light quantity is calculated (step S112), and the light quantity of both light sources is adjusted based on the obtained result (step S113).

Specifically, right side lighting (lighting of light emitting diodes R1, R2) [right side lighting image (step S102) obtained from [first light source unit] and left side lighting (lighting of light emitting diodes L1, L2) [second light source unit] ], The position of the maximum luminance in the left half is x1, and the position of the maximum luminance in the right half is the luminance profile (see FIG. 15) generated based on the left-side lighting image obtained in step S106. Let x2. Then, the luminance value at the x1 position is L 1 and the luminance value at the x2 position is L 2 on the left side luminance profile PF2, and the luminance value at the x1 position is R 1 on the right side luminance profile PF1. the luminance value of the x2 position to R 2.
Also, let the current values of the left and right light sources be expressed as current value = (left, right), current value at left lighting = (CLleft, 0), current value at right lighting = (0, CRright). The light source current distribution for making the luminance distribution horizontal (uniform) when lighting on both sides may be distributed in the ratio of left: right = x: (1-x) when the light is lit on one side. That is, the current value at the time of both-side lighting = (x · CLleft, (1−x) · CRright).
When x = − (R 1 −R 2 ) / (L 1 −L 2 ) − (R 1 −R 2 ), the values of L 1 , L 2 , R 1 and R 2 defined as described above are used. X can be obtained. For example, when the left side lighting current value = (18, 0), the right side lighting current value = (0, 16), and x = 0.4375, the both side lighting current value = (18 × 0). .4375, 16 × 0.4375) ≈ (8, 9). In this way, it is possible to adjust the light amounts of both light sources for capturing an image of the imaging region CR for calculating the hemoglobin concentration (step S114), and the imaging region CR can be illuminated with light uniformly.

  Next, the CPU 53a controls the light source unit input / output interface 53d to illuminate the imaging region CR (FIG. 4) with the light-emitting diodes R1, R2, L1, and L2 whose light amounts have been adjusted, and images this with the imaging unit 52 (step). S114). Next, as in step S3, the CPU 53a obtains the average brightness of the area B shown in FIG. 10, and determines whether or not the obtained average brightness of the area B exceeds 150 (step S115). If the luminance does not exceed 150, an error display is performed (step S116).

  When the average luminance of the region B exceeds 150 (Yes in step S115), the CPU 53a displays a luminance profile indicating the first luminance distribution with respect to the axis AX in the imaging region CR (FIG. 4) (distribution of the luminance B with respect to the position X). ) Create a PF (FIG. 11) and reduce the noise component using a technique such as fast Fourier transform. Further, the CPU 53a standardizes the luminance profile PF with the baseline BL. The base line BL is obtained based on the shape of the luminance profile of the absorption part by the blood vessel. In this way, a density profile (distribution of density D with respect to position X) NP that does not depend on the amount of incident light can be obtained (step S117).

FIG. 14 is a diagram showing the distribution of the density D with respect to the position X, and a density profile NP as shown in the figure is formed. Next, the CPU 53a calculates the peak height h and the half width w based on the formed density profile NP. Here, h represents the ratio of the light intensity absorbed by the blood vessel (blood) to be measured and the light intensity that has passed through the tissue portion, and w represents the length corresponding to the blood vessel diameter. Further, the CPU 53a calculates the uncorrected hemoglobin concentration D by the following calculation formula (2), and stores the result in the frame memory 53e. (Step S118).
D = h / w n (2)
Here, n is a constant representing the non-linearity of the full width at half maximum due to scattering. When light scattering is not present, n = 1, and when scattering is present, n> 1.

  Next, the CPU 53a calculates a tissue blood volume index M representing the blood volume contained in the peripheral tissue based on the blood vessel peripheral tissue image in the biological image obtained in step S114. Specifically, the luminance distribution distributed along the blood vessel image is extracted based on the tissue image around the blood vessel in the biological image at a predetermined distance (for example, 2.5 mm) from the blood vessel image in the biological image. . In the biological image, not only the target blood vessel but also tissues around the blood vessel are imaged. Since light attenuates in proportion to the blood volume in the tissue, the blood volume in the surrounding tissue can be estimated by calculating the light attenuation rate of the surrounding tissue.

Since the blood vessel is positioned so that a substantially central portion is vertically cut (up and down in FIGS. 3 to 4) in the captured image, the attenuation rate is calculated by being parallel to the blood vessel and separated from the blood vessel by a predetermined distance. A luminance distribution on the straight line (for example, the index line 62a or 62b in FIG. 4) or along the straight line (hereinafter also referred to as a second luminance distribution with respect to the luminance distribution (first luminance distribution) crossing the blood vessel) is used. .
If the surrounding tissue of the blood vessel is substantially homogeneous, light from the light source attenuates according to an exponential function, but light emitting diodes as light sources are arranged above and below the imaging region CR (up and down in FIGS. 3 to 4). The second luminance distribution has a parabolic shape in which exponential functions in opposite directions are superimposed. FIG. 17 is a diagram illustrating an example of the second luminance distribution distributed along the blood vessel image. In FIG. 17, the vertical axis represents luminance, and the horizontal axis represents the position along the blood vessel image of the surrounding tissue in the imaging region. For example, if the second luminance distribution on the index line 62b (see FIG. 4) is measured, d1 and d2 on the horizontal axis are the imaging region CR in which the index line 62b is circular as shown in FIG. The points substantially correspond to the intersecting points d1 and d2.

In FIG. 17, a parabolic curve m represents the actually measured luminance, and an exponential function n and an exponential function o represent an exponential function obtained by separating the curve m into two by a method described later. A parabolic curve p is a theoretical superposition of the exponential function n and the exponential function o, and shows that it matches the actual measured value.
In order to separate the parabolic curve m into two exponential functions n and exponential function o, first, a portion that can be regarded as a parabola substantially by truncating saturated portions at both ends of the parabolic curve m. Just leave. The leftmost luminance of the remaining part is y0, and the lowest central luminance is y1. Assume that the luminance of an adjacent pixel becomes (r × 100)% for each pixel, and this r is defined as an attenuation rate.

Then, at the left end of the remaining portion, the light from the upper light emitting diode R1 reaches 100%, and the light from the lower light emitting diode R2 reaches the wth power of the attenuation factor r. The initial value U0 and the initial value D0 of the lower light emitting diode R2 can be expressed by the following equations (3) and (4), respectively.
U0 = y0 / (r + r w) ...... (3)
D0 = y0 / (r + r w) ...... (4)
Further, at the center, the light from the upper and lower light emitting diodes both reaches the w / 2 power of r, and therefore, the following equations (5) and (6) are established.
y1 = 2 × U0 × r w / 2 (5)
y1 = 2 × y0 / (r + r w) × r w / 2 ...... (6)
If the equations (5) and (6) are solved for r, the attenuation rate r can be obtained. If r w / 2 = X,
y1 × X 2 −2y0 × X + y1 = 0
From this, the attenuation factor r is

It becomes.

  In the conventional method as described in Patent Document 1, two dedicated light sources in the near and near locations and a photosensor that detects light from the light source are used, and the amount of light incident on the photosensor from the proximal light source is calculated. The tissue blood volume index M is obtained by M = log (v1 / v2) where v1 is the amount of light incident on the photosensor from the distal light source and v2.

Here, the definition of the attenuation rate r is that the luminance of the adjacent pixel becomes (r × 100)% for each pixel. Therefore, the distance from the proximal light source to the photosensor in the conventional method is as follows. When Ln is (pixel unit) and the distance (pixel unit) from the distal light source to the photosensor is Lf, the luminance of the distal light source is attenuated to the Ln power of r, and the luminance of the distal light source is luminance. Is attenuated to the Lf power of r, so
M = log (C × r Ln ) / (C × r Lf )
Thus, it can be seen that a value equivalent to the tissue blood volume index M can be calculated using the attenuation rate r instead of v1 and v2. C is an initial light amount value (a light amount value that is not attenuated by the tissue) of the proximal or distal light source.

The CPU 53a derives the correction coefficient fs based on the blood vessel depth index S calculated in step S111 and the correction coefficient fm based on the tissue blood volume index M calculated in step S120, and using these, the following calculation formula ( The corrected hemoglobin concentration Do consisting of 7) is calculated (step S121).
Do = D × fs × fm (7)
The CPU 53a stores the calculation result in step S121 in the frame memory 53e (step S122), and returns to the main routine.

  FIG. 18 is a graph plotting measured values obtained from a blood cell counter and the calculated values by the noninvasive living body measurement apparatus 1 according to the embodiment of the present invention with respect to the hemoglobin concentrations of a plurality of subjects. As shown in FIG. 18, the measured value and the calculated value from the non-invasive living body measuring apparatus 1 exist in the vicinity of the straight line with the inclination 1, and the measured value and the calculated value are not deviated from each other. It can be seen that the biological measuring apparatus 1 can measure the hemoglobin concentration with high accuracy.

  In the present embodiment, as described above, based on the right side lighting image obtained by the right side lighting (lighting of the light emitting diodes R1 and R2) and the left side lighting image obtained by the left side lighting (lighting of the light emitting diodes L1 and L2). In order to obtain a captured image for calculating the hemoglobin concentration, the light amounts of both light sources (the first light source unit and the second light source unit) are adjusted. In this way, the right side light emitting diodes R1 and R2 (first light source unit) and the left side light emitting diodes L1 and L2 (second light source unit) are individually turned on to perform imaging so that the imaging region CR is increased by the right side lighting. It is possible to obtain a right-side lighting image (first biological image) reflecting how bright it is and a left-side lighting image (second biological image) reflecting how bright the imaging region CR is due to left-side lighting. From these biological images, the influence of the light quantity of each light source on the brightness of the imaging region CR can be seen, and it can be seen how much light quantity each light source is adjusted to make the brightness of the imaging region CR uniform. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the light amounts of both light sources so as to obtain a light amount suitable for imaging using the right side lit image and the left side lit image.

It is a figure which shows schematic structure of one Embodiment of the noninvasive living body measurement apparatus of this invention. It is a cross-sectional explanatory drawing of the noninvasive living body measuring apparatus shown by FIG. It is a top view which shows the structure of a light source part. It is a figure which shows the positional relationship of the light emitting diode provided in the holding plate. It is a block diagram which shows the structure of a measurement unit. It is a figure which shows an example of a screen when a non-invasive living body measuring device is in a standby state. It is a figure which shows an example of the screen displayed at the time of the blood vessel alignment with a noninvasive living body measuring device. It is a figure which shows an example of the screen when the measurement by a noninvasive living body measuring device is complete | finished. It is a flowchart which shows the measurement operation | movement by a noninvasive living body measuring device. It is the figure which carried out the coordinate division | segmentation into the two-dimensional coordinate of x and y in the range of 0 <= x <= 640 and 0 <= y <= 480, including the rectangular area containing imaging region CR. It is a figure which shows an example of the luminance profile (luminance profile PF) of the pixel of the x direction in a predetermined y coordinate. It is explanatory drawing which shows the method of calculating | requiring the position of the blood vessel. It is a flowchart which shows the detail of the measurement process of the hemoglobin density | concentration performed by step S11 of the flowchart shown in FIG. 6 is a diagram showing a distribution of density D with respect to position X. FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating a distribution of luminance B with respect to a position X. FIG. 6 is a diagram showing a distribution of density D with respect to position X. FIG. It is a figure which shows the example of the 2nd luminance distribution distributed along a blood vessel image. It is the graph which plotted the actual measurement value obtained from the blood cell counter etc., and the calculation value by the noninvasive living body measuring device 1 concerning embodiment of this invention about the hemoglobin density | concentration of a some subject.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Non-invasive living body measuring device 2 Pressurizing belt 3 Device main body 35 Outer case 35a Unit holding | maintenance part 35c,
35d Protruding part 37 Back cover 37a,
37b Compression spring 37c Opening 38 Power / execution key 39 Menu key 4 Holding tool 41 Engaging member 41a Engaging part 42 Supporting base 42a Inwardly projecting part 43 Wristband 5 Measuring unit 51 Light source 51a Holding plate 51b Opening AZ Axis AY 1st axis AX 2nd axis 52 Imaging unit 52a Lens 52b Lens barrel 52c CCD camera 52d Shading cylinder 53 Control unit 53a CPU
53b Main memory 53c Flash memory card reader 53d Light source input / output interface 53e Frame memory 53f Image input interface 53g Input interface 53h Communication interface 53i Image output interface 53j Flash memory card 54 Display unit 54a Menu display area 61 Blood vessel pattern 62a,
62b index line 63c regions 63, 64,
65, 66 Marks R1, R2,
L1, L2 light emitting diode CR imaging area A, B area

Claims (7)

  1. A non-invasive living body measurement device that measures components contained in blood by analyzing blood vessels in a living body image obtained by imaging a living body including blood vessels,
    A first light source unit for illuminating the inside of the living body from the living body surface;
    A second light source unit which is arranged in parallel with the first light source unit at a predetermined distance, and illuminates the inside of the living body from the living body surface;
    An imaging unit for imaging the living body;
    A first biological image obtained by imaging the imaging unit when the first light source unit illuminates the inside of the living body, and an imaging unit obtained by imaging when the second light source unit illuminates the interior of the living body. A non-invasive living body measurement apparatus comprising: a light amount adjusting unit that adjusts each light amount of the first light source unit and the second light source unit based on the obtained second living body image.
  2.   When the first light source unit and the second light source unit illuminate the inside of the living body, the concentration of components contained in the blood is calculated by analyzing the blood vessel image in the third living body image obtained by the imaging unit. The noninvasive living body measurement apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising an analysis unit that performs the analysis.
  3.   A reception unit that receives a measurement instruction is further provided, and when the reception unit receives the measurement instruction, the light amount adjusting unit adjusts the light amount of each of the first light source unit and the second light source unit to adjust the light amount. The first light source unit and the second light source unit illuminate the inside of the living body, the imaging unit images the living body illuminated by the first light source unit and the second light source unit, and the analysis unit includes the imaging unit. The noninvasive living body measuring device according to claim 2 configured to analyze a blood vessel image in a third living body image obtained by the imaging.
  4.   The light amount adjusting means extracts a first luminance distribution distributed across the blood vessel image in the first biological image, and extracts a second luminance distribution distributed across the blood vessel image in the second biological image. The light intensity of each of the first light source unit and the second light source unit is adjusted based on the first luminance distribution and the second luminance distribution. The non-invasive living body measuring device described in 1.
  5.   The light amount adjusting means is configured to adjust each light amount of the first light source unit and the second light source unit based on respective maximum luminance values of the first luminance distribution and the second luminance distribution. Item 5. The noninvasive living body measurement apparatus according to Item 4.
  6. A non-invasive living body measurement device that measures components contained in blood by analyzing blood vessels in a living body image obtained by imaging a living body including blood vessels,
    An imaging unit for imaging the living body;
    A first light source unit and a second light source unit, which are respectively arranged across the central axis of the imaging region of the imaging unit and illuminate the blood vessel;
    Based on the first living body image obtained by imaging the living body illuminated by the first light source unit and the second living body image obtained by imaging the living body illuminated by the second light source unit, A non-invasive living body measuring apparatus comprising: a light amount adjusting unit that adjusts each light amount of the first light source unit and the second light source unit.
  7. The noninvasive living body measurement device according to claim 6, wherein the first light source unit and the second light source unit are arranged outside the imaging region in the axial length direction of the central axis.
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CN2007101513495A CN101152088B (en) 2006-09-29 2007-09-28 Noninvasive living body measuring device and noninvasive living body measuring method
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