JP4894955B2 - Surface light source device - Google Patents

Surface light source device Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4894955B2
JP4894955B2 JP2010542827A JP2010542827A JP4894955B2 JP 4894955 B2 JP4894955 B2 JP 4894955B2 JP 2010542827 A JP2010542827 A JP 2010542827A JP 2010542827 A JP2010542827 A JP 2010542827A JP 4894955 B2 JP4894955 B2 JP 4894955B2
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Prior art keywords
light
light source
surface
guide plate
point
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JPWO2010070823A1 (en
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剛大 倉田
和英 廣田
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オムロン株式会社
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Priority to JP2008320480 priority
Application filed by オムロン株式会社 filed Critical オムロン株式会社
Priority to PCT/JP2009/006468 priority patent/WO2010070823A1/en
Priority to JP2010542827A priority patent/JP4894955B2/en
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Publication of JPWO2010070823A1 publication Critical patent/JPWO2010070823A1/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/0001Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems
    • G02B6/0011Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems the light guides being planar or of plate-like form
    • G02B6/0013Means for improving the coupling-in of light from the light source into the light guide
    • G02B6/0015Means for improving the coupling-in of light from the light source into the light guide provided on the surface of the light guide or in the bulk of it
    • G02B6/002Means for improving the coupling-in of light from the light source into the light guide provided on the surface of the light guide or in the bulk of it by shaping at least a portion of the light guide, e.g. with collimating, focussing or diverging surfaces
    • G02B6/0021Means for improving the coupling-in of light from the light source into the light guide provided on the surface of the light guide or in the bulk of it by shaping at least a portion of the light guide, e.g. with collimating, focussing or diverging surfaces for housing at least a part of the light source, e.g. by forming holes or recesses
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/0001Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems
    • G02B6/0011Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems the light guides being planar or of plate-like form
    • G02B6/0013Means for improving the coupling-in of light from the light source into the light guide
    • G02B6/0015Means for improving the coupling-in of light from the light source into the light guide provided on the surface of the light guide or in the bulk of it
    • G02B6/002Means for improving the coupling-in of light from the light source into the light guide provided on the surface of the light guide or in the bulk of it by shaping at least a portion of the light guide, e.g. with collimating, focussing or diverging surfaces
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/0001Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems
    • G02B6/0011Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems the light guides being planar or of plate-like form
    • G02B6/0013Means for improving the coupling-in of light from the light source into the light guide
    • G02B6/0015Means for improving the coupling-in of light from the light source into the light guide provided on the surface of the light guide or in the bulk of it
    • G02B6/0016Grooves, prisms, gratings, scattering particles or rough surfaces
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/0001Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems
    • G02B6/0011Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems the light guides being planar or of plate-like form
    • G02B6/0013Means for improving the coupling-in of light from the light source into the light guide
    • G02B6/0015Means for improving the coupling-in of light from the light source into the light guide provided on the surface of the light guide or in the bulk of it
    • G02B6/0018Redirecting means on the surface of the light guide
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/133Constructional arrangements; Operation of liquid crystal cells; Circuit arrangements
    • G02F1/1333Constructional arrangements; Manufacturing methods
    • G02F1/1335Structural association of cells with optical devices, e.g. polarisers or reflectors
    • G02F1/1336Illuminating devices
    • G02F1/133615Edge-illuminating devices, i.e. illuminating from the side

Description

  The present invention relates to a surface light source device, and more particularly, to a structure of a surface light source device for efficiently making light incident on a light guide plate body thinner than the thickness of the light source.

  The surface light source device is required to have uniform brightness, high brightness, low cost, a large light emitting area (small area other than the light emitting surface), and a small thickness. . In particular, when it is incorporated into a portable device, the demand for thinning the surface light source device is increasing as the portable device is thinned.

  However, in the edge light type surface light source device, since the point light source is arranged to face the end face of the light guide plate, if the thickness of the light guide plate is made thinner than the height of the light emission window of the point light source, the light is emitted from the point light source. Of the emitted light, the light that does not enter the light guide plate increases, and the light use efficiency of the surface light source device decreases. Therefore, the thickness of the light guide plate is restricted by the height of the light exit window of the point light source, and it is difficult to make the thickness of the light guide plate thinner than the height of the light exit window of the point light source. Similarly, when the light source is a cold cathode tube, it is difficult to make the thickness of the light guide plate thinner than the diameter of the cold cathode tube.

(Regarding Patent Document 1)
In the liquid crystal display device disclosed in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 5-53111 (Patent Document 1), a light guide plate having a thin thickness is used to efficiently cause light from the fluorescent tube to enter a light guide plate having a thickness smaller than that of the fluorescent tube. That is, the taper part is provided in the edge part of the light-guide plate main body. The end surface of the tapered portion has a height substantially equal to the diameter of the fluorescent tube, and the fluorescent tube faces the end surface.

  In such a liquid crystal display device, the thickness of the light guide plate body can be made thinner than the diameter of the fluorescent tube, and the light incident from the end face of the tapered portion is totally reflected on the front and back surfaces of the tapered portion to be guided to the light guide plate body. The light is emitted from the upper surface of the light guide plate body toward the liquid crystal panel.

  However, in the liquid crystal display device as disclosed in Patent Document 1, light leakage from the tapered portion cannot be prevented, so that the light leaking from the tapered portion appears to shine from the viewer side, and the edge of the display portion (screen) of the liquid crystal display device. However, there is a problem that the display emits light with high luminance and deteriorates the quality of the display unit. Even if light leakage can be prevented, in that case, the thickness of the light guide plate body cannot be made very thin relative to the thickness of the tapered portion, or the length of the tapered portion is made very long. As a result, the light emitting area is reduced, and a fundamental solution has not been achieved.

(Regarding Patent Documents 2 and 3)
Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 2004-69751 (Patent Document 2) and Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 2005-285389 (Patent Document 3) each disclose a surface light source device. However, in the surface light source device described in Patent Document 2, light leaking from the light guide plate to the outside cannot be sufficiently suppressed, and the leaked light shines on the display surface of the liquid crystal display device to improve the quality of the liquid crystal display device. make worse. Moreover, in the surface light source device described in Patent Document 3, the light utilization efficiency is low because light is absorbed by the light reflecting plate or light reflected by the light reflecting plate leaks from the light incident end face.
The technical problems of the surface light source devices of Patent Documents 1, 2, and 3 are described in detail in Patent Document 4.

(Regarding Patent Document 4)
Therefore, the applicant of the present invention can make the thickness of the light guide plate main body sufficiently smaller than the height of the light incident end face in the previously filed PCT application (PCT / JP2008 / 60610; Patent Document 4). And the surface light source device which enabled it to reduce the light leakage from the light introduction part with a taper was disclosed.

  As shown in FIG. 1, the surface light source device 31 includes a point light source 32 using LEDs and a light guide plate 33. The light guide plate 33 is provided with a light introducing portion 35 at an end portion of the light guide plate main body 34, and is formed of a transparent resin having a high refractive index. The light introduction part 35 is thicker than the light guide plate main body 34, and the point light source 32 is disposed opposite to the end face. In the light introducing part 35, a protrusion having a half of a truncated cone shape protrudes on the same side as the light emitting surface 39 of the light guide plate body 34, and the thickness of the light introducing part 35 is increased. The outer peripheral surface of the protrusion is an inclined surface 37, and a directivity conversion pattern 38 is formed on the inclined surface 37. The directivity conversion pattern 38 is obtained by arranging fine V-groove structures 41 along the inclined surface 37. When viewed from the direction perpendicular to the light exit surface 39 of the light guide plate 33, the directivity conversion pattern 38 is an arc-shaped region centered at the center of the light exit window of the point light source 32 (near the light source center), An extension line (long axis) in the extending direction of each V-groove structure 41 is gathered near the light source center. In addition, the light on the side opposite to the light emitting surface 39 of the light guide plate main body 34 (back surface) is a prism-shaped light for reflecting the light guided through the light guide plate main body 34 and emitting it from the light emitting surface 39. A number of emission means 40 (see FIG. 2) are formed concentrically.

  As shown in FIG. 2, in this surface light source device 31, the light L emitted from the point light source 32 enters the light introduction part 35 from the light incident end face 36, and the directivity conversion pattern 38 or The light is totally reflected on the lower surface of the light introduction part 35 or is guided to the light guide plate body 34 having a small thickness through the light introduction part 35. The light guided to the light guide plate body 34 is totally reflected or diffused by the light emitting means 40 and is emitted almost uniformly from the light emitting surface 39.

In the surface light source device 31 having such a structure, for example,
Refractive index of light guide plate 33 n = 1.59
The apex angle of the peak of the directivity conversion pattern 38 φ = 120 °
Thickness of the end face of the light introduction part T = 0.31 mm
Light guide plate body 34 thickness t = 0.18 mm
Length of upper surface of light introducing part 35 s1 = 2.50 mm
Length of light introducing part 35 s2 = 3.19 mm
Inclination angle of inclined surface 37 θ = 15.3 °
If so, light leakage from the light guide plate 33 can be eliminated in a plane perpendicular to the light emitting surface 39.

  3A, a line connecting one end A of the light exit window 32a of the point light source 32 and the center P of the inner peripheral edge of the directivity conversion pattern 38 is shown. The angle formed by the segment AP and the line segment CP connecting the center C of the light exit window 32a and the center P of the inner peripheral edge of the directivity conversion pattern 38 (hereinafter referred to as one-side expected angle) ∠ APC is 20 °. It is said. The line segment BP connecting the other end B of the light exit window 32a of the point light source 32 and the center P of the inner peripheral edge of the directivity conversion pattern 38, the center C of the light exit window 32a, and the directivity conversion pattern. The angle (one-side expected angle) ∠ BPC formed with the line segment CP connecting the center P of the edge on the inner peripheral side of 38 is also set to 20 °. In this example, since the area occupied by the light introducing portion 35 is increased, the dead space S of the light guide plate 33 is increased. However, the lateral spread of the light incident on the center P of the directivity conversion pattern 38 is 20 ° on each side of the center line CP, and the lateral spread of the light is away from the center P of the directivity conversion pattern 38. Is smaller than that, and light leakage can be prevented in the entire directivity conversion pattern 38, so that the amount of light leaking in a plane parallel to the light emitting surface 39 becomes very small, and the ratio of the maximum light leakage Can be 2% (ie, leakage light / input light ≦ 2%).

  Therefore, in the surface light source device 31 disclosed in Patent Document 4, even when the inclination angle θ of the inclined surface 37 is a large angle such as 15.3 °, if the one-side expected angle of the light introducing portion 35 is 20 ° or less. The light leakage from the light guide plate 33 can be made very small. Even when the one-sided prospective angle is larger than 20 °, it is possible to reduce the leakage light when the one-sided expected angle is as small as possible.

  However, in the market of surface light source devices, a demand for a light guide plate with a small dead space is increasing along with a demand for thinning. Therefore, when the surface light source device is commercialized, it is required to consider so that the area occupied by the light introducing portion is reduced.

  In order to reduce the occupied area of the light introducing portion 35, the directivity conversion pattern 38 may be designed so that the one-side expected angle is increased. For example, in the light introducing portion 35 shown in FIG. 3B, a line segment AP connecting one end A of the light exit window 32a of the point light source 32 and the center P of the inner peripheral edge of the directivity conversion pattern 38; A one-sided prospective angle formed by a line segment CP connecting the center C of the light exit window 32a and the center P of the inner peripheral edge of the directivity conversion pattern 38 is ∠APC = 30 °. Similarly, the one-sided prospective angle ∠BPC is 30 °. Comparing the case of FIG. 3 (b) where the one-sided prospective angle ∠APC and ∠BPC are 30 ° and the case of FIG. 3 (a) where the one-sided expected angle is 30 °, light introduction is performed when the one-sided expected angle is 30 °. Although the dead space S by the part 35 can be reduced, on the other hand, the leakage light increases and the ratio of the maximum leakage light becomes 15% (leakage light / input light ≦ 15%).

  Furthermore, when the one-side prospective angle is set to 40 °, the dead space can be made smaller than in the case of 30 °, but the leakage light increases compared to the case of 30 °, and the ratio of the maximum leakage light is 15. % Even greater.

  In an actual surface light source device, it is desirable to reduce the dead space even at the expense of some leakage light. However, when the leakage light reaches about 15%, the light use efficiency of the surface light source device decreases and the light emitting surface ( As shown in FIG. 4, a light emitting area J having a high luminance is generated at the edge of the light introducing portion 35 due to the light leaked from the directivity conversion pattern 38 as shown in FIG. Reduce the quality. Therefore, practically, the leakage light is limited to about 15%, and in the surface light source device 31 of Patent Document 4, the area occupied by the light introducing portion 35 is made smaller than that in the case where the one-side prospective angle is 30 °, thereby dead space. S could not be reduced.

Patent Document 1: JP-A-5-53111 Patent Document 2: JP-A-2004-69751 Patent Document 3: JP-A-2005-285389 Patent Document 4: PCT / JP2008 / 60610

  The present invention relates to an improvement of the surface light source device disclosed in Patent Document 4, and an object thereof is to further reduce the light leakage and further improve the light use efficiency in the surface light source device. . In particular, it is an object of the present invention to provide a surface light source device capable of improving light utilization efficiency by reducing light leakage if the dead space by the light introducing section is the same.

  The surface light source device of the present invention is a surface light source device including a point light source and a light guide plate that introduces light from the point light source from a light incident surface and emits the light from the light emission surface to the outside. The light guide plate is provided at a position facing the light incident surface of the light guide plate, and the light guide plate has a light introducing portion for confining light from a point light source incident from the light incident surface, and a maximum thickness of the light introducing portion. A light guide plate body that is provided in a small thickness so as to be continuous with the light introducing portion and that allows the confined light to be emitted from the light emitting surface to the outside by the light emitting means, and the light introducing portion includes the light introducing portion, The light guide plate has an inclined surface inclined from the surface of the thicker portion than the light guide plate body toward the end of the surface of the light guide plate body on the light emitting side surface of the light guide plate or the opposite surface, In the thickness direction of the light guide plate of the light incident on the light introducing portion A directivity conversion pattern for converting the spread of directivity into a directivity characteristic inclined toward a direction parallel to the surface direction of the light guide plate, on the light emitting side surface or the opposite surface, and The pattern is a plurality of concave or convex unit patterns each extending in one direction, and enters the light guide plate from the light incident surface when the light guide plate is viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light output surface. A first straight line obtained by averaging the major axes of the unit patterns located on one side of the center line of the point light source and intersecting the center line. An average of the long axes of the unit patterns that are located on the other side of one intersection point and in the region where the light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface arrives and across the center line of the point light source The second straight line is the center line The second intersection points difference, is characterized in that it is positioned behind the both light source center of the point light source.

  Here, the light source center of the point light source refers to the center between both ends of the light emission window of the point light source. The center line of the point light source is an axis that is perpendicular to the direction connecting both ends of the light exit window and passes through the center of the light source. The long axis of the unit pattern refers to a straight line in the length direction in which the unit pattern extends or an extension thereof. Further, “behind the light source center of the point light source” means the side opposite to the directivity conversion pattern with respect to the light exit window.

A straight line obtained by averaging the major axes of the unit patterns is defined as follows. When viewed from the direction perpendicular to the light exit surface of the light guide plate, the light source center is the coordinate origin, the X coordinate axis is defined in a direction parallel to the front surface of the point light source, and the Y coordinate axis is defined in a direction perpendicular to the front surface of the point light source. At this time, the long axis of each unit pattern is
X = an · Y + bn
, The averaged straight line is
X = [(Σan) / N] · Y + [(Σbn) / N]
It is represented by The subscript n is an index for identifying each unit pattern, and the sum represented by Σ is performed for all target unit patterns. N is the number of target unit patterns, and N = Σ1.
Furthermore, the Y coordinate of the intersection where this averaged straight line intersects the center line is
-(Σbn) / (Σan)
It becomes.

  In the surface light source device of the present invention, in most unit patterns in the region where light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface reaches, the spread of light incident on the unit pattern from the point light source is the unit pattern. Therefore, if the dead space by the light introduction part is the same, the light utilization efficiency is further improved as compared with the surface light source device disclosed in Patent Document 4. Therefore, if the light introduction part has the same efficiency, the dead space by the light introduction part can be reduced, and the ratio of the light emission area can be increased. In addition, light leakage from the light introducing portion can be reduced to prevent the light introducing portion or the vicinity thereof from shining.

  In an embodiment of the surface light source device according to the present invention, a distance between the first intersection and the light source center is not more than 6 times a width of a light emission window of the point light source, and the second intersection and the light source The distance from the light source center is not more than 6 times the width of the light exit window of the point light source. According to such an embodiment, the ratio of the maximum leakage light can be set to 15% or less which is an optimum and allowable limit.

  Another embodiment of the surface light source device according to the present invention is characterized in that the first intersection and the second intersection coincide with each other. According to such an embodiment, since the optical characteristics of the light incident part are equal in one region and the other region across the center line of the point light source, the luminance of the surface light source device is made equal on both sides of the center line. Can do.

  In another embodiment of the surface light source device according to the present invention, when the light guide plate is viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface, the light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface is within a region where the light reaches. The long axis of each of the unit patterns positioned is focused near a certain point located behind the light source center of the point light source. According to such an embodiment, in almost all unit patterns in the region where the light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface reaches, the spread of light incident on the unit pattern from the point light source is related to the long axis of the unit pattern. Since they are substantially equal, the light utilization efficiency is further improved as compared with the surface light source device disclosed in Patent Document 4. Therefore, if the light introduction part has the same efficiency, the dead space by the light introduction part can be reduced, and the ratio of the light emission area can be increased. In addition, light leakage from the light introducing portion can be reduced to prevent the light introducing portion or the vicinity thereof from shining.

  In another embodiment of the surface light source device according to the present invention, when the light guide plate is viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface, the light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface is within a region where the light reaches. The point where the long axis of the unit pattern positioned intersects the center line of the point light source is located behind the light source center of the point light source. According to such an embodiment, in almost all unit patterns in the region where the light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface reaches, the spread of light incident on the unit pattern from the point light source is related to the long axis of the unit pattern. Since they are substantially equal, the light utilization efficiency is further improved as compared with the surface light source device disclosed in Patent Document 4. Therefore, if the light introduction part has the same efficiency, the dead space by the light introduction part can be reduced, and the ratio of the light emission area can be increased. In addition, light leakage from the light introducing portion can be reduced to prevent the light introducing portion or the vicinity thereof from shining.

  In another embodiment of the surface light source device according to the present invention, when the light guide plate is viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface, the light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface is within a region where the light reaches. The distance between the point where the long axis of each of the unit patterns positioned intersects the center line and the light source center is not more than 6 times the width of the light exit window of the point light source. According to such an embodiment, the ratio of the maximum leakage light can be set to 15% or less which is an optimum and allowable limit.

  In another embodiment of the surface light source device according to the present invention, when the light guide plate is viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface, the light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface is within a region where the light reaches. The point where the long axis of the unit pattern positioned intersects the center line is closer to the light source center of the point light source as the unit pattern is farther from the center line. In particular, in this case, when viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface, the directivity conversion pattern in the region where the light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface reaches is formed in an arc shape. In addition, it is desirable that the center of a circle inscribed in the directivity conversion pattern formed in an arc shape coincides with the light source center of the point light source. According to such an embodiment, in almost all unit patterns in the region where the light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface reaches, the spread of light incident on the unit pattern from the point light source is related to the long axis of the unit pattern. Since they are substantially equal, the light utilization efficiency is further improved as compared with the surface light source device disclosed in Patent Document 4. Therefore, if the light introduction part has the same efficiency, the dead space by the light introduction part can be reduced, and the ratio of the light emission area can be increased. In addition, light leakage from the light introducing portion can be reduced to prevent the light introducing portion or the vicinity thereof from shining.

  In another embodiment of the surface light source device according to the present invention, when the light guide plate is viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface, the light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface is within a region where the light reaches. The long axis of each of the unit patterns positioned passes a certain point on the center line behind the light source center of the point light source. According to such an embodiment, in almost all unit patterns in the region where the light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface reaches, the spread of light incident on the unit pattern from the point light source is related to the long axis of the unit pattern. Since they are substantially equal, the light utilization efficiency is further improved as compared with the surface light source device disclosed in Patent Document 4. Therefore, if the light introduction part has the same efficiency, the dead space by the light introduction part can be reduced, and the ratio of the light emission area can be increased. In addition, light leakage from the light introducing portion can be reduced to prevent the light introducing portion or the vicinity thereof from shining.

  Still another embodiment of the surface light source device according to the present invention is directed to directivity conversion in a region where light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface reaches when viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface. The pattern is formed in an arc shape, and the directivity conversion pattern is formed so that a circle inscribed in the directivity conversion pattern passes through both ends of the light emission window of the point light source and enters the light guide plate. The unit patterns in the region where the light reaches are arranged such that each major axis passes through the intersection of the center line of the point light source and the inscribed circle. According to such an embodiment, in all the unit patterns in the region where the light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface reaches, the spread of the light incident on the unit pattern from the point light source is approximately the long axis of the unit pattern. Therefore, the light use efficiency is further improved as compared with the surface light source device disclosed in Patent Document 4. Therefore, if the light introduction part has the same efficiency, the dead space by the light introduction part can be reduced, and the ratio of the light emission area can be increased. In addition, light leakage from the light introducing portion can be reduced to prevent the light introducing portion or the vicinity thereof from shining.

  The means for solving the above-described problems in the present invention has a feature in which the above-described constituent elements are appropriately combined, and the present invention enables many variations by combining such constituent elements. .

FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing a surface light source device disclosed in Patent Document 4. As shown in FIG. FIG. 2 is a diagram showing the behavior of light in the surface light source device of FIG. FIGS. 3A and 3B are diagrams showing the relationship between the angle at which the light emission window of the point light source is viewed from the center of the inner periphery of the directivity conversion pattern and the size of the directivity conversion pattern. FIG. 4 is a schematic view showing a state in which a light emitting region with high luminance is generated at the edge of the light introducing portion in the surface light source device of FIG. FIG. 5 is a perspective view showing the surface light source device according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention. FIG. 6 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing the surface light source device of the first embodiment. FIG. 7 is a plan view of the light introduction unit viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface in the surface light source device of the first embodiment. FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram for explaining the function of the light introducing portion of FIG. FIG. 9 is a plan view showing the structure of the light introducing portion in the comparative example (explained in Patent Document 4). FIG. 10 is a diagram showing a result of verifying by simulation the influence of the difference between the light incident from the right side and the light incident from the left side on the V-groove structure on the efficiency of the surface light source device. FIG. 11 is a diagram illustrating a model for obtaining the data of FIG. FIG. 12 is a diagram illustrating a result of obtaining a ratio of maximum leakage light when the one-side expected angle is changed in the surface light source device of the comparative example and the surface light source device of the present embodiment. FIG. 13 is a plan view showing a case where the one-side prospective angle is set to 60 ° in the light introducing portion of the first embodiment. FIG. 14 is a plan view showing a case where the one-side prospective angle is set to 30 ° in the light introducing portion of the first embodiment. FIG. 15 is a plan view for explaining a case where the light introducing portion of FIG. 14 is deformed. FIG. 16 is a plan view illustrating a first modification of the first embodiment. FIG. 17 is a diagram for explaining the definition of a straight line obtained by averaging the long axes of the unit patterns. FIG. 18 is a plan view illustrating a second modification of the first embodiment. FIG. 19 is a plan view showing a light introducing portion of the surface light source device according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention. FIG. 20 is a diagram for explaining the operation of the light introducing unit according to the second embodiment. FIG. 21 is a diagram showing the intersection of the long axis and the center line of the V-groove structure at a position shifted by a minute distance Δ from the center line. FIG. 22 is a diagram showing the relationship between the maximum distance coefficient α and the one-sided prospective angle ω. FIG. 23 is a diagram illustrating the relationship between the distance D between the focusing point F and the light source center C and the amount of light leakage. FIG. 24 is a plan view showing a first modification of the second embodiment. FIG. 25 is a plan view illustrating a second modification of the second embodiment. FIG. 26 is a perspective view showing a light introducing portion of the surface light source device according to Embodiment 3 of the present invention. FIG. 27 is a perspective view illustrating a light introducing portion of a surface light source device according to another example of the third embodiment. FIG. 28 is a perspective view showing a surface light source device according to Embodiment 4 of the present invention. FIG. 29 is an enlarged perspective view showing a part of the light introducing portion of the surface light source device according to Embodiment 4 of the present invention. FIG. 30 is a perspective view showing a surface light source device according to another example of the fourth embodiment. FIG. 31 is a perspective view illustrating a part of a light introducing portion of a surface light source device according to another example of the fourth embodiment. FIG. 32A is a schematic plan view of a light guide plate in Embodiment 5 of the present invention, and FIG. 32B is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the directivity conversion pattern. FIG. 33A is a schematic plan view of a light guide plate having a different directivity conversion pattern in the fifth embodiment, and FIG. 33B is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the directivity conversion pattern. FIG. 34A is a schematic plan view of a light guide plate having another directivity conversion pattern in the fifth embodiment, and FIG. 34B is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the directivity conversion pattern. FIG. 35A is a schematic plan view of a light guide plate provided with still another directivity conversion pattern in the fifth embodiment, and FIG. 35B is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the directivity conversion pattern. FIG. 36 is a schematic plan view of a light guide plate having still another directivity conversion pattern in the fifth embodiment.

  Hereinafter, preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings.

(First embodiment)
A surface light source device according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention will be described. FIG. 5 is a perspective view showing the surface light source device 61 according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention, and FIG. 6 is a schematic sectional view thereof. The surface light source device 61 includes a point light source 62 and a light guide plate 63. The point light source 62 incorporates one or a plurality of LEDs 62b and emits white light. The LED 62b is sealed in a transparent sealing resin 62c, and the transparent sealing resin 62c is covered with a white resin 62d except for the front surface, and the front surface exposed from the white resin 62d of the transparent sealing resin 62c is light. An emission window 62a is formed. The point light source 62 is smaller than the width of the light guide plate 63 (the dimension in the depth direction of the paper in FIG. 6), and the cold cathode tube is called a point light source while the cold cathode tube is called a linear light source.

Note that the point light source is not a point light source in a strict sense. Although the point light source has a finite width, the entire light emitting surface does not emit light continuously like a cold cathode tube. For example, as a point light source, there is a side view type LED. One package may contain one or more LED chips, and a plurality of LED chips may be sealed simultaneously. In the case where a plurality of chips are included at the same time, the width direction opening size is about 5 mm, but the light emitting plate has a light emitting surface size of about 2 inches. Can be considered. As another example, although the LED package size itself is large, a plurality of LED chips are locally and discretely arranged in one package (for example, the light emitting surface width of one LED package is about 40 mm, If the LED chip has been discretely arranged every 5mm interval in a package) it is also regarded as a point light source. Moreover, what emits parallel light like a semiconductor laser element etc. may be used. Further, light guided using an optical fiber may be introduced into the light guide plate. In that case, the light emitting end face of the optical fiber can be regarded as a point light source.

  The light guide plate 63 is provided with a light introducing portion 65 at the end of the light guide plate main body 64, and has a high refractive index such as acrylic resin, polycarbonate resin (PC), cycloolefin-based material, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or the like. It is molded with transparent resin. In the following, it is assumed that the light guide plate 63 is made of polycarbonate resin.

  The light introducing portion 65 is a thick portion of the light guide plate 63, and its end surface is a light incident end surface 66, and the point light source 62 is disposed facing the light introducing portion 65. Further, the thickness T of the light incident end face 66 of the light introducing portion 65 is equal to or greater than the height H of the light exit window 62a (T ≧ H), so that the light emitted from the point light source 62 is The light is efficiently incident from the light incident end surface 66 into the light introducing portion 65, and the light use efficiency of the surface light source device 61 is increased.

  In the light introducing portion 65, a projection having a shape that is substantially half of a truncated cone shape is projected on the same side as the light emitting surface 69 of the light guide plate main body 64 to increase the thickness of the light introducing portion 65. The curved outer peripheral surface of the protrusion becomes an inclined surface 67, and a directivity conversion pattern 68 is formed on the inclined surface 67. The inclined surface 67 has a constant inclination angle θ over the entire circumference of the protrusion of the light introducing portion 65. An upper surface 72 of the light introducing portion 65 located on the inner peripheral side of the inclined surface 67 is a horizontal plane, that is, a plane parallel to the light emitting surface 69. Note that if the inclination angle θ of the inclined surface 67 on which the directivity conversion pattern 68 is formed is redefined, the inclination angle of the envelope surface of the directivity conversion pattern 68 can be said. The directivity conversion pattern 68 is a belt-like region having an arc shape when viewed from the direction perpendicular to the light exit surface 69, and there is a V-groove structure 71 having a V-groove shape as a unit pattern (or an inverted cross section). V-shaped chevron structures) are arranged radially.

  The light guide plate main body 64 occupies most of the area of the light guide plate 63, and its thickness t is thinner than the thickness T of the light introducing portion 65 (t <T), thereby reducing the thickness of the light guide plate 63. Figured. A light emitting means 70 is provided on the back surface of the light guide plate body 64 located on the opposite side of the light emitting surface 69. 5 and 6 show triangular groove-like patterns arranged concentrically as the light emitting means 70, but sandblasting, photo-printed diffusion ink, diffraction grating pattern, arbitrary uneven pattern, light guide plate The surface of the main body 64 opposite to the light output surface 69 may be inclined (wedge-shaped light guide plate main body) or the like, and the light output means 70 may be the light output surface 69 or the light output surface 69 and its opposite surface. It does not matter if it is provided on both sides. The light emitting means 70 has a relatively small distribution density in the vicinity of the point light source 62, and the distribution density gradually increases as the distance from the point light source 62 increases.

  In the surface light source device 61, as shown in FIG. 6, the light L emitted from the point light source 62 enters the light introducing portion 65 from the light incident end surface 66. Since the surface of the thick light introducing portion 65 and the surface of the thin light guide plate main body 64 are connected by the inclined surface 67, the light of the point light source 62 incident on the light introducing portion 65 is incident on the inclined surface 67 and its opposing surface. The light is guided to the light guide plate main body 64 while being totally reflected between them, or is guided to the light guide plate main body 64 having a small thickness through the light introducing portion 65. At this time, the light incident on the inclined surface 67 is reflected by the directivity conversion pattern 68, thereby reducing leakage from the inclined surface 67 and being efficiently guided to the light guide plate body 64. The light L guided to the light guide plate main body 64 is totally reflected or diffused by the light emitting means 70 and emitted almost uniformly from the entire light emitting surface 69.

  Next, the structure of the directivity conversion pattern 68 in the first embodiment will be described in detail. The major axis of each V groove structure 71 arranged along the inclined surface 67 of the light introducing portion 65 (a straight line extending the length direction of the valley line or the ridge line of the V groove structure 71) is the upper surface 72 of the light introducing portion 65. It intersects at 1 point F at a higher position.

  FIG. 7 is a plan view of the light introducing portion 65 viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface 69. When viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light exit surface 69, the circle 74 inscribed in the directivity conversion pattern 68 passes through both ends A and B of the light exit window 62 a of the point light source 62. Further, the point F at which the long axis 73 of the V-groove structure 71 converges is a straight line perpendicular to the inscribed circle 74 and the center line 75 of the point light source 62 (which passes through the center C of the light exit window 62a and connects both ends AB). ) And the intersection point G.

  FIG. 8 is a schematic view for explaining the function of the light introducing portion 65 having the structure as shown in FIG. As described above, both ends A and B of the light exit window 62 a are at arbitrary positions on the inscribed circle 74, and the major axis 73 of any V groove structure 71 is the intersection G ( = F), the positional relationship is as shown in FIG. Here, if the inner peripheral end of each V-groove structure 71 is P, Q1, Q2, Q3,..., Straight lines PF, Q1F, Q2F, Q3F,. Where P, Q1, Q2, Q3,... Are points on the inscribed circle 74 in front of the point light source 62, P is a point on the center line 75, and Q1, Q2, Q3,. Any point above. Note that the point O is the center of the inscribed circle 74.

As can be seen from FIG. 8, the angles ∠APF, ∠AQ1F, ∠AQ2F, ∠AQ3F,... Are all equal to the circumference angle of the same arc AG, and therefore these angles are all equal. That is,
∠APF = ∠AQ1F = ∠AQ2F = ∠AQ3F = ... (Formula 1)
Similarly, since the angles ∠BPF, ∠BQ1F, ∠BQ2F, ∠BQ3F,... Are all circumferential angles with respect to the same arc BG, these angles are also equal to each other. That is,
∠BPF = ∠BQ1F = ∠BQ2F = ∠BQ3F = ... (Formula 2)
Since the point P is a point on the center line 75,
∠APF = ∠BPF (Formula 3)
It becomes. Therefore, from Formulas 1-3,
∠AQ1F = ∠BQ1F
∠AQ2F = ∠BQ2F
∠AQ3F = ∠BQ3F
……… (Formula 4)
The result is obtained.

  The expression 4 means that in any V-groove structure 71, the spread of light incident on the V-groove structure 71 from the point light source 62 is equal on the right side and the left side with respect to the major axis 73 of the V-groove structure 71. That's what it means. That is, the spread ∠AQmB of light incident on the V-groove structure 71 at the position of Qm (m = 1, 2,...) Is equal to the spread に お け る AQmF on the right side and the spread ∠BQmF on the left side with respect to the long axis QmF. ing.

  FIG. 9 is a view showing the structure of the light introducing portion 35 in the comparative example (explained in Patent Document 4), and is a plan view seen from a direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface. In this comparative example, the center O of the inscribed circle 74 of the directivity conversion pattern 38 coincides with the center C (light source center) of the light exit window 32a, and the major axis 73 of each V-groove structure 41 is inscribed in the circle. The center O of 74 is passed. In such a comparative example, with respect to the V-groove structure 41 at the point P on the center line 75, the incident light spread ∠APO on the right side and the incident light spread ∠BPO on the left side are equal with respect to the long axis 73. However, for the V-groove structure 41 at an arbitrary position Q off the center line 75, the incident light spread ∠AQO on the right side and the incident light spread ∠BQO on the left side are different with respect to the long axis 73. For this reason, in the light introducing part 35 as in the comparative example, light is incident on the most V-groove structures 41 from a biased direction, and light leakage from the light introducing part 35 increases.

  On the other hand, in the light introducing portion 65 shown in FIG. 7, the spread of the incident light on the right side and the spread of the incident light on the left side are equal with respect to the major axis 73 regardless of the position of the V-groove structure 71. Light leakage at the introduction portion 65 is reduced, and the light use efficiency of the surface light source device 61 is improved.

  10 verified by simulation the influence of the deviation of the light incident on the V-groove structure 71, that is, the difference between the light incident on the V-groove structure 71 from the right side and the light incident on the left side on the efficiency of the surface light source device 61. It is a figure showing a result. FIG. 11 is a diagram for explaining a model for obtaining the data of FIG. In this simulation experiment (simulation was performed under the same conditions as described in paragraph 0167 of Patent Document 4), as shown in FIG. 11, the center of the point light source 62 is formed on the upper surface of the test light guide plate 63. The V-groove structure 71 was formed on the line 75, the angle ν formed by the long axis 73 of the V-groove structure 71 and the center line 75 was changed, and the efficiency improvement effect was calculated at that time. The efficiency improvement effect is an efficiency of how much light is transmitted from the light introducing portion 65 to the light guide plate body 64 without leakage. The efficiency without the V-groove structure 71 is zero, and the efficiency of preventing light leakage. The case where there is an improvement effect (light leakage is reduced) is positive, and the case where the light leakage prevention efficiency is reduced (light leakage is increased) is negative. Specifically, when the angle formed by the long axis 73 of the V-groove structure 71 and the center line 75 is ν, the amount of light transmitted to the light guide plate body 64 is Iν, and the amount of light transmitted to the light guide plate body 64 without a pattern is Io. For example, the efficiency improvement effect is expressed by (Iν−Io) / Io. Further, the efficiency improvement effect shown in FIG. 10 is normalized to 1 at an angle at which the efficiency improvement effect becomes the highest.

  As can be seen from FIG. 10, the efficiency improvement effect of the surface light source device 61 decreases as the angle ν of the long axis 73 increases. Therefore, it can be confirmed that the V-groove structure 71 is most efficient when the spread of incident light from the right side and the spread of incident light from the left side are equal to the long axis 73. That is, rather than arranging the V-groove structure 41 so that the long axis 73 of each V-groove structure 41 converges at the light source center C as shown in FIG. 9, the long axis of each V-groove structure 71 as shown in FIG. The efficiency of the surface light source device 61 is improved by arranging the V-groove structure 71 so that 73 is focused at the point G on the inscribed circle 74. Therefore, according to the configuration of the present embodiment, it is possible to reduce the leakage light in the light introducing portion 65 and improve the efficiency of the surface light source device 61, and therefore it is possible to reduce the dead space.

  Specifically, it is as follows. 7, the center O of the inscribed circle 74 coincides with the light source center C, the one-side expected angle is ∠APC = ∠BPC = 45 °, the converging point F of the long axis 73 and the light source center C. The distance to is R. In this case, if the width of the light exit window 62a is 2R and the length of the V-groove structure 71 is δ, the dead space by the light introducing portion 65 is R + δ, and the ratio of the maximum leakage light is about 4.0%. there were. On the other hand, in the comparative example of FIG. 9, when the one-side prospective angle is ∠APC = ∠BPC = 30 °, the dead space is (√3) R + δ≈1.73R + δ, and the ratio of the maximum leakage light is as described above. 15%. Therefore, according to the light introduction part 35 of Embodiment 1 shown in FIG. 7, compared with the comparative example of FIG. 9, the ratio of the maximum leakage light can be made smaller than the comparative example, and the dead space is also smaller than the comparative example. it can.

  In the surface light source device 61 of the present embodiment, the center O of the inscribed circle 74 does not necessarily need to coincide with the light source center C. Therefore, by moving the center O of the inscribed circle 74 along the center line 75 as shown in FIG. 8, the one-side prospective angle ∠APC = ∠BPC can be changed.

FIG. 12 shows the result of obtaining the ratio of the maximum leakage light when the one-side prospective angle is changed in the surface light source device of the comparative example and the surface light source device 61 of the present embodiment. The model parameters used here are
Refractive index of light guide plate n = 1.59
Peak angle of directivity conversion pattern crest φ = 120 °
Thickness of end face of light introducing part T = 0.31mm
Light guide plate body thickness t = 0.18mm
Length of top surface of light introduction part s1 = 2.50mm
Length of light introducing part s2 = 3.19mm
Inclination angle of inclined surface 37 θ = 15.3 °
(See FIGS. 2 and 6). According to FIG. 12, if the one-side prospective angle is the same, the surface light source device 61 of the present embodiment has a smaller ratio of maximum leakage light.

  When the leakage light of the surface light source device reaches about 15%, the light use efficiency of the surface light source device is reduced to reduce the luminance of the light emitting surface, and the luminance leaks from the directivity conversion pattern to the edge of the light introducing portion. Since a high light emitting region is generated, the maximum leaked light ratio is practically about 15%. Therefore, when the one-side expected angle at which the ratio of the maximum leakage light is 15% or less is seen in FIG. 12, the comparative example must be about 30 ° or less, whereas in this embodiment, the one-side expected angle is 90 °. The ratio of the maximum leaked light is considerably smaller than 15% even if it is close. Or the ratio of the maximum leaked light is 15% or less regardless of the one-sided prospective angle.

In the case of this embodiment, when the one-side prospective angle ∠APC = ∠BPC = ω, the distance D between the converging point F and the light source center C is set such that the width of the light exit window 62a is 2R.
D = R × tanω (Formula 5)
It becomes. In the dead space, the length of the V groove structure 71 is δ,
(R / tanω) + δ (Formula 6)
It becomes.

  For example, in the light introduction part 35 of this embodiment, the case where the one-sided prospective angle is ∠APC = ∠BPC = 60 ° is shown in FIG. In this case, the ratio of the maximum leakage light is about 6.5% according to FIG. 12, and the ratio of the maximum leakage light is considerably smaller than that of the comparative example of FIG. ing. Further, in this case, the dead space is R / (√3) + δ≈0.58R + δ from Equation 6, and the dead space is considerably smaller than that of the comparative example of FIG. Further, the distance between the focal point F and the light source center C is (√3) R≈1.73R from Equation 5.

  Moreover, in the light introduction part 35 of this embodiment, the case where the one-side prospective angle is ∠APC = ∠BPC = 30 ° is shown in FIG. This is the case where the magnitude of the one-side prospective angle is the same as that of the comparative example of FIG. In this case, the ratio of the maximum leakage light is further reduced to about 2.5% (according to FIG. 12). The dead space is (√3) R + δ≈1.73R + δ, which is equal to the dead space of the comparative example of FIG. Further, the distance between the focusing point F and the light source center C is R / (√3) ≈0.58R.

  Therefore, according to the surface light source device of the present embodiment, leakage light can be reduced and light utilization efficiency can be improved as compared with the surface light source device disclosed in Patent Document 4. That is, if the one-sided prospective angle is the same, the dead space remains the same and the leakage light is reduced as compared with the comparative example of FIG. 9, and the light utilization efficiency is improved. Further, if the ratio of the maximum leakage light is the same, the dead space is reduced as compared with the comparative example of FIG.

  Even if the spread of the light emitted from the point light source 62 is 180 ° in a plan view, the light that has entered the light introducing portion 65 from the light incident end face 66 has a spread of more than 180 ° due to refraction. Narrow. For example, if the refractive index of the light guide plate 63 is 1.59, the spread of light in the light introducing portion 65 is 2 × arcsin (1 / 1.59) ≈78 ° (= 2 of the critical angle of total reflection). Times). In this case, the direction of 39 ° or more from the end A of the light exit window 62a shown in FIG. 15, that is, the outside of the straight line AA ′, or the direction of 39 ° or more from the end B of the light exit window 62a, that is, the straight line BB. Light does not reach outside of ´. Therefore, as shown in FIG. 15, the V-groove structure 71 does not have to be provided in these regions where the light does not reach. Alternatively, as shown by a broken line in FIG. 15, a pattern having an arbitrary shape may be provided in these regions. This is true for any embodiment. In particular, when the distance between the end portions on the point light source 62 side of the directivity conversion pattern 38 is narrow as shown in FIG. 14, it can be widened as shown in FIG.

(Modification of the first embodiment)
In the first embodiment, the long axis 73 of each V-groove structure 71 is gathered at the intersection G of the inscribed circle 74 and the center line 75 so that the light from the point light source 62 is uniformly incident on each V-groove structure 71. However, as can be seen from FIG. 10, even if the direction of the long axis 73 of the V-groove structure 71 is slightly different, the efficiency does not rapidly decrease. Further, the present invention aims to improve the efficiency as compared with the surface light source device disclosed in Patent Document 4, so that the conditions can be relaxed within the limits. That is, not all V-groove structures 71 must strictly satisfy the above conditions.

  Therefore, in the surface light source device according to the modification of the first embodiment, the structure of the light introducing portion 65 can be characterized as follows.

  FIG. 16 is a plan view showing a first modification of the first embodiment. In this modification, when the light guide plate 63 is viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light exit surface 69, the light guide plate 63 is in a region where light incident from the light incident end surface 66 into the light introducing portion 65 reaches and the center of the point light source 62. A first average of the long axes 73 of the V-groove structures 71 located on one side across the line 75 (that is, the V-groove structure 71 between the center line 75 and the straight line AA ′ in FIG. 16). The first straight line 73A intersects the center line 75 and a region where the light incident from the light incident end face 66 reaches the light introducing portion 65, and the other side of the center line 75 of the point light source 62 A second straight line 73B obtained by averaging the long axes 73 of the respective V-groove structures 71 located on the side (that is, the V-groove structure 71 between the center line 75 and the straight line BB ′ in FIG. 16) is the center line 75. And the second intersection that intersects with each other coincides at a point F on the center line 75. This intersection F is a point behind the light source center C, except that the light source center C is excluded and the distance D from the light source center C is equal to or less than the distance 12R, which is six times the width of the light exit window 62a. is there. Further, it is desirable that the intersection point F is in the vicinity of the intersection point G between the inscribed circle 74 and the center line 75 of the directivity conversion pattern 68. The point that the distance D from the light source center C is not more than 6 times the width of the light exit window will be described later.

The above-described “straight line obtained by averaging the long axes 73 of the respective V-groove structures 71” (73A or 73B) is defined as follows. As shown in FIG. 17, when viewed from the direction perpendicular to the light exit surface 69 of the light guide plate 63, the light source center C is taken as the coordinate origin, and the X coordinate axis is set in a direction parallel to the front surface of the point light source 62 (light exit window 62a). The Y coordinate axis is determined in a direction perpendicular to the front surface of the point light source 62. When the number of target V-groove structures 71 is N, the N V-groove structures 71 are distinguished by indices n = 1, 2,. In the XY coordinate system, if the inclination of the major axis 73 of the n-th V-groove structure 71 is an and the X-intercept of the major axis 73 is bn, the major axis 73 of each V-groove structure 71 is as follows: expressed.
X = an · Y + bn
A straight line (first straight line 73A or second straight line 73B) obtained by averaging these N major axes 73 is defined by the following Expression 7 .

Further, from the above Equation 1, the Y coordinate Yi of the intersection (first intersection or second intersection) where the straight line obtained by averaging the N major axes 73 has a tolerance with the center line 75 is expressed by the following Equation 8 . Is done.

In the first modification, the intersection point F is a point behind the light source center C, excludes the light source center C, and the distance D from the light source center C is a distance that is six times the width of the light exit window 62a. Because it is 12R or less,
-12R ≦ Yi <0
It becomes.

  FIG. 18 is a plan view showing a second modification of the first embodiment. In this modification, when the light guide plate 63 is viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light exit surface 69, the light guide plate 63 is in a region where light incident from the light incident end surface 66 into the light introducing portion 65 reaches and the center of the point light source 62. Light is introduced from the first intersection point Fa where the first straight line 73A obtained by averaging the long axes 73 of the respective V-groove structures 71 located on one side across the line 75 intersects the center line 75 and the light incident end face 66. A second straight line obtained by averaging the major axes 73 of the respective V-groove structures 71 located on the other side of the center line 75 of the point light source 62 within the region where the light incident on the portion 65 reaches. The second intersection point Fb at which 73B intersects the center line 75 is different. The intersections Fa and Fb are both points behind the light source center C, excluding the light source center C, and the distance D from the light source center C is a distance 12R or less which is six times the width of the light exit window 62a. This is the point. Furthermore, the intersections Fa and Fb are preferably near the intersection G between the inscribed circle 74 and the center line 75 of the directivity conversion pattern 68. In FIG. 18, the second intersection point Fb is closer to the light source center C than the first intersection point Fa, but the second intersection point Fb may be farther from the light source center C.

(Second Embodiment)
FIG. 19 is a plan view showing the light introducing portion 65 of the surface light source device according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention. FIG. 20 is an explanatory diagram of the second embodiment. As shown in FIG. 19, in the second embodiment, the directivity conversion pattern 68 is formed such that the center O of the inscribed circle 74 coincides with the light source center C. The inner circumferential end of each V-groove structure 71 is designated as Q1, Q2, Q3,... Sequentially from the V-groove structure 71 close to the center line 75, and the major axis 73 of each V-groove structure 71 intersects the center line 75. If the points are F1, F2, F3,..., The straight line AQm connecting one end A of the light exit window 62a and the inner end Qm (m = 1, 2,...) Of the V-groove structure 71 is its length. The angle ∠AQmFm formed with the axis 73 and the angle ∠BQmFm formed with the long axis 73 of the straight line BQm connecting the other end B of the light exit window 62a and the inner end Qm of the V-groove structure 71 are equal. The direction of each major axis 73 is determined.

  As shown in FIG. 20, when the long axis 73 of each V-groove structure 71 intersects at the light source center C (that is, in the case of the comparative example of FIG. 9), The incident angles ∠AQmC and ∠BQmC are not equal, and the efficiency tends to decrease and light leakage tends to occur. On the other hand, if the direction of the long axis 73 is changed and the point Fm where the long axis 73 intersects the center line 75 is moved backward from the light source center C, the incident angles ∠AQmFm on both sides of the long axis 73 ∠BQmFm can be made equal, light utilization efficiency can be further improved, and light leakage from the light introducing section 65 can be reduced. As a result, the point Fm at which the long axis 73 of the V-groove structure 71 intersects the center line 75 is closer to the light source center C as the V-groove structure 71 is further away from the center line 75 as shown in FIG.

  A circle 76 in FIG. 20 represents a circle centered on the point Fm. That is, FIG. 20 shows that changing the direction of the long axis 73 of each V-groove structure 71 as in this embodiment is that the center of the inscribed circle of the V-groove structure 71 is made from the light exit window 62a like a circle 76. Represents the similarity to moving backward.

21 and 22 are diagrams for explaining the relationship between the converging point F of the long axis 73 and the distance D between the light source centers C and the one-side prospective angle ω in the second embodiment. As shown in FIG. 21, a point P on the center line 75 where the one-side prospective angle is ω is considered, and a point Qm deviated from this point P by a minute distance Δ is considered. At this time, the spread of the light incident on the point Qm is ∠AQmB. If the direction of the long axis 73 of the V groove structure 71 at the point Qm is determined to coincide with the bisector of the angle ∠AQmB, The distance D (= FmC) between the intersection Fm of the long axis 73 and the center line 75 and the light source center C increases as the minute distance Δ approaches zero, and the maximum value Dmax of the distance D is set as the limit of Δ → 0. I can decide. Since this maximum value Dmax is a function of the one-sided prospective angle ω,
Maximum distance coefficient α = Dmax / (2R)
The maximum distance coefficient α is also a function of the one-sided prospective angle ω.

  FIG. 22 is a diagram showing the relationship between the one-side prospective angle ω and the maximum distance coefficient α, where the horizontal axis is the one-side prospective angle ω and the vertical axis is the maximum distance coefficient α. According to FIG. 22, as the one-side prospective angle ω increases, the maximum distance coefficient α also monotonously increases. The maximum distance coefficient α increases rapidly when the one-sided prospective angle ω exceeds 80 °, but the region where the one-sided expected angle ω> 80 ° or the maximum distance factor α> 6 is unique. According to FIG. 12, the ratio of the maximum leaked light was 15% when the one-sided prospective angle ω was 90 ° or less. However, considering such singularity, the one-sided prospective angle ω was 80 ° or less or the maximum distance coefficient. It has been found that when α is 6 times or less, the ratio of maximum leakage light can be optimized and 15% or less. Therefore, the major axis 73 of the optimum V-groove structure 71 intersects the center line 75 within a range of 6 times or less the width 2R of the light exit window 62a as measured from the light source center C. Since there is no LED having a width of 10 mm or more at present, the intersection Fm between the long axis 73 and the center line 75 is within 60 mm from the light source center C.

For example, when the one-side prospective angle ω is 30 °, the maximum distance coefficient α = 0.29 from FIG. 22, and therefore, if the width 2R = 2 mm of the light exit window 62a, all intersections or most intersections. F may be set so that the distance from the light source center C is 0.29 × 2 mm = 0.58 mm or less.
The description with reference to FIG. 22 also applies to the first embodiment.

FIG. 23 is a diagram illustrating the relationship between the distance D between the focusing point F and the light source center C and the amount of light leakage. In FIG. 23, the horizontal axis indicates a value obtained by dividing the distance D between the focusing point F and the light source center C by the maximum distance Dmax = (2R × α), and the vertical axis indicates the ratio of light leakage. According to FIG. 23, when D / Dmax is in the range of 0.2 to 2.4, the long axis 73 of each V-groove structure 71 is gathered at the light source center C (that is, when D / Dmax = 0). Since the leakage amount is reduced to 2/3 or less, it can be said that there is a sufficient effect. For example, when the one-side prospective angle ω is 30 °, the maximum distance coefficient α = 0.29 from FIG. 22, and if the width 2R = 2 mm of the light exit window 62a, all intersections of the major axes or most of A sufficient effect can be obtained if the distance from the light source center C to the intersection F is at least 0.29 × 2 mm × 0.2 = 0.116 mm.
The maximum distance coefficient α increases rapidly when the one-sided prospective angle ω exceeds 80 °, but this one-sided prospective angle ω> 80 ° is specific, and α is a value of 6 or less as shown in FIG. It is known to show a tendency.

(Modification of the second embodiment)
FIG. 24 is a plan view showing a first modification of the second embodiment. In the second embodiment, the intersections F1, F2,... At which the major axis 73 of each V-groove structure 71 intersects the center line 75 are gradually shifted in position, but in the first modification of the second embodiment, the implementation is performed. The major axis 73 of each V-groove structure 71 intersects at one point at a substantially average position F of the intersection points F1, F2,. Note that the intersection point F is located within the range of D = 12R from the light source center C.

  Even in such a modified example, in each V-groove structure 71, the incident angles ∠AQmC and ∠BQmC on both sides of the long axis 73 can be made substantially equal to improve light utilization efficiency and reduce light leakage. be able to.

  FIG. 25 is a plan view showing a second modification of the second embodiment. In the second modified example, the directivity conversion pattern 68 is formed such that the center O of the inscribed circle 74 is located behind the point light source 62 with respect to the light source center C. Each V-groove structure 71 is formed such that the long axis 73 converges to the center O of the inscribed circle 74 and the intersection point F coincides with the center O. That is, the light introduction part 65 in FIG. 25 has a structure in which the entire light introduction part 35 as in the comparative example shown in FIG. 9 is moved backward.

  In the second embodiment shown in FIGS. 19 to 25 and the first and second modifications thereof, in the region outside the straight line AA ′ where the light does not reach and the region outside the straight line BB ′, the V-groove structure is used. 71 may be omitted and can be formed in an arbitrary shape. These are also in a region where the light incident from the light incident end surface 66 into the light introducing portion 65 reaches when viewed from the direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface 69 and sandwich the center line 75 of the point light source 62. And a straight line obtained by averaging the major axes 73 of the V-groove structure 71 located on one side, and a region where light incident from the light incident end face 66 into the light introducing portion 65 reaches, and the center line of the point light source 62 A straight line obtained by averaging the long axes of the V-groove structures 71 located on the other side across 75 intersects at one point on the center line 75.

(Third embodiment)
FIG. 26 is a perspective view showing the light introducing portion 65 of the surface light source device according to Embodiment 3 of the present invention. This surface light source device is configured so that a plurality of point light sources 62 can be used side by side, and a substantially arc-shaped directivity conversion pattern 68 is provided in front of each point light source 62. Since the light incident from the light incident end face of the light introducing portion 65 has a conical directional characteristic, the light introducing portion 65 of the light incident from the light incident end face when viewed from the direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface. The inner spread is smaller than 180 ° (as described above, when the refractive index of the light guide plate is 1.59, the spread of light is 78 °). Therefore, even when the arc-shaped directivity conversion patterns 68 are arranged next to each other, the pattern shape and pattern direction of the region E between the directivity conversion patterns 68 that do not reach light can be freely formed. . However, the areas where the light beams of the directivity conversion patterns 68 of the adjacent areas reach are not overlapped with each other. Alternatively, the directivity conversion pattern 68 may not be present in the region E between the directivity conversion patterns 68 where the light does not reach. Further, when the light incident surface is not a flat surface but a pattern for changing the spread of the incident light is added, the spread is also considered.

  FIG. 27 shows a modified example of the third embodiment in which adjacent directivity conversion patterns 68 are smoothly connected.

(Fourth embodiment)
FIG. 28 is a perspective view showing a surface light source device 77 according to Embodiment 4 of the present invention. FIG. 29 is an enlarged perspective view showing one directivity conversion pattern 68. The surface light source device 77 is configured so that a plurality of point light sources 62 can be used side by side, and a light introducing portion 65 is provided in front of each point light source 62. A flat upper surface 72 having a narrow width is provided at the end of the light guide plate 63 in parallel with the end surface, and the inclined surface 67 is linearly extended along the width direction of the light guide plate 63 from the upper surface toward the light guide plate body 64. It is provided in the shape. In front of each point light source 62, a directivity conversion pattern 68 is provided in a trapezoidal region along the inclined surface so as not to overlap each other. Both the edge of the point light source 62 of the directivity conversion pattern 68 and the edge far from the point light source 62 are linear, and the one-side prospective angle is 90 °. The directivity conversion pattern 68 is composed of a plurality of V-groove structures 71 arranged radially, and the long axis of each V-groove structure 71 converges or intersects behind the center of the light exit window of the point light source 62. is doing.

  According to such an embodiment, since the directivity conversion pattern 68 can be formed on the simple inclined surface 67, the directivity conversion pattern 68 can be easily manufactured.

FIG. 30 is a perspective view showing a modification of the fourth embodiment, and FIG. 31 is an enlarged perspective view showing one directivity conversion pattern 68 thereof. In this modification, the flat upper surface 72 at the end of the inclined surface 67 is eliminated so that the end of the directivity conversion pattern 68 (or the V-groove structure 71) reaches the end of the light guide plate 63.

(Fifth embodiment)
In the embodiments described so far, the method of eliminating the light leakage from the light guide plate using the unit pattern of the V-groove structure has been considered, but a more generalized structure will be described below. That is, the unit pattern (recessed) extending radially around a certain point located behind the light source center of the point light source is not necessarily a unit pattern having a V-groove structure as described above. (Or a convex-concave structure), the directivity of light reflected by the directivity conversion pattern is substantially orthogonal to the light source direction (the direction connecting the light reflection point and the light source center of the point light source). If spread in the direction, the directivity spread in the thickness direction of the light guide plate of the light incident on the light introduction portion can be converted into a directional characteristic inclined toward the direction parallel to the surface direction of the light guide plate. Light leakage at 65 can be reduced.

  The reason for this is described in detail in Patent Document 4 (particularly, paragraphs 0138-0141, FIGS. 55-57, etc.), so the description in Patent Document 4 is used here, and details thereof are omitted.

  Examples of such an embodiment include those shown in FIGS. 32A and 32B to FIG. 32 (a) and 32 (b), a concavo-convex structure 78 (unit pattern) having a cylindrical lens shape or an elliptical groove shape (elliptical spherical shape) is centered on a certain point located behind the light source center of the point light source 62. The directivity conversion pattern 68 is configured by arranging the concavo-convex structures 78 radially so that the longitudinal direction thereof is substantially parallel to the light source direction. 33 (a) and 33 (b), the longitudinal direction of each concavo-convex structure 78 is substantially the same as the light source direction around a certain point located behind the light source center of the point light source 62. The directivity conversion pattern 68 is configured by arranging radially so as to be parallel. 34 (a) and 34 (b), the longitudinal direction of each concavo-convex structure 78 is substantially the same as the light source direction around a certain point located behind the light source center of the point light source 62 in the concavo-convex structure 78 having a U groove shape. The directivity conversion pattern 68 is configured by arranging radially so as to be parallel. In FIGS. 35A and 35B, the longitudinal direction of each concavo-convex structure 78 is substantially the same as the light source direction with a certain point located behind the light source center of the point light source 62 in the concavo-convex structure 78 having a diffraction grating shape. The directivity conversion pattern 68 is configured by arranging radially so as to be parallel. In FIG. 36, the concavo-convex structure 78 that undulates when viewed from the direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface is centered on a certain point located behind the light source center of the point light source 62, and the longitudinal direction of each concavo-convex structure 78 is as follows. The directivity conversion pattern 68 is configured by arranging radially so as to be substantially parallel to the light source direction.

  As another embodiment, for example, a concavo-convex structure 78 as shown in FIGS. 32A and 32B to FIG. 36 may be used as in the second embodiment shown in FIG. . That is, when viewed from the direction perpendicular to the light exit surface 69, the directivity conversion pattern 68 in the region where the light incident from the light incident end surface 66 into the light guide plate 63 reaches is formed in an arc shape, and the directivity conversion is performed. The center of the circle inscribed in the pattern 68 coincides with the light source center C. The point where the long axis 73 of the concavo-convex structure 78 in the directivity conversion pattern 68 intersects the center line 75 is such that the concavo-convex structure 78 far from the center line 75 is closer to the light source center C of the point light source 62. Also good.

  Further, the unit patterns such as the V-groove structure and the concavo-convex structure may have irregular shapes and sizes, or may be random, as shown in the embodiments of FIGS. These unit patterns may be mixed.

  Although not shown, as shown in FIGS. 44 to 50 of Patent Document 4, the directivity conversion pattern may be formed on the surface opposite to the light exit surface of the light guide plate. The inclined surface may also be formed on the surface opposite to the light emitting surface of the light guide plate. Further, as shown in FIG. 53D of Patent Document 4, the inclined surface and the directivity conversion pattern may be provided on both the same side surface and the opposite side surface of the light guide plate.

61 surface light source device 62 point light source 62a light exit window 62b LED
63 Light guide plate 64 Light guide plate main body 65 Light introducing portion 66 Light incident end face 67 Inclined surface 68 Directivity conversion pattern 69 Light exit surface 70 Light exit means 71 V groove structure 73 Long axis 74 Inscribed circle 75 Center line

Claims (10)

  1. A surface light source device comprising a point light source and a light guide plate that introduces light of the point light source from a light incident surface and emits the light from the light emission surface to the outside,
    The point light source is provided at a position facing the light incident surface of the light guide plate,
    The light guide plate is provided so as to be continuous with the light introducing portion with a light introducing portion for confining light from a point light source incident from a light incident surface and a thickness smaller than the maximum thickness of the light introducing portion. A light guide plate main body configured to emit the confined light from the light emitting surface to the outside by the light emitting means,
    The light introducing portion has an inclined surface inclined from the surface of a portion thicker than the light guide plate main body toward the end of the surface of the light guide plate main body on the light emitting side surface of the light guide plate or the opposite surface thereof. Have
    The light guide plate has a directivity conversion pattern for converting the directivity spread in the thickness direction of the light guide plate of light incident on the light introducing portion into a directivity characteristic inclined toward a direction parallel to the surface direction of the light guide plate. On the surface of the light emitting side or the opposite surface,
    The directivity conversion pattern is a plurality of concave or convex unit patterns each extending in one direction,
    When the light guide plate is viewed from the direction perpendicular to the light exit surface, the light guide plate is in a region where light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface reaches and on one side of the center line of the point light source A first straight line obtained by averaging the major axes of the unit patterns located at a first intersection point intersecting the center line, and a region where light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface reaches. And a second straight line where a second straight line obtained by averaging the major axes of the unit patterns located on the other side across the center line of the point light source intersects the center line is the point A surface light source device, which is located behind a light source center of a light source.
  2. The distance between the first intersection and the light source center is not more than 6 times the width of the light exit window of the point light source,
    2. The surface light source device according to claim 1, wherein a distance between the second intersection and the light source center is 6 times or less of a width of a light emission window of the point light source.
  3.   The surface light source device according to claim 1, wherein the first intersection point and the second intersection point coincide with each other.
  4.   When the light guide plate is viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface, the long axis of each unit pattern located in a region where light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface reaches the point light source 2. The surface light source device according to claim 1, wherein the surface light source device is focused in the vicinity of a certain point located behind the light source center.
  5.   When the light guide plate is viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface, the long axis of the unit pattern located in the region where the light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface reaches the center line of the point light source 2. The surface light source device according to claim 1, wherein the points intersecting each other are located behind a light source center of the point light source.
  6.   When the light guide plate is viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light exit surface, the long axis of each unit pattern located in a region where light incident from the light incident surface into the light guide plate reaches the center line. 2. The surface light source device according to claim 1, wherein the distance between the intersecting point and the light source center is not more than 6 times the width of the light exit window of the point light source.
  7.   When the light guide plate is viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light exit surface, the major axis of the unit pattern located in a region where light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface intersects the center line. 2. The surface light source device according to claim 1, wherein the point is closer to the light source center of the point light source as the unit pattern is farther from the center line.
  8.   When viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface, the directivity conversion pattern in the region where the light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface reaches is formed in an arc shape and is formed in an arc shape. The surface light source device according to claim 7, wherein a center of a circle inscribed in the directivity conversion pattern coincides with a light source center of the point light source.
  9.   When the light guide plate is viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light emitting surface, the long axis of each unit pattern located in a region where light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface reaches the point light source 2. The surface light source device according to claim 1, wherein a certain point on the center line passes behind the center of the light source.
  10.   When viewed from a direction perpendicular to the light exit surface, the directivity conversion pattern in the region where the light incident on the light guide plate from the light incident surface reaches is formed in an arc shape, and the directivity conversion pattern Is formed so that a circle inscribed in the directivity conversion pattern passes through both ends of the light exit window of the point light source, and the unit patterns in the region where the light incident on the light guide plate reaches each of the unit patterns The surface light source device according to claim 1, wherein an axis is disposed so as to pass through an intersection of a center line of the point light source and the inscribed circle.
JP2010542827A 2008-12-17 2009-11-30 Surface light source device Active JP4894955B2 (en)

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CN102257312A (en) 2011-11-23
US8210730B2 (en) 2012-07-03
US20110286238A1 (en) 2011-11-24
WO2010070823A1 (en) 2010-06-24
JPWO2010070823A1 (en) 2012-05-24

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