JP4605943B2 - Cogeneration system operation method - Google Patents

Cogeneration system operation method Download PDF

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JP4605943B2
JP4605943B2 JP2001187998A JP2001187998A JP4605943B2 JP 4605943 B2 JP4605943 B2 JP 4605943B2 JP 2001187998 A JP2001187998 A JP 2001187998A JP 2001187998 A JP2001187998 A JP 2001187998A JP 4605943 B2 JP4605943 B2 JP 4605943B2
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power
heat
amount
demand
power generation
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JP2002213303A (en
JP2002213303A5 (en
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伸 岩田
義孝 栢原
桂嗣 滝本
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大阪瓦斯株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/10Combined combustion
    • Y02E20/14Combined heat and power generation [CHP]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/16Energy recuperation from low temperature heat sources of the ICE to produce additional power
    • Y02T10/166Waste heat recovering cycles or thermoelectric systems

Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides an operation of a cogeneration system configured to provide both electric power and heat by providing a cogeneration device that generates electric power and heat, such as an integrated engine and generator or a fuel cell. Regarding the method.
[0002]
[Prior art]
As this kind, there was one that was configured to follow the power demand, but if the total amount of heat generated by the combined heat and power unit is more than necessary, the excess heat is discarded It is useless.
[0003]
Therefore, a heat storage tank for storing the heat generated by the combined heat and power supply device is provided, temperature sensors are provided at predetermined locations above and below the heat storage tank, and the heat storage tank is full or almost empty based on the temperature change. The operation of the combined heat and power supply device is controlled to meet the heat demand.
[0004]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
However, even when heat is not actually needed, heat is stored in the heat storage tank, and if the time until the stored heat is consumed is long, the amount of heat released from the heat storage tank increases, and this heat loss is reduced. For this reason, there is a drawback that the energy saving performance is lowered.
[0005]
As the operation mode, there are operation at the rated power generation amount, operation following the power demand for the portion below the rating, and further operation with multiple power generation amounts, but in either case, in order to reduce the heat dissipation loss, If you try to operate a combined heat and power supply device so that the time until heat is consumed is short, the power generation is reduced when the demand for power is low, and the apparent power generation efficiency or power generation efficiency decreases, saving energy. However, there is a problem of lowering.
[0006]
On the contrary, if the power generation efficiency is emphasized and the cogeneration apparatus is operated in a state where the power generation efficiency is high, there is a problem that the energy saving performance is reduced due to the heat radiation loss as described above.
[0007]
In addition, when constructing a cogeneration system, the heat storage tank must be limited in terms of capacity in terms of site area, heat insulation configuration, etc., and the amount of heat storage is limited, resulting in a slight lack of heat. In other words, there is a drawback in that energy saving performance is reduced, such as the operation of a combined heat and power supply device.
[0008]
  The present invention has been made in view of such circumstances, and claims 1, Claim 2, Claim 7And claims8The invention according to the invention makes it possible to improve the energy saving performance by operating the combined heat and power supply device in a state in which the apparent power generation efficiency is increased as much as possible and the heat radiation loss is reduced as much as possible, and the auxiliary heating means is used. Claims3, claim 4, claim 5, claim 6, claim 9And claims10An object of the present invention is to operate a combined heat and power supply device with the power generation efficiency as high as possible and the heat dissipation loss as small as possible, and to make it possible to improve the energy saving performance by using auxiliary heating means. And claims11An object of the invention is to improve durability.
[0009]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
  In order to achieve the above-described object, the operation method of the cogeneration system of the invention according to claim 1
  A combined heat and power generation device that generates the rated amount of power and heat;
  A heat storage tank for storing heat generated by the cogeneration device;
  Electrothermal conversion means for converting the electric power generated in the cogeneration device into heat;
  Auxiliary heating means to compensate for the shortage of heat,
  Demand change specifying means for predetermining changes with time of each of heat demand and power demand within one cycle, with a predetermined time as one cycle;
  Power purchase means capable of supplying insufficient power,
  The amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand in the one cycle or most of it is generated and consumed in the one cycle by the combined heat and power supply device, and the excess heat is consumed in the next cycle. Allowing and supplementing the deficient amount of heat with the auxiliary heating means, dividing the one cycle into set time intervals, and assuming a state in which the combined heat and power supply device is operated and a state in which it is stopped at each divided time Then, the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank is not less than 0 and does not exceed the maximum amount of heat stored, and the optimum operating state of the combination that minimizes the converted value of the overall primary energy is obtained, and depending on the obtained optimum operating state The heat and power supply device is operated with a rated power generation amount, and surplus power when the power demand is smaller than the power of the rated power generation amount is converted into heat by the electrothermal conversion means.
  Moreover, in order to achieve the above object, the operation method of the cogeneration system of the invention according to claim 2
  In the operation method of the cogeneration system according to claim 1,
  Demand change specifying means for predetermining temporal changes of heat demand and electric power demand within one period T with a predetermined time as one period TBe equippede,
  The amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand in the one cycle T or most of the heat is generated and consumed in the one cycle T by the combined heat and power supply device, and excess heat is consumed in the next cycle. And the supplementary heating means compensates for the shortage of heat, divides the one period T into set time intervals d, and stops the state in which the combined heat and power device is operated at each divided time. Assuming the state, the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank always satisfies the following conditional expression (1), and the converted value PE [Expression (4)] of the following primary energy is minimum. The combined operation of the thermoelectric power supply device is operated at the rated power generation amount according to the determined optimal operation state, and surplus power when the power demand is smaller than the power of the rated power generation amount is calculated by the electrothermal conversion means. It is characterized by converting the.
[30]
  Here, S [t + (n−1) d] indicates the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank at the start of operation for each divided time. In addition, n is a positive integer of 1 to T / d, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is a release from the system. The amount of heat. Smax Indicates the maximum amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank.
  HTn Indicates the amount of heat obtained within the divided time interval d, and is expressed by the following equation (2).
[31]
  Here, F indicates the power of the rated power generation amount, and k indicates the thermoelectric ratio. HnIs the amount of heat converted from surplus power to heat by the electrothermal conversion means, F> En The amount of (t ′) is integrated and is expressed by the following equation (3).
[Expression 32]
  However, if e (t ′) <F, En (T ′) = e (t ′)
        If e (t ′) ≧ F, En (T ′) = F
  Where En (T ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power, and e (t ′) is It is a function which shows a time-dependent change of the electric power demand (load electric power) specified beforehand.
  In the above equation (2), BO (t ′) represents a function in the case where the auxiliary heating means is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the shortage of heat occurs.
  PE = ΣPEn = ΣGIn ・ Α + ΣBIn ・ Α ’+ ΣBEn ・ Β …… (4)
  Where ΣPEn Is the sum of the primary energies of n = 1 to T / d. GInIs a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (5), and α is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣGIn Α is the sum of n = 1 to T / d. Also, BIn Is the fuel supply amount required for the operation of the auxiliary heating means, α ′ is the converted value of the fuel into the primary energy, and ΣBIn Α ′ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d.
[Expression 33]
  Here, GI (t ′) is a fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used.
  ΣBEn Is an input amount of insufficient power within a predetermined time T that is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (6), and β is a converted value of the power to primary energy, and n = 1 The total of ~ T / d is obtained.
[Expression 34]
  Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (7).
[Expression 35]
  Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power.
[0010]
  Claims3In order to achieve the above-described object, the operation method of the cogeneration system of the invention according to
  A cogeneration device that generates power and heat that can be operated according to the load power when the load power is less than the rated power generation amount,
  A heat storage tank for storing heat generated by the cogeneration device;
  Auxiliary heating means to compensate for the shortage of heat,
  Demand change specifying means for predetermining changes with time of each of heat demand and power demand within one cycle, with a predetermined time as one cycle;
  Power purchase means capable of supplying insufficient power,
  The amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand in the one cycle is generated and consumed in the one cycle by the combined heat and power supply device, and the excess heat is allowed to be consumed in the next cycle, And, supplement the shortage of heat with the auxiliary heating means, dividing the one cycle for each set time interval, assuming a state of operating the combined heat and power unit and a state of stopping at each divided time, An optimum operating state of a combination that minimizes the converted value of the primary energy is determined so that the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank is 0 or more and does not exceed the maximum amount of stored heat, and the thermoelectric power is calculated according to the obtained optimum operating state. The cogeneration apparatus is operated with the rated power generation amount, and when the power demand is smaller than the power of the rated power generation amount, the cooperating device is operated following the change in the power demand.
  Further, the operation method of the cogeneration system of the invention according to claim 4 is to achieve the above-described object,
  A predetermined time is defined as one period T, and a demand change specifying means for specifying in advance a temporal change in each of the heat demand and power demand within the period T.StepPrepared,
  The amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand within one cycle T is generated and consumed within the one cycle T by the combined heat and power supply device, and excess heat is allowed to be consumed in the next cycle. And supplementing the deficient amount of heat with the auxiliary heating means, dividing the one period T into set time intervals d, and operating and stopping the combined heat and power device at each divided time. Assuming that the variation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank always satisfies the following conditional expression (8), and the following primary energy conversion value PE [Expression (10)] is minimized. Obtain the optimum operating state, and operate the combined heat and power supply device with the rated power generation amount according to the determined optimum operating state and follow the change in the power demand when the power demand is smaller than the rated power generation amount. It is characterized.
[Expression 36]
  Here, S [t + (n−1) d] indicates the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank at the start of operation for each divided time. In addition, n is a positive integer of 1 to T / d, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is a release from the system. The amount of heat. Smax indicates the maximum heat storage amount of the heat storage tank.
  HTn represents the amount of heat acquired within the divided time interval d, and is expressed by the following equation (9).
[Expression 37]
  Here, En (t ′) is the amount of electric power that becomes the rated electric energy when the load electric power exceeds the electric power of the rated electric power generation, and the electric energy that becomes the electric power of the load when the electric power is smaller than the rated electric power. B [En (t ')] indicates the amount of heat generated by the combined heat and power device at the amount of power En (t').
  BO (t ′) represents a function in the case where the auxiliary heating means is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the shortage of heat occurs.
  PE = ΣPEn = ΣGIn · α + ΣBIn · α '+ ΣBEn · β (10) where ΣPEn is the total primary energy of n = 1 to T / d. GIn is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (5a), α is a converted value to the primary energy of fuel, and ΣGIn · α is n = 1 to T / d Seeking the sum of BIn is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the auxiliary heating means, α ′ is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣBIn · α ′ is a sum of n = 1 to T / d.
[Formula 38]
  Here, GI (t ′) is a fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used.
  ΣBE n is an input amount of insufficient power within a predetermined time T that is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (11), and β is a converted value of power to primary energy, and n = The sum of 1 to T / d is obtained.
[39]
  Here, GP is a power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is represented by the following equation (12).
[Formula 40]
  Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the power of the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power, and e (t ') Is a function indicating a change with time in power demand (load power) specified in advance.
[0011]
  Claims5In order to achieve the above-described object, the operation method of the cogeneration system of the invention according to
  A combined heat and power device that operates with the power generation amount set in multiple stages and generates the power and heat of the set power generation amount,
  A heat storage tank for storing heat generated by the cogeneration device;
  Electrothermal conversion means for converting the electric power generated in the cogeneration device into heat;
  Auxiliary heating means to compensate for the shortage of heat,
  Demand change specifying means for predetermining temporal changes in heat demand and power demand in each of the one period and the next one period, with a predetermined time as one period,
  Power purchase means capable of supplying insufficient power,
  The amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand in the one cycle is generated and consumed in the one cycle by the combined heat and power supply device, and the excess heat is allowed to be consumed in the next cycle, In addition, the amount of heat that is insufficient is supplemented by the auxiliary heating means, and the one cycle is divided every set time interval, and the combined heat and power unit is operated at each of the divided power generation amounts and stopped at each divided time. Assuming that the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank is 0 or more and does not exceed the maximum heat storage amount, the optimum operating state of the combination that minimizes the converted value of the overall primary energy is obtained and obtained. According to the optimum operating state, the combined heat and power device is operated with a plurality of stages of rated power generation amount, and surplus power when the power demand is smaller than a set power generation amount is converted into heat by the electrothermal conversion means. To have.
  In order to achieve the above-mentioned object, the operation method of the cogeneration system of the invention according to claim 6
  In the operation method of the cogeneration system according to claim 5,
  A predetermined period of time is defined as one period T, and a demand change specifying method for specifying in advance a temporal change in each of the heat demand and power demand in each of the one period T and the next one period T.StepPrepared,
  A combined heat and power device that operates with the power generation amount set in multiple stages and generates the power and heat of the set power generation amount,
  A heat storage tank for storing heat generated by the cogeneration device;
  Electrothermal conversion means for converting the electric power generated in the cogeneration device into heat;
  Auxiliary heating means to compensate for the shortage of heat,
  Suppose that a predetermined time is one period T, a demand change specifying means for specifying in advance a temporal change in each of the heat demand and the power demand in each of the one period T and the next one period T, and a purchase capable of supplying insufficient power Electric means,
  The amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand within one cycle T is generated and consumed within the one cycle T by the combined heat and power supply device, and excess heat is allowed to be consumed in the next cycle. In addition, the shortage of heat is supplemented by the auxiliary heating means, and the one cycle T is divided every set time interval d, and the combined heat and power unit is operated at each of the set power generation amounts in a plurality of stages at each divided time. Assuming a state to be stopped and a state to be stopped, the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank always satisfies the following conditional expression (13), and the converted value PE of the following primary energy [Expression (16 )] Is determined as the optimum operating state of the combination that minimizes the surplus power when the combined heat and power unit is operated with the rated power generation amount in a plurality of stages and the power demand is smaller than the set power generation amount according to the obtained optimum operating state Is characterized by converting into heat by said electrothermal converter.
[Expression 41]
  Here, S [t + (n−1) d] indicates the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank at the start of operation for each divided time. In addition, n is a positive integer of 1 to T / d, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is a release from the system. The amount of heat. Smax Indicates the maximum amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank.
  HTn Indicates the amount of heat obtained within the divided time interval d, and is expressed by the following equation (14).
[Expression 42]
  Where Fm Is the set power generation amount, km Is the set power generation amount Fm The thermoelectric ratios at are shown respectively. m is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2 and up to the set number of power generation levels. HnIs the amount of heat converted from surplus power to heat by the electrothermal conversion means, Fm > En The amount of (t ′) is integrated and is expressed by the following equation (15).
[Expression 43]
  However, e (t ′) <Fm If so, En (T ′) = e (t ′)
        e (t ′) ≧ Fm If so, En (T ′) = Fm
  Where En (T '), the load power is the set power generation amount Fm Exceeds the set power amount, and the load power is the set power generation amount F.m When it is smaller, it is the amount of power that becomes the load power amount, and e (t ′) is a function that indicates a change in power demand (load power) specified in advance over time.
  In the above equation (14), BO (t ′) represents a function in the case where the auxiliary heating means is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the shortage of heat occurs.
  PE = ΣPEn = ΣGIn ・ Α + ΣBIn ・ Α ’+ ΣBEn ・ Β …… (16)
  Where ΣPEn Is the sum of the primary energies of n = 1 to T / d. GInIs a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (17), and α is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣGIn Α is the sum of n = 1 to T / d. Also, BIn Is the fuel supply amount required for the operation of the auxiliary heating means, α ′ is the converted value of the fuel into the primary energy, and ΣBIn Α ′ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d.
(44)
  Here, GI (t ′) is a fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used.
  ΣBEn Is an input amount of insufficient power within a predetermined time T that is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (18), and β is a converted value of the power to primary energy, and n = 1 The total of ~ T / d is obtained.
[Equation 45]
  Here, GP is a power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is represented by the following equation (19).
[Equation 46]
  Here, E (t ′) becomes the set power amount when the load power exceeds the set power generation amount Fm, and the load power becomes the set power generation amount F.m If it is smaller, it is the amount of power that becomes the load power amount.
[0012]
  Claims7In order to achieve the above-described object, the operation method of the cogeneration system of the invention according to
  A combined heat and power generation device that generates the rated amount of power and heat;
  A heat storage tank for storing heat generated by the cogeneration device;
  A power selling means for selling the electric power generated by the cogeneration device to a third party;
  Auxiliary heating means to compensate for the shortage of heat,
  Demand change specifying means for predetermining changes with time of each of heat demand and power demand within one cycle, with a predetermined time as one cycle;
  Power purchase means capable of supplying insufficient power,
  The amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand in the one cycle or most of it is generated and consumed in the one cycle by the combined heat and power supply device, and the excess heat is consumed in the next cycle. Allowing and supplementing the deficient amount of heat with the auxiliary heating means, dividing the one cycle into set time intervals, and assuming a state in which the combined heat and power supply device is operated and a state in which it is stopped at each divided time And determining the optimum operating state of the combination that minimizes the converted value of the total primary energy so that the fluctuation value of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank is not less than 0 and does not exceed the maximum heat storage amount. According to the operation state, the combined heat and power supply device is operated at a rated power generation amount, and surplus power when the power demand is smaller than the power of the rated power generation amount is sold to a third party by the power selling means.
  Further, the operation method of the cogeneration system of the invention according to claim 8 is to achieve the above-described object,
  A predetermined time is defined as one period T, and a demand change specifying means for specifying in advance a temporal change in each of the heat demand and power demand within the period T.StepPrepared,
  The amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand in the one cycle T or most of the heat is generated and consumed in the one cycle T by the combined heat and power supply device, and excess heat is consumed in the next cycle. And the supplementary heating means compensates for the shortage of heat, divides the one period T into set time intervals d, and stops the state in which the combined heat and power device is operated at each divided time. Assuming the state, the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank always satisfies the following conditional expression (20), and the converted value PE of the following primary energy [Expression (22)] is minimum. The combined operation of the combined heat and power unit is operated at the rated power generation amount, and surplus power when the power demand is smaller than the rated power generation power is It is characterized in that sell to the third party.
[Equation 47]
  Here, S [t + (n−1) d] indicates the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank at the start of operation for each divided time. In addition, n is a positive integer of 1 to T / d, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is a release from the system. The amount of heat. Smax indicates the maximum heat storage amount of the heat storage tank.
  HTn represents the amount of heat acquired within the divided time interval d, and is expressed by the following equation (21).
[Formula 48]
  Here, F indicates the power of the rated power generation amount, and k indicates the thermoelectric ratio.
  In the above equation (21), BO (t ′) represents a function when the auxiliary heating means is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when a shortage of heat occurs.
PE = ΣPEn
    = ΣGI n · α + ΣBI n · α '+ ΣBE n · β-ΣSE n · γ (22)
  Here, ΣPEn is the total primary energy of n = 1 to T / d. GIn is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (23), α is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣGIn · α is n = 1 to T / d. Seeking the sum of BIn is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the auxiliary heating means, α ′ is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣBIn · α ′ is a sum of n = 1 to T / d.
[Equation 49]
  Here, GI (t ′) is the fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used, and becomes zero in the operation stop state.
  ΣBE n is an input amount of insufficient power within a predetermined time T, which is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (24), and β is a converted value of power to primary energy, and n = The sum of 1 to T / d is obtained.
[Equation 50]
  Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is represented by the following equation (25).
[Equation 51]
  Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power. Further, ΣSEn is the surplus electric energy sold to the third party by the power selling means, and is integrated by F> En (t ′), and is expressed by the following equation (26), and γ is the third party. This is a conversion value obtained by converting the price when selling to 1 to primary energy, and the sum of n = 1 to T / d is obtained.
[Formula 52]
  However, if e (t ') <F, En (t') = e (t ')
        If e (t ') ≥F, En (t') = F
  Here, En (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the power of the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power, and e (t ') Is a function indicating a change with time in power demand (load power) specified in advance.
[0013]
  Claims9In order to achieve the above-described object, the operation method of the cogeneration system of the invention according to
  A combined heat and power device that operates with the power generation amount set in multiple stages and generates the power and heat of the set power generation amount,
  A heat storage tank for storing heat generated by the cogeneration device;
  A power selling means for selling the electric power generated by the cogeneration device to a third party;
  Auxiliary heating means to compensate for the shortage of heat,
  Demand change specifying means for predetermining temporal changes in heat demand and power demand in each of the one period and the next one period, with a predetermined time as one period,
  Power purchase means capable of supplying insufficient power,
  The amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand in the one cycle is generated and consumed in the one cycle by the combined heat and power supply device, and the excess heat is allowed to be consumed in the next cycle, In addition, the amount of heat that is insufficient is supplemented by the auxiliary heating means, and the one cycle is divided every set time interval, and the combined heat and power unit is operated at each of the divided power generation amounts and stopped at each divided time. Assuming that the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank is 0 or more and does not exceed the maximum heat storage amount, the optimum operating state of the combination that minimizes the converted value of the overall primary energy is obtained and obtained. According to the optimum operating state, the combined heat and power unit is operated with a plurality of stages of rated power generation amount, and surplus power when the power demand is smaller than the set power generation amount is sold to a third party by the power selling means. That.
  Moreover, in order to achieve the above-mentioned object, the operation method of the cogeneration system of the invention according to claim 10
  A predetermined period of time is defined as one period T, and a demand change specifying method for specifying in advance a temporal change in each of the heat demand and power demand in each of the one period T and the next one period T.StepPrepared,
  The amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand within one cycle T is generated and consumed within the one cycle T by the combined heat and power supply device, and excess heat is allowed to be consumed in the next cycle. In addition, the shortage of heat is supplemented by the auxiliary heating means, and the one cycle T is divided every set time interval d, and the combined heat and power unit is operated at each of the set power generation amounts in a plurality of stages at each divided time. Assuming the state of being stopped and the state of stopping, the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank always satisfies the following conditional expression (27), and the converted value PE of the following primary energy [Expression (29 )] Is determined as the optimum operating state of the combination that minimizes the surplus power when the combined heat and power unit is operated with the rated power generation amount in a plurality of stages and the power demand is smaller than the set power generation amount according to the determined optimum operating state. It is characterized in that sell to a third party by the power selling unit.
[Equation 53]
  Here, S [t + (n−1) d] indicates the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank at the start of operation for each divided time. In addition, n is a positive integer of 1 to T / d, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is a release from the system. The amount of heat. Smax Indicates the maximum amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank.
  HTn Indicates the amount of heat obtained within the divided time interval d, and is expressed by the following equation (28).
[Formula 54]
  Where Fm Is the set power generation amount, kmIs the set power generation amount Fm The thermoelectric ratios at are shown respectively. m is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2 and up to the set number of power generation levels.
  In the above equation (28), BO (t ′) represents a function when the auxiliary heating means is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the shortage of heat occurs.
PE = ΣPEn
    = ΣGIn ・ Α + ΣBIn ・ Α ’+ ΣBEn ・ Β-ΣSEn ・ Γ… (29)
  Where ΣPEn Is the sum of the primary energies of n = 1 to T / d. GInIs a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (30), and α is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣGIn Α is the sum of n = 1 to T / d. Also, BIn Is the fuel supply amount required for the operation of the auxiliary heating means, α ′ is the converted value of the fuel into the primary energy, and ΣBIn Α ′ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d.
[Expression 55]
  Here, GI (t ′) is the fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used, and becomes zero in the operation stop state.
  ΣBEn Is an input amount of insufficient power within a predetermined time T that is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (31), and β is a converted value of the power to primary energy, and n = 1 The total of ~ T / d is obtained.
[56]
  Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is represented by the following equation (32).
[Equation 57]
  Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power. Also, ΣSEn Is the amount of surplus power sold to third parties by means of power selling, F> En (T ′) is integrated and is expressed by the following equation (33), and γ is a converted value obtained by converting the price when selling to a third party into primary energy, and n = 1 to The total sum of T / d is obtained.
[Formula 58]
  However, e (t ′) <Fm If so, En (T ′) = e (t ′)
        e (t ′) ≧ Fm If so, En (T ′) = F
  Where En (T '), the load power is the set power generation amount Fm If the load power exceeds the set power generation amount Fm, the load power amount is the power amount that becomes the load power amount, and e (t ′) is the time of the power demand (load power) specified in advance. It is a function that shows the change.
[0014]
  Claims11In order to achieve the above-described object, the invention according to
  Claim 1, Claim 2, Claim 3, Claim 4, Claim 5, Claim 6, claim 7, claim 8, claim 9, and claim 10In the operation method of the cogeneration system according to any one of
  A combination that includes a start / stop number setting means for setting the number of start / stops in one cycle of the combined heat and power device, and the conversion value PE of the primary energy is minimized when the number of start / stops in one cycle of the thermoelectric combined device is equal to or less than the set number. The optimum operation state is determined.
[0015]
[Action]
  Claim 1And claim 2According to the configuration of the operation method of the cogeneration system according to the invention, for example, within a predetermined period of time such as one day, the cogeneration system is operated with the rated power generation amount to generate power, and the power demand is rated power generation. The surplus power that exceeds the power demand when it is smaller than the amount of power is converted into heat by the electrothermal conversion means, and the shortage power is covered by the power purchase means, and the heat is generated by the converted heat and the heat generated by the combined heat and power supply device. It is possible to cover the demand and store the heat necessary later in the heat storage tank to meet the heat demand, and supplement the insufficient heat with the auxiliary heating means.
  At this time, for example, it is allowed not to stay within one cycle such as one day, but to consume part of the heat demand within the next one cycle such as the morning or daytime heat demand of the next day, The heat stored in the heat storage tank is dissipated from the system until it is consumed, etc., and the shortage of electricity is covered by the power purchase means, and the converted heat and heat generated from the combined heat and power storage tank In consideration of supplementing the shortage of heat with auxiliary heating means when it is insufficient to cover the heat demand with the amount of heat stored in the battery, one cycle is divided at set time intervals, and a combined heat and power unit for each divided time The amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank is0 or moreAnd do not exceed the maximum heat storage amount,In the case of the invention according to claim 22 (T / d) powerAnd so onA combination of virtual operating states is obtained, and based on the combination, a combination that minimizes the conversion value to the total primary energy is obtained, and operation is performed according to the combination.
[0016]
  Claims3 and claim 4According to the configuration of the operation method of the cogeneration system according to the invention, for example, when the power demand exceeds the rated power generation amount within a predetermined period of one cycle such as one day, the cogeneration system is operated at the rated power generation amount. If the power demand is smaller than the rated power generation amount, the combined heat and power supply is operated to follow the power demand to generate power, and the shortage of power is covered by the power purchase means and the heat generated by the combined heat and power supply Thus, the heat demand can be covered and the heat required later can be stored in the heat storage tank to meet the heat demand, and the deficient heat can be supplemented by the auxiliary heating means.
  At this time, for example, it is allowed not to stay within one cycle such as one day, but to consume part of the heat demand within the next one cycle such as the morning or daytime heat demand of the next day, The amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank is dissipated before consumption and the shortage of electricity is covered by the electricity purchase means, and the converted heat, the heat generated by the combined heat and power unit, and the heat stored in the heat storage tank Considering supplementing the shortage of heat with auxiliary heating means when it is insufficient to cover demand, the cycle is divided at set time intervals and the combined heat and power unit is operated and stopped for each divided time The amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank0 or moreAnd do not exceed the maximum heat storage amount,In the case of the invention according to claim 42 (T / d) powerAnd so onA combination of virtual operating states is obtained, and based on the combination, a combination that minimizes the conversion value to the total primary energy is obtained, and operation is performed according to the combination.
[0017]
  Claims5 and claim 6According to the configuration of the operation method of the cogeneration system according to the present invention, for example, within a predetermined time that is one cycle, such as one day, the cogeneration system is operated with a power generation amount set in a plurality of stages to generate power. The surplus power that exceeds the power demand when the demand is less than the set power generation amount is converted into heat by the electrothermal conversion means, and the shortage of electricity is covered by the power purchase means, and generated by the converted heat and heat and power combined device It is possible to cover the heat demand with the heat generated and store the heat required later in the heat storage tank to meet the heat demand, and supplement the insufficient heat with the auxiliary heating means.
  At this time, for example, it is allowed not to stay within one cycle such as one day, but to consume part of the heat demand within the next one cycle such as the morning or daytime heat demand of the next day, The amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank is dissipated before consumption and the shortage of electricity is covered by the electricity purchase means, and the converted heat, the heat generated by the combined heat and power unit, and the heat stored in the heat storage tank In consideration of supplementing the shortage of heat with auxiliary heating means when it is insufficient to cover demand, one cycle is divided at set time intervals, and multiple heat and power supply devices are set for each division time The amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank is different depending on whether it is operating with power generation or stopped.0 or moreAnd do not exceed the maximum heat storage amount,In the case of the invention according to claim 6(1 + m) divided by (T / d)And so onA combination of virtual operating states is obtained, and based on the combination, a combination that minimizes the conversion value to the total primary energy is obtained, and operation is performed according to the combination.
[0018]
  Claims7 and claim 8According to the configuration of the operation method of the cogeneration system according to the invention, for example, within a predetermined period of time such as one day, the cogeneration system is operated with the rated power generation amount to generate power, and the power demand is rated power generation. The surplus power exceeding the power demand when it is smaller than the amount of power is sold to the third party by the power selling means, and the shortage of power is covered by the power buying means, and the heat demand is covered by the heat generated by the combined heat and power supply device. In addition, the heat required later can be stored in the heat storage tank to meet the heat demand, and the insufficient heat can be supplemented by the auxiliary heating means.
  At this time, for example, it is allowed not to stay within one cycle such as one day, but to consume part of the heat demand within the next one cycle such as the morning or daytime heat demand of the next day, Supply heat from the system such as the heat stored in the heat storage tank to dissipate before consumption, and supply the shortage of power with power purchase means, and sell surplus power to third parties with power sale means In addition, taking into account that the heat generated by the combined heat and power supply device and the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank is insufficient to cover the heat demand, the supplementary heating means supplements the shortage of heat, so one cycle is set Divided at intervals, the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank in each state where the combined heat and power unit is operated and stopped in each divided time0 or moreAnd do not exceed the maximum heat storage amount,In the case of the invention according to claim 82 (T / d) powerAnd so onA combination of virtual operating states is obtained, and based on the combination, a combination that minimizes the conversion value to the total primary energy is obtained, and operation is performed according to the combination.
[0019]
  Claims9 and claim 10According to the configuration of the operation method of the cogeneration system according to the present invention, for example, within a predetermined time that is one cycle, such as one day, the cogeneration system is operated with a power generation amount set in a plurality of stages to generate power. The surplus power exceeding the power demand when the demand is less than the set power generation amount is sold to a third party by the power selling means, and the shortage power is covered by the power buying means, and the converted heat and heat and power combined device The generated heat can cover the heat demand, and the heat required later can be stored in the heat storage tank to meet the heat demand, and the insufficient heat can be supplemented by the auxiliary heating means.
  At this time, for example, it is allowed not to stay within one cycle such as one day, but to consume part of the heat demand within the next one cycle such as the morning or daytime heat demand of the next day, The amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank is dissipated before consumption, and the shortage of power is covered by power purchase means, surplus power is sold to a third party by power sale means, and a combined heat and power supply device In consideration of supplementing the shortage of heat with auxiliary heating means when it is insufficient to cover the heat demand with the amount of heat generated in the tank or the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank, one cycle is divided at set time intervals. The amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank in each of the state where the combined heat and power unit is operated with the power generation amount set in multiple stages and the state where it is stopped for each division time.0 or moreAnd do not exceed the maximum heat storage amount,In the case of the invention according to claim 10(1 + m) divided by (T / d)And so onA combination of virtual operating states is obtained, and based on the combination, a combination that minimizes the conversion value to the total primary energy is obtained, and operation is performed according to the combination.
[0020]
  Claims11According to the configuration of the operation method of the cogeneration system according to the invention, the number of times of starting and stopping is set according to the characteristics of each cogeneration device to be used, the desired service life, etc. To avoid.
[0021]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Next, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.
FIG. 1 is a system configuration diagram showing a first embodiment of a cogeneration system, wherein 1 is a combined heat and power supply device, and 2 is a heat storage tank.
[0022]
A circulation pipe 4 having a first pump 3 is connected to the heat storage tank 2 from the bottom side to the top. A heat exchanger 5 is provided in the circulation pipe 4, and a heat recovery circulation pipe 7 including a second pump 6 is connected across the cogeneration apparatus 1 and the heat exchanger 5.
[0023]
With this configuration, the water taken out from the lower part of the heat storage tank 2 is heated by the heat from the combined heat and power supply device 1, and the heated heat storage water is returned to the heat storage tank 2 to store heat.
An electric heater 8 serving as an electrothermal conversion means is provided at a location downstream of the heat exchanger 5 in the circulation pipe 4, and when the electric power generated by the cogeneration apparatus 1 is surplus, the surplus power is converted into heat to store heat. The water taken out from the lower part of the tank 2 is heated, and the heated heat storage water can be stored in the heat storage tank 2. In the figure, reference numeral 9 denotes a hot water supply pipe for hot water supply.
[0024]
An output circulation pipe 10 is connected to the circulation pipe 4 in series with the heat exchanger 5, and a heating heat exchanger 11 is provided in the output circulation pipe 10. In addition, a heating device 14 for central heating, such as an indoor heater, a floor heater, and a bathroom dryer, is connected via a heating circulation pipe 13 provided with a third pump 12.
[0025]
A power line 15 for extracting generated power is connected to the combined heat and power supply apparatus 1, and an electric load 16 such as a lighting device or an electric device is connected to the power line 15. Further, a commercial power line 18 is connected to the power line 15 via a protection device 17 for preventing a reverse power flow, and a power purchase means 19 is configured so that power from the commercial power source can be input when the generated power is insufficient. .
[0026]
In addition, the electric heater 8 is connected to the power line 15 via the switch circuit 20, and the electric heater 8 is energized when surplus power is generated. The electric heater 8 may be provided in the heat recovery circulation pipe 7 as indicated by a two-dot chain line. In the figure, reference numeral 21 denotes a gas boiler as auxiliary heating means.
[0027]
A microcomputer 22 is connected to the cogeneration apparatus 1, the switch circuit 20, and the gas boiler 21.
As shown in the block diagram of FIG. 2, the microcomputer 22 includes a demand change specifying unit 23, an operation state input unit 24, a calculation unit 25, a comparison unit 26, and an operation control unit 27.
[0028]
In the demand change specifying means 23, as shown in the graphs of FIGS. 3 and 4, the power demand e (t ′) for driving the lighting device and the electrical equipment in one day as one cycle T, hot water supply and heating The time change of the heat demand h (t ′) such as is stored in advance by a learning function or the like, and the time change of the power demand e (t ′) and the heat demand h (t ′) can be specified in advance. ing. Table 1 shows numerical examples of changes over time of the heat demand h (t ′) such as the hot water supply and heating. 3 and 4 show an average value of a large number of consumers and show it as a schematic change.
[Table 1]
[0029]
That is, the change in demand on the previous day, the change in demand on the same day of the week before, and the like are sequentially stored, and based on these demand changes, the heat demand h (t ′) for the first day of the current day and the first day of the next day, and the power demand The change with time of e (t ′) can be specified in advance.
[0030]
In the operation state input means 24, one day as one period T is divided at a set time interval d, for example, every 30 minutes, and the combined heat and power supply apparatus 1 is operated at the rated power generation amount at each divided time d. And each state to stop is input.
[0031]
In the calculation means 25, the operation state and the stop state are input from the operation state input means 24 to a conditional expression or relational expression described later, the heat demand h (t ′) from the demand change specifying means 23 for one day on the day, and If the set time interval d is 30 minutes based on the change over time in the power demand e (t ′), the converted value of primary energy for each of the 2 48 power combinations is calculated.
[0032]
In the comparison means 26, the converted value of the primary energy input from the calculating means 25 is memorize | stored, the conversion value and the conversion value input next are compared, and the smaller conversion value and the cogeneration apparatus 1 at that time are compared. The combination of the operating state and the stopped state is newly stored, and after comparing all the combinations, the combination having the smallest converted primary energy value is output as the optimum operating state.
[0033]
In the operation control means 27, in response to the combination of the optimum operation states from the comparison means 26, a drive signal is output to the cogeneration apparatus 1, the switch circuit 20 and the gas boiler 21, and the converted value of primary energy is minimized. The cogeneration system is operated.
[0034]
Next, the conditional expression will be described.
In the first embodiment, the combined heat and power apparatus 1 is operated with the rated power generation amount (100% load) having the highest power generation efficiency, and the electric heater 8 supplies the surplus power whose power demand e (t ′) is smaller than the rated power generation amount. It shall be converted to heat. Here, 1 kW is exemplified as the rated power generation amount. This rated power generation amount is determined by the combined heat and power supply device 1 to be used, for example, 0.8 kW.
[0035]
First, the set time interval d is set to 30 minutes (0.5 hours), and the cogeneration apparatus 1 is operated for 30 minutes (from 0:00 am to 0:30 am) in the first section in one cycle T. Each of the stopped states will be considered with reference to the reference diagram for explaining the operation in FIG. FIG. 5 is not related to the above-described FIG. 3 and FIG. 4 and is illustrated for reference for explanation.
[0036]
▲ 1 ▼ Operating state
As shown in the graph showing the correlation between the power demand and the amount of power generation in (a) of FIG. 5 and the graph showing the correlation between the heat demand and the amount of generated heat in (b) of FIG. The amount of heat converted to heat by the heater 8 is H1Then, the amount of heat HT to be acquired1Is
HT1= H1+ Generated heat amount CH + Heat amount BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21
And conversion heat amount H1Is expressed as follows.
[Formula 59]
However, if e (t ′) <F, E1 (T ′) = e (t ′)
If e (t ′) ≧ F, E1(T ′) = F
Where E1(T ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the power F (1 kW) of the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power, and e (t ') Is a function indicating a change with time in power demand (load power) specified in advance.
[0037]
Further, the amount of generated heat CH = 0.5 · F · k (35)
It is. Here, k is a thermoelectric ratio.
The amount of heat BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21 is
[Expression 60]
It becomes. BO (t ′) represents a function when the gas boiler 21 is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the heat amount is insufficient. In FIG. 5B, it is zero.
[0038]
On the other hand, the amount of heat consumed is the amount of heat demand plus the amount of heat released.
[Equation 61]
It becomes. Here, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is an amount of heat released from the system.
[0039]
From these things, the amount of heat storage S (0.5) after 30 minutes in the first section,
[62]
It becomes. Here, S (0) is the initial heat storage amount at the start of operation in the first section. Further, the heat storage amount S (0.5) is 0 or more and the maximum heat storage amount S of the heat storage tank 2.maxIt is necessary to satisfy the following conditional expression.
[Equation 63]
That is, here, if the amount of heat is insufficient, the gas boiler 21 is activated to compensate for the insufficient amount of heat.
[0040]
The converted value PE of primary energy here is
PE = GI1・ Α + BI1・ Α ’+ BE1・ Β …… (40)
It becomes. GI1Is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply apparatus 1 and is expressed by the following equation (41), and α is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel. Also, BI1Is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the gas boiler 21, and α 'is a converted value of the fuel into primary energy. If the fuel of the cogeneration apparatus 1 and the gas boiler 21 are the same, α = α ′.
[Expression 64]
Here, GI (t ′) is a fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device 1 to be used.
[0041]
BE1Is the input amount of the insufficient power within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (42), and β is a converted value of the power into primary energy. However, since there is no power shortage here, BE1Is zero.
[Equation 65]
Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power unit 1 within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (43).
[Equation 66]
Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power. That is, when the load power is smaller than the rated power, it becomes zero because there is no power shortage.
[0042]
(2) Stopped operation
As shown in the graph showing the correlation between the power demand and the power generation amount in FIG. 5C and the graph showing the correlation between the heat demand and the generated heat amount in FIG. 5D, the combined heat and power supply apparatus 1 is operated. Therefore, both the amount of heat converted by the electric heater 8 and the amount of generated heat are zero. Accordingly, the heat storage amount S (0.5) after 30 minutes in the first section is obtained by subtracting the heat demand amount and the heat radiation amount from the initial heat storage amount S (0). Only when the amount of heat is insufficient, as shown by the alternate long and short dash line in FIG.1But,
HT1= The amount of heat BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21
It becomes. The amount of heat BH to be supplemented by the gas boiler 21 is as in the above equation (36). The conditional expression is the expression (39) as in the above operating state.
[0043]
In this case, the converted value PE of the primary energy is GI.1・ Α becomes zero,
PE = BI1・ Α ’+ BE1・ Β …… (44)
It becomes.
BI1Is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the gas boiler 21, and α 'is a converted value of the fuel into primary energy.
BE1Is the input amount of the shortage of power within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (45) because the power generation amount of the cogeneration apparatus 1 is zero, and β Is the converted value of primary power.
[Expression 67]
[0044]
As described above, the operation state and the operation stop state are sequentially obtained in each section every 30 minutes, and the conditional expression is expressed by the following equation (46).
[Equation 68]
Here, n is a positive integer of 1 to 48 (24 ÷ 0.5).
[0045]
The converted value PE of primary energy is as follows.
PE = ΣPEn= ΣGIn・ Α + ΣBIn・ Α ’+ ΣBEn・ Β …… (47)
Where ΣPEnIs the sum of the primary energies of n = 1 to 48. GInIs a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (48), and α is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣGInΑ is the sum of n = 1 to 48. Also, BInIs a fuel supply amount required for operation of the gas boiler 21, α ′ is a converted value of the fuel into primary energy, and ΣBInΑ ′ is the sum of n = 1 to 48.
[Equation 69]
Here, GI (t ′) is the fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used, and becomes zero in the operation stop state.
[0046]
ΣBEnIs an input amount of insufficient power within a predetermined time T, which is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (49), and β is a converted value of power to primary energy, and ΣBEnΒ calculates the sum of n = 1 to 48.
[Equation 70]
Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is represented by the following equation (50).
[Equation 71]
Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power.
[0047]
After the passage of one day as one cycle, the heat acquired in that cycle is allowed to be consumed the next day, and the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank 2 is the maximum heat storage amount. SmaxAny value within the range not exceeding.
[0048]
As a result of the above, various combinations of the operation stop state and the operation state as described below are input to obtain the converted primary value PE of the primary energy.
(1) The operation is stopped and repeated alternately every 30 minutes. [(A) of FIG. 6]
(2) 0:00 am to 9:00 am, 12:00 am to 5:00 pm (12 to 17:00), and 10 pm to 12:00 pm (22:00 to 24:00). -12:00 am and 5:00 pm to 10:00 pm (17:00 to 22:00) are operated while driving. [(B) of FIG. 6]
(3) 0:00 am to 6:00 am, 3:00 pm to 6:00 pm (15 to 18:00), and 8 pm to 12:00 pm (20 to 24:00) -3pm (6 to 15:00) and 6:00 pm to 8:00 pm (18:00 to 20:00), respectively, are operated. [(C) in FIG. 6]
(3) The operation is stopped from 2:00 am to 6:00 pm (2 to 18:00), and from 0:00 am to 2:00 am and from 6:00 pm to 12:00 pm (18:00 to 24:00). Drive. [(D) of FIG. 6]
[0049]
Finally 248The primary energy conversion value PE is input to the comparison means 26 and sequentially compared, and the smaller primary energy conversion value PE is left, and the operation state and the operation stop state where the primary energy conversion value PE is minimized. The optimum operating state of the combination is obtained, for example, a graph showing the correlation between the power demand and the amount of power generation in FIG. 7A, and a graph showing the correlation between the heat demand and the generated heat amount in FIG. 7B. As shown in the figure, the operation control means 27 performs the operation in the optimum operation state, and the cogeneration system can be operated in the optimum state for improving the energy saving property. In FIG. 7, a indicates the start of operation and b indicates the end of operation.
[0050]
In the first embodiment, one cycle is divided into 30 minutes (0.5 hours) as one day (24 hours). However, in the present invention, for example, one day is 10 minutes or 20 minutes. The period and the divided time interval can be set as appropriate, such as dividing by 3 or by setting a production line or the like to make 3 days or 1 week into one period.
[0051]
Therefore, if one period is T and the division time interval is d, it is as follows.
The optimum operating state of the combination in which the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank 2 always satisfies the following conditional expression (1), and the converted value PE [Expression (4)] of the following primary energy is minimized. And operating the combined heat and power unit with the rated power generation amount and converting the surplus power when the power demand is smaller than the rated power generation amount into heat with an electrothermal conversion means such as an electric heater according to the determined optimum operating state. It will be.
[Equation 72]
Here, S [t + (n−1) d] indicates the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank at the start of operation for each divided time. In addition, n is a positive integer of 1 to T / d, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is a release from the system. The amount of heat. SmaxIndicates the maximum amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank.
[0052]
HTnIndicates the amount of heat obtained within the divided time interval d, and is expressed by the following equation (2).
[Equation 73]
Here, F indicates the power of the rated power generation amount, and k indicates the thermoelectric ratio. HnIs the amount of heat converted from surplus power to heat by the electrothermal conversion means, F> EnThe amount of (t ′) is integrated and is expressed by the following equation (3).
[Equation 74]
However, if e (t ′) <F, En(T ′) = e (t ′)
If e (t ′) ≧ F, En(T ′) = F
Where En(T ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power, and e (t ′) is It is a function which shows a time-dependent change of the electric power demand (load electric power) specified beforehand.
In the above equation (2), BO (t ′) represents a function in the case where the auxiliary heating means is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the shortage of heat occurs.
[0053]
PE = ΣPEn= ΣGIn・ Α + ΣBIn・ Α ’+ ΣBEn・ Β …… (4)
Where ΣPEnIs the sum of the primary energies of n = 1 to T / d. GInIs a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (5), and α is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣGInΑ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d. Also, BInIs the fuel supply amount required for the operation of the auxiliary heating means, α ′ is the converted value of the fuel into the primary energy, and ΣBInΑ ′ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d.
[Expression 75]
Here, GI (t ′) is the fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used, and becomes zero in the operation stop state.
[0054]
ΣBEnIs an input amount of insufficient power within a predetermined time T that is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (6), and β is a converted value of the power to primary energy, and n = 1 The total of ~ T / d is obtained.
[76]
Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (7).
[77]
Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power.
[0055]
Next, a second embodiment will be described.
In the second embodiment, when the power demand e (t ′) is smaller than the rated power generation amount 1 kw, power is generated in accordance with the power demand e (t ′), and when the power demand e (t ′) is larger than the rated power generation amount 1 kw, the rated power generation is performed. The combined heat and power supply device 1 is operated so as to generate electricity at an amount of 1 kw.
[0056]
Further, in the second embodiment, the electric heater as in the first embodiment is not used, and the configuration is such that the electric heater 8 and the switch circuit 20 in FIGS. 1 and 2 are eliminated. .
[0057]
▲ 1 ▼ Operating state
Where the power demand e (t ′) is smaller than the rated power generation amount 1 kw, as shown in the graph showing the correlation between the power demand and the power generation amount in FIG. To generate electricity. As shown in the graph showing the correlation between the heat demand and the amount of generated heat in FIG.1Is
HT1= Generated heat CH + Heat quantity BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21
Thus, the generated heat amount CH is expressed as follows.
[Formula 78]
Where E1(T ′) is the amount of power that becomes the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the power of the rated power generation amount, and the amount of power that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power. B [E1(T ′)] is the electric energy EnThe amount of heat generated by the combined heat and power device at (t ′) is shown. In the case of (b) in FIG.1(T ′) = e (t ′).
[0058]
The amount of heat BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21 is
[79]
It becomes. BO (t ′) represents a function when the gas boiler 21 is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the heat amount is insufficient. In FIG. 8B, it is zero.
[0059]
On the other hand, the amount of heat consumed is the amount of heat demand plus the amount of heat released.
[80]
It becomes. Here, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is an amount of heat released from the system.
[0060]
From these things, the amount of heat storage S (0.5) after 30 minutes in the first section,
[Formula 81]
It becomes. Here, S (0) is the initial heat storage amount at the start of operation in the first section. Further, the heat storage amount S (0.5) is 0 or more and the maximum heat storage amount S of the heat storage tank 2.maxIt is necessary to satisfy the following conditional expression.
[Formula 82]
That is, here, if the amount of heat is insufficient, the gas boiler 21 is activated to compensate for the insufficient amount of heat.
[0061]
The converted value PE of primary energy here is
PE = GI1・ Α + BI1・ Α ’+ BE1・ Β …… (56)
It becomes. GI1Is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply apparatus 1 and is expressed by the following equation (57), and α is a conversion value to the primary energy of the fuel. Also, BI1Is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the gas boiler 21, and α 'is a converted value of the fuel into primary energy. If the fuel of the cogeneration apparatus 1 and the gas boiler 21 are the same, α = α ′.
[Formula 83]
Here, GI (t ′) is a fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device 1 to be used.
[0062]
BE1Is an input amount of insufficient power within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (58), and β is a converted value of power into primary energy. However, it is zero here.
[Expression 84]
Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power unit 1 within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (59).
[Expression 85]
Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power. That is, when the load power is smaller than the rated power, it becomes zero because there is no power shortage.
[0063]
Where the rated power generation amount is larger than 1 kw, power is generated with the rated power generation amount F as shown in the graph of FIG. 8C showing the correlation between the power demand and the power generation amount. As shown in the graph of FIG. 8D showing the correlation between the heat demand and the amount of generated heat, the amount of heat HT to be acquirednIs
HTn= Generated heat CH + Heat quantity BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21
Thus, the generated heat amount CH is expressed as follows.
CH = 0.5 · F · k (60)
Here, k is a thermoelectric ratio.
[0064]
The amount of heat BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21 is
[86]
It becomes. BO (t ′) represents a function when the gas boiler 21 is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the heat amount is insufficient. In FIG. 8D, it is zero.
[0065]
On the other hand, the amount of heat consumed is the amount of heat demand plus the amount of heat released.
[Expression 87]
It becomes. Here, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is an amount of heat released from the system.
[0066]
From these facts, the heat storage amount S (0.5n) after 30 minutes in the n-th section is
[Equation 88]
It becomes. Here, S [0.5 (n-1)] is an initial heat storage amount at the start of operation in the (n-1) section. Further, the heat storage amount S (0.5 n) is 0 or more and the maximum heat storage amount S of the heat storage tank 2.maxIt is necessary to satisfy the following conditional expression.
[Expression 89]
That is, here, if the amount of heat is insufficient, the gas boiler 21 is activated to compensate for the insufficient amount of heat.
[0067]
The converted value PE of primary energy here is
PE = GIn・ Α + BIn・ Α ’+ BEn・ Β …… (65)
It becomes. GInIs a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply apparatus 1 and is expressed by the following equation (66), and α is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel. Also, BInIs a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the gas boiler 21, and α 'is a converted value of the fuel into primary energy. If the fuel of the cogeneration apparatus 1 and the gas boiler 21 are the same, α = α ′.
[90]
Here, GI (t ′) is a fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device 1 to be used.
[0068]
BEnIs the input amount of the shortage of electric power within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (67), and β is a converted value of electric power into primary energy.
[91]
Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power unit 1 within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (68).
[Equation 92]
Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power. That is, when the load power is smaller than the rated power, it becomes zero because there is no power shortage.
[0069]
(2) Stopped operation
Since the amount of heat to be converted by the electric heater 8 in the first embodiment is zero, it is the same as the case where the electric heater 8 is not provided, and the operation of this second embodiment is also shown in (c) and (d) of FIG. This is the same as the operation stop state in the first embodiment described above, and the description is omitted.
[0070]
According to this second embodiment, finally 248The primary energy conversion value PE is input to the comparison means 26 and sequentially compared, and the smaller primary energy conversion value PE is left, and the operation state and the operation stop state where the primary energy conversion value PE is minimized. The optimum operating state of the combination is obtained, for example, a graph showing the correlation between the power demand and the amount of power generation in FIG. 9A, and a graph showing the correlation between the heat demand and the generated heat amount in FIG. 9B. As shown in FIG. 5, the operation control means 27 performs the operation in the optimum operation state, and the cogeneration system can be operated in the optimum state for improving the energy saving property. In FIG. 9, “a” indicates the start of operation, and “b” indicates the end of operation.
[0071]
From the above, if one cycle is arranged as T and the division time interval is set as d, the result is as follows.
The optimum operation state of the combination in which the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank 2 always satisfies the following conditional expression (8) and the following primary energy conversion value PE [Expression (10)] is minimized. The combined heat and power supply device is operated at the rated power generation amount according to the determined optimum operation state, and when the power demand is smaller than the power of the rated power generation amount, it is operated following the change in the power demand.
[Equation 93]
Here, S [t + (n−1) d] indicates the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank at the start of operation for each divided time. In addition, n is a positive integer of 1 to T / d, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is a release from the system. The amount of heat. SmaxIndicates the maximum amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank.
[0072]
HTnIndicates the amount of heat obtained within the divided time interval d, and is expressed by the following equation (9).
[Equation 94]
Where En(T ′) is the amount of power that becomes the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the power of the rated power generation amount, and the amount of power that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power. B [En(T ′)] is the electric energy EnThe amount of heat generated by the combined heat and power device at (t ′) is shown.
BO (t ′) represents a function in the case where the auxiliary heating means is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the shortage of heat occurs.
[0073]
PE = ΣPEn= ΣGIn・ Α + ΣBIn・ Α ’+ ΣBEn・ Β …… (10)
Where ΣPEnIs the sum of the primary energies of n = 1 to T / d. GInIs a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply apparatus, and is expressed by the following equation (5a), and α is a converted value of the fuel to primary energy,nΑ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d. Also, BInIs the fuel supply amount required for the operation of the auxiliary heating means, α ′ is the converted value of the fuel into the primary energy, and ΣBInΑ ′ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d.
[95]
Here, GI (t ′) is the fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used, and becomes zero in the operation stop state.
[0074]
ΣBEnIs an input amount of the shortage of power within a predetermined time T that is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (10), and β is a converted value of the power to primary energy, and n = 1 The total of ~ T / d is obtained.
[Equation 96]
Here, GP is a power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (11).
[Equation 97]
Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the power of the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power, and e (t ') Is a function indicating a change with time in power demand (load power) specified in advance.
[0075]
Next, a third embodiment will be described.
In the third embodiment, it is assumed that the thermoelectric generator 1 is operated with the power generation amount set in two stages of 500 w and the rated power generation amount 1 kw. That is, in this third embodiment, the set time interval d is set to 30 minutes (0.5 hours), and the thermoelectric power is generated for 30 minutes (from midnight to 0:30 am) in the first section in one cycle T. The state where the cogeneration apparatus 1 is operated at a rated power generation amount of 1 kW, the state where it is operated at 500 w, and the state where the operation is stopped will be discussed with reference to the operation diagram of FIG.
Moreover, in this 3rd Example, the electric heater 8 as an electrothermal conversion means is provided similarly to 1st Example, and the surplus electric power part for which generated electric power exceeded the electric power demand is converted into heat.
[0076]
(1) Operating condition with rated power generation of 1 kW
As shown in the graph showing the correlation between the power demand and the amount of power generation in FIG. 10A and the graph showing the correlation between the heat demand and the amount of generated heat in FIG. The amount of heat converted to heat by the heater 8 is H1Then, the amount of heat HT to be acquired1Is
HT1= H1+ Generated heat amount CH + Heat amount BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21
And conversion heat amount H1Is expressed as follows.
[Equation 98]
However, e (t ′) <F1If so, E1 (T ′) = e (t ′)
e (t ′) ≧ F1If so, E1(T ′) = F1
Where E1(T ′) is the power F at which the load power is the rated power generation amount.1When (1 kW) is exceeded, it becomes the rated power amount, and when the load power is smaller than the rated power, it is the amount of power that becomes the load power amount, and e (t ′) is the power demand (load power) specified in advance. It is a function showing a change with time.
[0077]
Also, the amount of generated heat CH = 0.5 · F1・ K1  ...... (70)
It is. Where k1Is the rated power generation F1It is a thermoelectric ratio when driving at (1 kW).
The amount of heat BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21 is
[99]
It becomes. BO (t ′) represents a function when the gas boiler 21 is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the heat amount is insufficient. In FIG. 10B, it is zero.
[0078]
On the other hand, the amount of heat consumed is the amount of heat demand plus the amount of heat released.
[Expression 100]
It becomes. Here, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is an amount of heat released from the system.
[0079]
From these things, the amount of heat storage S (0.5) after 30 minutes in the first section,
## EQU1 ##
It becomes. Here, S (0) is the initial heat storage amount at the start of operation in the first section. Further, the heat storage amount S (0.5) is 0 or more and the maximum heat storage amount S of the heat storage tank 2.maxIt is necessary to satisfy the following conditional expression.
## EQU10 ##
That is, here, if the amount of heat is insufficient, the gas boiler 21 is activated to compensate for the insufficient amount of heat.
[0080]
The converted value PE of primary energy here is
PE = GI1・ Α + BI1・ Α ’+ BE1・ Β …… (75)
It becomes. GI1Is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply apparatus 1 and is expressed by the following equation (76), and α is a conversion value to the primary energy of the fuel. Also, BI1Is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the gas boiler 21, and α 'is a converted value of the fuel into primary energy. If the fuel of the cogeneration apparatus 1 and the gas boiler 21 are the same, α = α ′.
[Formula 103]
Here, GI (t ′) is a fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device 1 to be used.
[0081]
BE1Is an input amount of the shortage of electric power within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (77), and β is a converted value of electric power into primary energy. However, it is zero here.
[Formula 104]
Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power unit 1 within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (78).
[Formula 105]
Where E1(T ′) is the amount of power that becomes the rated power amount 1 kw when the load power exceeds the power of the rated power generation amount 1 kw, and the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the power of the rated power generation amount 1 kw. That is, when the load power is smaller than the rated power, it becomes zero because there is no power shortage.
[0082]
(2) Operating state with 500w of power generation
As shown in the graph showing the correlation between the power demand and the amount of power generation in (c) of FIG. 10 and the graph showing the correlation between the heat demand and the amount of generated heat in (d) of FIG.2Is smaller than the electric power demand e (t ′) and there is no surplus electric power.1Is zero and the amount of heat HT to acquire1Is
HT1= Generated heat CH + Heat quantity BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21
It becomes.
[0083]
Also, the amount of generated heat CH = 0.5 · F2・ K2  ...... (79)
It is. Where k2Is the power generation F2It is a thermoelectric ratio when driving at (500 kW).
The amount of heat BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21 is
[Formula 106]
It becomes. BO (t ′) represents a function when the gas boiler 21 is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the heat amount is insufficient. In FIG. 10D, it is zero.
[0084]
On the other hand, the amount of heat consumed is the amount of heat demand plus the amount of heat released.
[Expression 107]
It becomes. Here, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is an amount of heat released from the system.
[0085]
From these things, the amount of heat storage S (0.5) after 30 minutes in the first section,
[Formula 108]
It becomes. Here, S (0) is the initial heat storage amount at the start of operation in the first section. Further, the heat storage amount S (0.5) is 0 or more and the maximum heat storage amount S of the heat storage tank 2.maxIt is necessary to satisfy the following conditional expression.
[Formula 109]
That is, here, if the amount of heat is insufficient, the gas boiler 21 is activated to compensate for the insufficient amount of heat.
[0086]
The converted value PE of primary energy here is
PE = GI1・ Α + BI1・ Α ’+ BE1・ Β …… (84)
It becomes. GI1Is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply apparatus 1 and is expressed by the following equation (85), and α is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel. Also, BI1Is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the gas boiler 21, and α 'is a converted value of the fuel into primary energy. If the fuel of the cogeneration apparatus 1 and the gas boiler 21 are the same, α = α ′.
## EQU1 ##
Here, GI (t ′) is a fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device 1 to be used.
[0087]
BE1Is an input amount of the shortage of electric power within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (86), and β is a converted value of electric power into primary energy.
[Formula 111]
Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power unit 1 within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (87).
## EQU1 ##
Where E1(T ′) is the set power amount 500w when the load power exceeds the set power generation amount 500w, and the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the set power generation amount 500w.
[0088]
(3) Stopped operation
The operation of the third embodiment is the same as the operation stop state in the first embodiment described with reference to (c) and (d) of FIG.
[0089]
In the case of this third embodiment, finally 348The primary energy conversion value PE is input to the comparison means 26, and the power generation amounts 500w and 1kw are respectively reduced such that the smaller one of the primary energy conversion values PE is left as a result of comparison and the primary energy conversion value PE is minimized. The optimum operation state of the combination of the operation state and the operation stop state is obtained. For example, the graph showing the correlation between the power demand and the amount of power generation in FIG. 11A and the heat demand in FIG. As shown in the graph showing the correlation with the amount of generated heat, the operation control means 27 performs the operation in the optimum operation state, and the cogeneration system can be operated in the optimum state for improving the energy saving property. In FIG. 11, a1 indicates the start of operation with a power generation amount 500w, a2 indicates the end of the operation with power generation amount 500w and when the operation starts with a power generation amount 1kw, and a3 indicates the end of operation with a power generation amount 1kw. .
[0090]
After the passage of one day as one cycle, the heat acquired in that cycle is allowed to be consumed the next day, and the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank 2 is the maximum heat storage amount. SmaxAny value within the range not exceeding.
Further, in the third embodiment, two types of step operation, 500 w operation and rated power generation 1 kw operation, are performed. In the present invention, for example, two steps of 700 w operation and rated power generation 1 kw operation are performed. Operation with the set power generation amount may be performed, or operation with the power generation amount set to three or more stages such as 500 w operation, 700 w operation, and rated power generation 1 kw operation may be performed. It includes the case of doing.
[0091]
From the above, if one cycle is arranged as T and the division time interval is set as d, the result is as follows.
The optimum operation state of the combination in which the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank 2 always satisfies the following conditional expression (13) and the converted value PE [Expression (16)] of the following primary energy is minimized. In accordance with the determined optimum operating state, the combined heat and power supply apparatus 1 is operated with a set power generation amount of a plurality of stages, and surplus power when the power demand is smaller than the power of the set power generation amount is converted by an electrothermal conversion means such as an electric heater. It will be converted to heat.
[Formula 113]
Here, S [t + (n−1) d] indicates the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank at the start of operation for each divided time. In addition, n is a positive integer of 1 to T / d, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is a release from the system. The amount of heat. SmaxIndicates the maximum amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank.
[0092]
HTnIndicates the amount of heat obtained within the divided time interval d, and is expressed by the following equation (14).
[Formula 114]
Where FmIs the set power generation amount, kmIs the set power generation amount FmThe thermoelectric ratios at are shown respectively. m is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2 and up to the set number of power generation levels. HnIs the amount of heat converted from surplus power to heat by the electrothermal conversion means, Fm> EnThe amount of (t ′) is integrated and is expressed by the following equation (15).
[Expression 115]
However, e (t ′) <FmIf so, En(T ′) = e (t ′)
e (t ′) ≧ FmIf so, En(T ′) = Fm
Where En(T '), the load power is the set power generation amount FmExceeds the set power amount, and the load power is the set power generation amount F.mWhen it is smaller, it is the amount of power that becomes the load power amount, and e (t ′) is a function that indicates a change in power demand (load power) specified in advance over time.
In the above equation (14), BO (t ′) represents a function in the case where the auxiliary heating means is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the shortage of heat occurs.
[0093]
PE = ΣPEn= ΣGIn・ Α + ΣBIn・ Α ’+ ΣBEn・ Β …… (16)
Where ΣPEnIs the sum of the primary energies of n = 1 to T / d. GInIs a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (17), and α is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣGInΑ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d. Also, BInIs the fuel supply amount required for the operation of the auxiliary heating means, α ′ is the converted value of the fuel into the primary energy, and ΣBInΑ ′ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d.
[Formula 116]
Here, GI (t ′) is the fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used, and becomes zero in the operation stop state.
[0094]
ΣBEnIs an input amount of insufficient power within a predetermined time T that is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (18), and β is a converted value of the power to primary energy, and n = 1 The total of ~ T / d is obtained.
[Expression 117]
Here, GP is a power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is represented by the following equation (19).
[Formula 118]
Here, E (t ′) indicates that the load power is the set power generation amount F.mExceeds the set power amount, and the load power is the set power generation amount F.mIf it is smaller, it is the amount of power that becomes the load power amount.
[0095]
FIG. 12 is a system configuration diagram showing a fourth embodiment of the cogeneration system. The differences from the first embodiment are as follows.
That is, the electric heater 8 is eliminated, the power supply line 32 is connected to the power line 15 via the switch circuit 31, and the power selling means 33 is configured to sell the surplus power to a third party when surplus power is generated. Has been.
A wattmeter 34 is interposed in the power supply line 32 and is configured to measure the amount of power sold to a third party. Other configurations are the same as those of the first embodiment, and the description thereof is omitted by assigning the same reference numerals.
[0096]
As shown in the block diagram of the fourth embodiment of FIG. 13, a microcomputer 35 is connected to the combined heat and power supply device 1, the switch circuit 31, and the gas boiler 21.
As in the first embodiment, the microcomputer 35 includes a demand change specifying unit 23, an operation state input unit 24, a calculation unit 25, a comparison unit 26, and an operation control unit 27.
[0097]
In the fourth embodiment, the amount of acquired heat is reduced by the amount not converted into heat by the electric heater 8, and the converted value of primary energy is reduced by the amount of surplus power sold to the third party converted to primary energy. This will be explained next.
[0098]
▲ 1 ▼ Operating state
The amount of heat HT to acquire1Is
HT1= Generated heat CH + Heat quantity BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21
It becomes.
[0099]
Also, the amount of generated heat CH = 0.5 · F · k (88)
It is. Here, k is a thermoelectric ratio.
The amount of heat BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21 is
[Formula 119]
It becomes. BO (t ′) represents a function when the gas boiler 21 is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the heat amount is insufficient.
[0100]
On the other hand, the amount of heat consumed is the amount of heat demand plus the amount of heat released.
[Expression 120]
It becomes. Here, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is an amount of heat released from the system.
[0101]
From these things, the amount of heat storage S (0.5) after 30 minutes in the first section,
[Equation 121]
It becomes. Here, S (0) is the initial heat storage amount at the start of operation in the first section. Further, the heat storage amount S (0.5) is 0 or more and the maximum heat storage amount S of the heat storage tank 2.maxIt is necessary to satisfy the following conditional expression.
[Equation 122]
That is, here, if the amount of heat is insufficient, the gas boiler 21 is activated to compensate for the insufficient amount of heat.
[0102]
The converted value PE of primary energy here is
PE = GI1・ Α + BI1・ Α ’+ BE1・ Β-SE1・ Γ …… (93)
It becomes. GI1Is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply device 1 and is expressed by the following equation (94), and α is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel. Also, BI1Is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the gas boiler 21, and α 'is a converted value of the fuel into primary energy. If the fuel of the cogeneration apparatus 1 and the gas boiler 21 are the same, α = α ′.
[Formula 123]
Here, GI (t ′) is a fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device 1 to be used.
[0103]
BE1Is an input amount of the shortage of electric power within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (95), and β is a converted value of electric power into primary energy. However, since there is no power shortage here, BE1Is zero.
[Expression 124]
Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power unit 1 within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (96).
[Expression 125]
Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power. That is, when the load power is smaller than the rated power, it becomes zero because there is no power shortage.
[0104]
SE1Is the surplus power amount sold to the third party by the power selling means (corresponding to the surplus power YE in FIG. 5A), and F> E1The amount of (t ′) is integrated and is expressed by the following equation (97), and γ is a converted value obtained by converting the price when selling to a third party into primary energy.
[Expression 126]
However, if e (t ′) <F, E1(T ′) = e (t ′)
If e (t ′) ≧ F, E1(T ′) = F
Where E1(T ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power, and e (t ′) is It is a function which shows a time-dependent change of the electric power demand (load electric power) specified beforehand.
[0105]
(2) Stopped operation
Since the cogeneration apparatus 1 is not operated, no surplus power is generated, which is the same as the case described in the first embodiment. That is, acquired heat quantity HT1But,
HT1= The amount of heat BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21
Thus, the amount of heat BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21 is as described in the above equation (89). The conditional expression is the expression (92) as in the operation state described above.
[0106]
In this case, the converted value PE of the primary energy is GI.1・ Α and SE1・ Γ becomes zero,
PE = BI1・ Α ’+ BE1・ Β …… (98)
It becomes.
BI1Is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the gas boiler 21, and α 'is a converted value of the fuel into primary energy.
BE1Is the input amount of power shortage within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (99) because the power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device 1 is zero, and β Is the converted value of primary power.
[Expression 127]
[0107]
As described above, the operation state and the operation stop state are sequentially obtained in each section every 30 minutes, and the conditional expression is expressed by the following expression (100).
[Expression 128]
Here, n is a positive integer of 1 to 48 (24 ÷ 0.5).
[0108]
The converted value PE of primary energy is as follows.
Where ΣPEnIs the sum of the primary energies of n = 1 to 48. GInIs a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power device, and is expressed by the following equation (102), and α is a converted value of the fuel to primary energy, and ΣGInΑ is the sum of n = 1 to 48. Also, BInIs a fuel supply amount required for operation of the gas boiler 21, α ′ is a converted value of the fuel into primary energy, and ΣBInΑ ′ is the sum of n = 1 to 48.
[Expression 129]
Here, GI (t ′) is the fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used, and becomes zero in the operation stop state.
[0109]
ΣBEnIs an input amount of insufficient power within a predetermined time T, which is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (103), and β is a converted value of power to primary energy, and ΣBEnΒ calculates the sum of n = 1 to 48.
[Expression 130]
Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (104).
[Equation 131]
Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power.
[0110]
Also, ΣSEnIs the amount of surplus power sold to third parties by means of power selling, F> En(T ′) is integrated and is expressed by the following equation (105), and γ is a converted value obtained by converting the price when selling to a third party into primary energy, and n = 1 to 48 sums are being sought.
[Expression 132]
However, if e (t ′) <F, En(T ′) = e (t ′)
If e (t ′) ≧ F, En(T ′) = F
Where En(T ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power, and e (t ′) is It is a function which shows a time-dependent change of the electric power demand (load electric power) specified beforehand.
[0111]
After the passage of one day as one cycle, the heat acquired in that cycle is allowed to be consumed the next day, and the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank 2 is the maximum heat storage amount. SmaxAny value within the range not exceeding.
[0112]
As a result of the above, as in the first embodiment, various combinations of the operation stop state and the operation state are input to obtain the converted value PE of the primary energy.
[0113]
Finally 248The primary energy conversion value PE is input to the comparison means 26 and sequentially compared, and the smaller primary energy conversion value PE is left, and the operation state and the operation stop state where the primary energy conversion value PE is minimized. The optimum operation state of the combination is obtained, and the operation control means 27 performs the operation in the optimum operation state, so that the cogeneration system can be operated in the optimum state for improving the energy saving property.
[0114]
In the fourth embodiment, when one cycle is T and the division time interval is d, the following is obtained.
The optimum operation state of the combination in which the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank 2 always satisfies the following conditional expression (20) and the following converted value PE [Expression (22)] of the primary energy is minimized. And the surplus power when the power demand is smaller than the power of the rated power generation amount is sold to the third party by the power selling means 33 according to the determined optimum operation state. Become.
[Formula 133]
Here, S [t + (n−1) d] indicates the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank at the start of operation for each divided time. In addition, n is a positive integer of 1 to T / d, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is a release from the system. The amount of heat. SmaxIndicates the maximum amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank.
HTnIndicates the amount of heat obtained within the divided time interval d, and is expressed by the following equation (21).
[Formula 134]
Here, F indicates the power of the rated power generation amount, and k indicates the thermoelectric ratio.
In the above equation (21), BO (t ′) represents a function when the auxiliary heating means is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when a shortage of heat occurs.
Where ΣPEnIs the sum of the primary energies of n = 1 to T / d. GInIs a fuel supply amount required for operation of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (23), and α is a converted value of the fuel to primary energy, and ΣGInΑ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d. Also, BInIs the fuel supply amount required for the operation of the auxiliary heating means, α ′ is the converted value of the fuel into the primary energy, and ΣBInΑ ′ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d.
[Expression 135]
Here, GI (t ′) is the fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used, and becomes zero in the operation stop state.
ΣBEnIs an input amount of insufficient power within a predetermined time T that is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (24), and β is a converted value of the power into primary energy, and n = 1 The total of ~ T / d is obtained.
[Formula 136]
Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is represented by the following equation (25).
[Expression 137]
Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power. Also, ΣSEnIs the amount of surplus power sold to third parties by means of power selling, F> En(T ′) is integrated and is expressed by the following equation (26), and γ is a converted value obtained by converting the price when selling to a third party into primary energy, and n = 1 to The total sum of T / d is obtained.
[Formula 138]
However, if e (t ′) <F, En(T ′) = e (t ′)
If e (t ′) ≧ F, En(T ′) = F
Where En(T ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power, and e (t ′) is It is a function which shows a time-dependent change of the electric power demand (load electric power) specified beforehand.
[0115]
Next, a fifth embodiment will be described.
In the fifth embodiment, similarly to the third embodiment, the combined heat and power supply apparatus 1 is operated with a power generation amount set in two stages of 500 w and a rated power generation amount 1 kw. Further, in the fifth embodiment, the power selling means 33 is provided as in the fourth embodiment, and surplus power whose generated power exceeds the power demand is sold to a third party.
[0116]
(1) Operating condition with rated power generation of 1 kW
The amount of heat HT to acquire1Is
HT1= H1+ Generated heat amount CH + Heat amount BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21
It becomes.
[0117]
Also, the amount of generated heat CH = 0.5 · F1・ K1  ...... (106)
It is. Where k1Is the rated power generation F1It is a thermoelectric ratio when driving at (1 kW).
The amount of heat BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21 is
[Formula 139]
It becomes. BO (t ′) represents a function when the gas boiler 21 is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the heat amount is insufficient. In FIG. 10B, it is zero.
[0118]
On the other hand, the amount of heat consumed is the amount of heat demand plus the amount of heat released.
[Formula 140]
It becomes. Here, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is an amount of heat released from the system.
[0119]
From these things, the amount of heat storage S (0.5) after 30 minutes in the first section,
[Formula 141]
It becomes. Here, S (0) is the initial heat storage amount at the start of operation in the first section. Further, the heat storage amount S (0.5) is 0 or more and the maximum heat storage amount S of the heat storage tank 2.maxIt is necessary to satisfy the following conditional expression.
[Expression 142]
That is, here, if the amount of heat is insufficient, the gas boiler 21 is activated to compensate for the insufficient amount of heat.
[0120]
The converted value PE of primary energy here is
PE = GI1・ Α + BI1・ Α ’+ BE1・ Β-SE1・ Γ …… (111)
It becomes. GI1Is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply apparatus 1 and is expressed by the following equation (112), and α is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel. Also, BI1Is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the gas boiler 21, and α 'is a converted value of the fuel into primary energy. If the fuel of the cogeneration apparatus 1 and the gas boiler 21 are the same, α = α ′.
[Expression 143]
Here, GI (t ′) is a fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device 1 to be used.
[0121]
BE1Is an input amount of the shortage of electric power within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (113), and β is a converted value of electric power into primary energy.
However, it is zero here.
[Expression 144]
Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power unit 1 within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (114).
[Expression 145]
Where E1(T ′) is the amount of power that becomes the rated power amount 1 kw when the load power exceeds the power of the rated power generation amount 1 kw, and the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the power of the rated power generation amount 1 kw. That is, when the load power is smaller than the rated power, it becomes zero because there is no power shortage.
[0122]
SE1Is the surplus power amount sold to the third party by the power selling means [corresponding to surplus power YE in FIG.1> E1The amount of (t ′) is integrated and is expressed by the following equation (115), and γ is a converted value obtained by converting the price when selling to a third party into primary energy.
146
However, e (t ′) <F1If so, E1(T ′) = e (t ′)
e (t ′) ≧ F1If so, E1(T ′) = F1
Where E1(T ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power, and e (t ′) is It is a function which shows a time-dependent change of the electric power demand (load electric power) specified beforehand.
[0123]
(2) Operating state with 500w of power generation
As shown in the graph showing the correlation between the power demand and the amount of power generation in (c) of FIG. 10 and the graph showing the correlation between the heat demand and the amount of generated heat in (d) of FIG.2Is smaller than the electric power demand e (t ′) and there is no surplus electric power.1Is zero and the amount of heat HT to acquire1Is
HT1= Generated heat CH + Heat quantity BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21
It becomes.
[0124]
Also, the amount of generated heat CH = 0.5 · F2・ K2  ...... (116)
It is. Where k2Is the power generation F2It is a thermoelectric ratio when driving at (500 kW).
The amount of heat BH supplemented by the gas boiler 21 is
[Expression 147]
It becomes. BO (t ′) represents a function when the gas boiler 21 is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the heat amount is insufficient. In FIG. 10D, it is zero.
[0125]
On the other hand, the amount of heat consumed is the amount of heat demand plus the amount of heat released.
[Formula 148]
It becomes. Here, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is an amount of heat released from the system.
[0126]
From these things, the amount of heat storage S (0.5) after 30 minutes in the first section,
149
It becomes. Here, S (0) is the initial heat storage amount at the start of operation in the first section. Further, the heat storage amount S (0.5) is 0 or more and the maximum heat storage amount S of the heat storage tank 2.maxIt is necessary to satisfy the following conditional expression.
[Expression 150]
That is, here, if the amount of heat is insufficient, the gas boiler 21 is activated to compensate for the insufficient amount of heat.
[0127]
The converted value PE of primary energy here is
PE = GI1・ Α + BI1・ Α ’+ BE1・ Β …… (121)
It becomes. GI1Is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply apparatus 1 and is expressed by the following equation (122), and α is a converted value of the fuel into primary energy. Also, BI1Is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the gas boiler 21, and α 'is a converted value of the fuel into primary energy. If the fuel of the cogeneration apparatus 1 and the gas boiler 21 are the same, α = α ′.
[Formula 151]
Here, GI (t ′) is a fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device 1 to be used.
[0128]
BE1Is the input amount of the shortage of power within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (123), and β is a converted value of the power into primary energy.
[Formula 152]
Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power unit 1 within one section time (0.5 hours), and is expressed by the following equation (124).
[Expression 153]
Where E1(T ′) is the set power amount 500w when the load power exceeds the set power generation amount 500w, and the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the set power generation amount 500w. In addition, when this load electric power is smaller than the electric power of setting power generation amount 500w, surplus electric power generate | occur | produces and the converted value of primary energy is calculated | required by (111) Formula.
[0129]
(3) Stopped operation
The operation of the fifth embodiment is the same as the operation stop state in the first embodiment described with reference to (c) and (d) of FIG.
[0130]
In the case of this fifth embodiment, finally 348The primary energy conversion value PE is input to the comparison means 26 and sequentially compared, and the smaller primary energy conversion value PE is left, and the primary energy conversion value PE is minimized. The optimum operation state of the combination of the operation state and the operation stop state is obtained, the operation control means 27 performs the operation in the optimum operation state, and the cogeneration system can be operated in the optimum state for improving energy saving. .
[0131]
After the passage of one day as one cycle, the heat acquired in that cycle is allowed to be consumed the next day, and the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank 2 is the maximum heat storage amount. SmaxAny value within the range not exceeding.
Further, in the third embodiment, two types of step operation, 500 w operation and rated power generation 1 kw operation, are performed. In the present invention, for example, two steps of 700 w operation and rated power generation 1 kw operation are performed. Operation with the set power generation amount may be performed, or operation with the power generation amount set to three or more stages such as 500 w operation, 700 w operation, and rated power generation 1 kw operation may be performed. It includes the case of doing.
[0132]
From the above, if one cycle is arranged as T and the division time interval is set as d, the result is as follows.
The optimum operation state of the combination in which the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank 2 always satisfies the following conditional expression (27) and the following primary energy conversion value PE [Expression (29)] is minimized. The combined heat and power supply apparatus 1 is operated with a set power generation amount in a plurality of stages according to the determined optimum operation state, and surplus power when the power demand is smaller than the power of the set power generation amount is converted by an electrothermal conversion means such as an electric heater. It will be converted to heat.
[Expression 154]
Here, S [t + (n−1) d] indicates the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank at the start of operation for each divided time. In addition, n is a positive integer of 1 to T / d, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is a release from the system. The amount of heat. SmaxIndicates the maximum amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank.
[0133]
HTnIndicates the amount of heat obtained within the divided time interval d, and is expressed by the following equation (28).
[Expression 155]
Where FmIs the set power generation amount, kmIs the set power generation amount FmThe thermoelectric ratios at are shown respectively. m is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2 and up to the set number of power generation levels.
In the above equation (28), BO (t ′) represents a function when the auxiliary heating means is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the shortage of heat occurs.
Where ΣPEnIs the sum of the primary energies of n = 1 to T / d. GInIs a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (30), and α is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣGInΑ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d. Also, BInIs the fuel supply amount required for the operation of the auxiliary heating means, α ′ is the converted value of the fuel into the primary energy, and ΣBInΑ ′ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d.
156
Here, GI (t ′) is the fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used, and becomes zero in the operation stop state.
ΣBEnIs an input amount of insufficient power within a predetermined time T that is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (31), and β is a converted value of the power to primary energy, and n = 1 The total of ~ T / d is obtained.
[Expression 157]
Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is represented by the following equation (32).
[Formula 158]
Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power. Also, ΣSEnIs the amount of surplus power sold to third parties by means of power selling, F> En(T ′) is integrated and is expressed by the following equation (33), and γ is a converted value obtained by converting the price when selling to a third party into primary energy, and n = 1 to The total sum of T / d is obtained.
[Expression 159]
However, e (t ′) <FmIf so, En(T ′) = e (t ′)
e (t ′) ≧ FmIf so, En(T ′) = F
Where En(T '), the load power is the set power generation amount FmExceeds the set power amount, and the load power is the set power generation amount F.mWhen it is smaller, it is the amount of power that becomes the load power amount, and e (t ′) is a function that indicates a change in power demand (load power) specified in advance over time.
[0134]
FIG. 14 is a block diagram of the sixth embodiment. The differences from the first embodiment are as follows.
That is, the microcomputer 22 is connected to the start / stop number setting means 41 for setting the number of start / stops in one cycle of the cogeneration apparatus 1, and the start / stop number set by the start / stop number setting means 41 is input to the calculation means 25. It is supposed to be.
[0135]
The calculation means 25 calculates the converted value of primary energy when the number of start / stop times of the operation state input from the operation state input means 24 exceeds the set start / stop number input from the start / stop number setting means 41. It stops and shifts to the input of the next operation state.
[0136]
According to the sixth embodiment, it is possible to obtain the optimum operating state of the combination in which the number of start / stops in one cycle of the combined heat and power supply apparatus 1 is equal to or less than the set number and the converted primary value PE of the primary energy is minimum. 1 durability can be improved.
As the number of start / stop times, a desired number of times may be set as appropriate depending on the characteristics of the combined heat and power supply device 1 and the desired service life. For example, if the desired service life is 10 years, it is set to about 3 times, and considering the replacement of the starter or the like, it is set to about 6 times. This configuration can be similarly applied to the second, third, fourth and fifth embodiments.
[0137]
The heat dissipation amount ex (t ′) from the system in each of the first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth embodiments is the amount of heat released from the housing of the heat storage tank 2, the piping and the combined heat and power supply device 1. Including heat quantity ST (t), PL (t), and GE (t), all are determined mainly by the heat capacity proportional to the scale at the time of system construction. For example, if a configuration in which the casing of the pipe and the combined heat and power supply device 1 and the heat storage tank 2 are covered with a heat insulating material is adopted, the heat radiation amount can be suppressed, but the heat insulating effect of the heat insulating material can also be specified in advance when the system is constructed. In any case, the amount of heat released from the piping, the casing of the combined heat and power supply device 1 and the heat storage tank 2 can be specified in advance through experiments, calculations, learning effects, and the like.
[0138]
The initial heat storage amount S (0) is appropriately set based on the power demand and heat demand specified in advance, and can be specified in advance. Based on Table-1, the initial heat storage amount is 2,000 [× (1/860) kW].
[0139]
The present invention can be applied to cogeneration systems for various uses such as home use, manufacturing factories, and commercial buildings.
[0140]
【The invention's effect】
  As is clear from the above description, the claim 1And claim 2According to the operation method of the cogeneration system according to the invention, surplus power exceeding the power demand when the power demand is smaller than the rated power generation amount is converted into heat by the electrothermal conversion means, and the combined heat and power supply device is converted into the rated power generation amount. Since power is generated by operation, the apparent power generation efficiency can be increased as compared with the case of operation with a power generation amount smaller than the rated power generation amount.
  Moreover, for example, it was allowed not to stay within one cycle such as one day, but to be used to cover part of the heat demand within the next one cycle, such as the heat demand for the next morning, and stored in a heat storage tank. To cover the heat demand with the amount of heat that is dissipated before and after the consumption, and to cover the shortage of electricity with electricity purchase means, with the converted heat, the heat generated by the combined heat and power unit, and the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank In consideration of supplementing the shortage of heat with auxiliary heating means when there is a shortage, the operation is performed so that the total conversion value to primary energy is minimized. Even if a shortage of heat occurs, it can be dealt with satisfactorily by using the auxiliary heating means, and the combined heat and power supply apparatus can be operated by selecting a state with less heat dissipation loss, so that energy saving can be improved satisfactorily.
[0141]
  Claims3 and claim 4According to the operation method of the cogeneration system according to the invention, when the power demand exceeds the rated power generation amount, the combined heat and power generation device is operated with the rated power generation amount to generate power, so that the power generation efficiency can be increased, and the power demand is rated. When it is smaller than the amount of power generation, the combined heat and power unit is operated to follow the power demand to generate power and not generate surplus power. The configuration for doing so can be made unnecessary.
  Moreover, for example, it was allowed not to stay within one cycle such as one day, but to be used to cover part of the heat demand within the next one cycle, such as the heat demand for the next morning, and stored in a heat storage tank. To cover the heat demand with the amount of heat that is dissipated before and after the consumption, and to cover the shortage of electricity with electricity purchase means, with the converted heat, the heat generated by the combined heat and power unit, and the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank In consideration of supplementing the shortage of heat with auxiliary heating means when there is a shortage, the operation is performed so that the total conversion value to primary energy is minimized. Even if a shortage of heat occurs, it can be dealt with satisfactorily by using the auxiliary heating means, and the combined heat and power supply apparatus can be operated by selecting a state with less heat dissipation loss, so that energy saving can be improved satisfactorily.
[0142]
  Claims5 and claim 6According to the operation method of the cogeneration system of the invention according to the present invention, since the combined heat and power supply device is operated with the power generation amount set in a plurality of stages, it is possible to perform an efficient operation with less surplus power than when always operating at a constant output.
  Moreover, for example, it was allowed not to stay within one cycle such as one day, but to be used to cover part of the heat demand within the next one cycle, such as the heat demand for the next morning, and stored in a heat storage tank. To cover the heat demand with the amount of heat that is dissipated before and after the consumption, and to cover the shortage of electricity with electricity purchase means, with the converted heat, the heat generated by the combined heat and power unit, and the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank In consideration of supplementing the shortage of heat with auxiliary heating means when there is a shortage, the operation is performed so that the total conversion value to primary energy is minimized. Even if a shortage of heat occurs, it can be dealt with satisfactorily by using the auxiliary heating means, and the combined heat and power supply apparatus can be operated by selecting a state with less heat dissipation loss, so that energy saving can be improved satisfactorily.
[0143]
  Claims7 and claim 8According to the operation method of the cogeneration system according to the invention, surplus power exceeding the power demand when the power demand is smaller than the rated power generation amount is sold to a third party by the power selling means, and the combined heat and power device is connected to the rated power generation amount. Therefore, it is possible to increase the apparent power generation efficiency as compared with the case of operating with a power generation amount smaller than the rated power generation amount.
  Moreover, for example, it was allowed not to stay within one cycle such as one day, but to be used to cover part of the heat demand within the next one cycle, such as the heat demand for the next morning, and stored in a heat storage tank. The amount of heat that is dissipated before the heat is consumed, the shortage of power is covered by power purchase means, the surplus power is sold to a third party by power sale means, and the heat generated in the combined heat and power supply device Operate so that the converted value to primary energy is minimized, taking into account supplementing the insufficient heat with auxiliary heating means when the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank is insufficient to cover the heat demand. Therefore, even if there is a slight shortage of heat due to the capacity limitation of the heat storage tank, it is possible to cope well with the use of auxiliary heating means, select a state with less heat loss, and operate the combined heat and power unit, saving energy Can be improved satisfactorily.
[0144]
  Claims9 and claim 10According to the operation method of the cogeneration system of the invention according to the present invention, since the combined heat and power supply device is operated with the power generation amount set in a plurality of stages, it is possible to perform an efficient operation with less surplus power than when always operating at a constant output.
  Moreover, for example, it was allowed not to stay within one cycle such as one day, but to be used to cover part of the heat demand within the next one cycle, such as the heat demand for the next morning, and stored in a heat storage tank. The amount of heat that is dissipated before the heat is consumed, the shortage of power is covered by power purchase means, the surplus power is sold to a third party by power sale means, and the heat generated in the combined heat and power supply device Operate so that the converted value to primary energy is minimized, taking into account supplementing the insufficient heat with auxiliary heating means when the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank is insufficient to cover the heat demand. Therefore, even if there is a slight shortage of heat due to the capacity limitation of the heat storage tank, it is possible to cope well with the use of auxiliary heating means, select a state with less heat loss, and operate the combined heat and power unit, saving energy Can be improved satisfactorily.
[0145]
  Claims11According to the operation method of the cogeneration system according to the invention, the number of times of starting and stopping is set according to the characteristics of each combined heat and power unit to be used, the desired service life, etc., and avoiding repeated starting and stopping more than necessary. The durability of the combined heat and power supply apparatus can be prevented by preventing the life of the combined heat and power supply apparatus from being lowered early.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a system configuration diagram showing a cogeneration system according to a first embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a block diagram.
FIG. 3 is a graph showing a change in power demand with time for explanation of an example.
FIG. 4 is a graph showing changes in heat demand over time for use in explaining examples.
FIGS. 5A and 5B are reference diagrams for explaining the operation of the first embodiment. FIGS. 5A and 5C show the correlation between the power demand and the power generation amount, respectively, and FIGS. It shows the correlation between demand and calorific value.
FIGS. 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D are time charts showing examples of combinations of operation stop states and operation states, respectively.
7 is a graph illustrating the optimum operation state of the first embodiment, where (a) shows the correlation between the power demand and the amount of power generation, and (b) shows the correlation between the heat demand and the amount of generated heat. .
FIG. 8 is a reference diagram for explaining the operation of the second embodiment, wherein (a) and (c) show the correlation between the power demand and the amount of power generation, respectively, and (b) and (d) respectively show the heat. It shows the correlation between demand and calorific value.
FIGS. 9A and 9B are graphs illustrating the optimum operation state of the second embodiment, where FIG. 9A shows the correlation between the power demand and the amount of power generation, and FIG. 9B shows the correlation between the heat demand and the amount of generated heat. .
FIG. 10 is a reference diagram for explaining the operation of the third embodiment. (A) and (c) show the correlation between the power demand and the power generation amount, respectively, and (b) and (d) respectively show the heat. It shows the correlation between demand and calorific value.
FIGS. 11A and 11B are graphs illustrating the optimum operation state of the third embodiment, where FIG. 11A shows the correlation between the power demand and the amount of power generation, and FIG. 11B shows the correlation between the heat demand and the amount of generated heat. .
FIG. 12 is a system configuration diagram showing a cogeneration system according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 13 is a block diagram of a fourth embodiment.
FIG. 14 is a block diagram of a sixth embodiment.
[Explanation of symbols]
1 ... Combined heat and power system
2 ... Thermal storage tank
8 ... Electric heater as electrothermal conversion means
19 ... Power purchase
21 ... Gas boiler as auxiliary heating means
23 ... Demand change identification means
33 ... Power selling means
41. Number of times of starting / stopping setting

Claims (11)

  1. A combined heat and power generation device that generates the rated amount of power and heat;
    A heat storage tank for storing heat generated by the cogeneration device;
    Electrothermal conversion means for converting the electric power generated in the cogeneration device into heat;
    Auxiliary heating means to compensate for the shortage of heat,
    As a one round-life for a predetermined time, and demand change specifying means for pre-specifying the change over time in the respective heat demand and power demand in that one rotation period,
    Power purchase means capable of supplying insufficient power,
    While consumption is generated in said one rotation period by the cogeneration system the amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand content or the majority within said one rotation period, consumes heat became excessive in the next cycle allow the, and compensates the amount of heat of the shortage in the auxiliary heating means, said by dividing one rotation period to set the time interval available capital, stopped in a state of operating the cogeneration system in each of the divided time Assuming that the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank is 0 or more and does not exceed the maximum heat storage amount, the optimum operating state of the combination that minimizes the converted value of the overall primary energy is obtained and obtained. The cogeneration system is characterized in that the cogeneration device is operated at a rated power generation amount according to the optimum operating state, and surplus power when the power demand is smaller than the power of the rated power generation amount is converted into heat by the electrothermal conversion means. The method of operation and Deployment system.
  2. In the operation method of the cogeneration system according to claim 1,
    The predetermined time as one period T, comprising a demand changes specific means to pre-specified changes over time in each heat demand and power demand within the 1 period T,
    The amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand in the one cycle T or most of the heat is generated and consumed in the one cycle T by the combined heat and power supply device, and excess heat is consumed in the next cycle. And the supplementary heating means compensates for the shortage of heat, divides the one period T into set time intervals d, and stops the state in which the combined heat and power device is operated at each divided time. Assuming the state, the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank always satisfies the following conditional expression (1), and the converted value PE [Expression (4)] of the following primary energy is minimum. The combined operation of the thermoelectric power supply device is operated at the rated power generation amount according to the determined optimal operation state, and surplus power when the power demand is smaller than the power of the rated power generation amount is calculated by the electrothermal conversion means. The method of operating a cogeneration system and converting the.
    Here, S [t + (n−1) d] indicates the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank at the start of operation for each divided time. In addition, n is a positive integer of 1 to T / d, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is a release from the system. The amount of heat. S max indicates the maximum heat storage amount of the heat storage tank.
    HT n indicates the amount of heat acquired within the divided time interval d, and is expressed by the following equation (2).
    Here, F indicates the power of the rated power generation amount, and k indicates the thermoelectric ratio. H n is a conversion heat amount obtained by converting surplus electric power into heat by the electrothermal conversion means, and integrates F> E n (t ′), and is expressed by the following equation (3).
    However, if e (t ′) <F, E n (t ′) = e (t ′)
    If e (t ′) ≧ F, E n (t ′) = F
    Here, E n (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the power of the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power, and e ( t ′) is a function indicating a change with time in power demand (load power) specified in advance.
    In the above equation (2), BO (t ′) indicates a function in the case where the auxiliary heating means is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the shortage of heat occurs.
    PE = ΣPE n = ΣGI n · α + ΣBI n · α '+ ΣBE n · β (4)
    Here, ΣPE n is the total primary energy of n = 1 to T / d. GI n is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (5), α is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣGI n · α is n = 1 to T The sum of / d is obtained. BI n is the fuel supply amount required for the operation of the auxiliary heating means, α ′ is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣBI n · α ′ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d Yes.
    Here, GI (t ′) is the fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used, and is zero in the operation stop state.
    ΣBE n is an input amount of insufficient power within a predetermined time T, which is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (6), and β is a converted value of power to primary energy, n = 1 to T / d.
    Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (7).
    Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the power of the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power.
  3. A cogeneration device that generates power and heat that can be operated according to the load power when the load power is less than the rated power generation amount,
    A heat storage tank for storing heat generated by the cogeneration device;
    Auxiliary heating means to compensate for the shortage of heat,
    As a one round-life for a predetermined time, and demand change specifying means for pre-specifying the change over time in the respective heat demand and power demand in that one rotation period,
    Power purchase means capable of supplying insufficient power,
    While consumption is generated in said one rotation period by the cogeneration system the amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand content in said one rotation period, allowed to consume the heat becomes excessive in the next cycle and, and compensates for the amount of heat shortage in the auxiliary heating means, and a state where the by dividing one rotation period to set the time interval available capital, stopped in a state of operating the cogeneration system in each of the divided time Assuming that the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank is 0 or more and does not exceed the maximum heat storage amount, the optimum operation state of the combination that minimizes the converted value of the overall primary energy is obtained, and the optimum operation obtained Depending on the state, the cogeneration system is operated with the rated power generation amount and when the power demand is smaller than the rated power generation amount, the cogeneration system is operated by following the change in the power demand. The rolling method.
  4. In the operation method of the cogeneration system according to claim 3,
    The predetermined time as one period T, comprising a demand changes specific means to pre-specified changes over time in each heat demand and power demand within the 1 period T,
    The amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand within one cycle T is generated and consumed within the one cycle T by the combined heat and power supply device, and excess heat is allowed to be consumed in the next cycle. And supplementing the deficient amount of heat with the auxiliary heating means, dividing the one period T into set time intervals d, and operating and stopping the combined heat and power device at each divided time. Assuming that the variation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank always satisfies the following conditional expression (8), and the following primary energy conversion value PE [Expression (10)] is minimized. The optimum operating state is obtained, and the combined heat and power unit is operated at the rated power generation amount according to the determined optimum operating state, and when the power demand is smaller than the rated power generation amount, the operation is performed following the change in the power demand. The method of operating a cogeneration system comprising.
    Here, S [t + (n−1) d] indicates the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank at the start of operation for each divided time. In addition, n is a positive integer of 1 to T / d, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is a release from the system. The amount of heat. Smax indicates the maximum heat storage amount of the heat storage tank.
    HT n indicates the amount of heat acquired within the divided time interval d, and is expressed by the following equation (9).
    Here, E n (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power. B [E n (t ′)] indicates the amount of heat generated by the combined heat and power device at the amount of power E n (t ′).
    BO (t ′) represents a function in the case where the auxiliary heating means is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when a shortage of heat occurs.
    PE = ΣPE n = ΣGI n · α + ΣBI n · α ′ + ΣBE n · β (10)
    Here, ΣPE n is the total primary energy of n = 1 to T / d. GI n is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the cogeneration system, is represented by the following formula (5a), also, alpha is the conversion value of the primary energy of the fuel, the ΣGI n · α n = 1~T The sum of / d is obtained. BI n is the fuel supply amount required for the operation of the auxiliary heating means, α ′ is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣBI n · α ′ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d Yes.
    Here, GI (t ′) is the fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used, and is zero in the operation stop state.
    ΣBE n is an input amount of insufficient power within a predetermined time T that is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (11), and β is a converted value of power to primary energy, n = 1 to T / d.
    Here, GP is a power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is represented by the following equation (12).
    Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the power of the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power, and e (t ') Is a function indicating a change with time in power demand (load power) specified in advance.
  5. A combined heat and power device that operates with the power generation amount set in multiple stages and generates the power and heat of the set power generation amount,
    A heat storage tank for storing heat generated by the cogeneration device;
    Electrothermal conversion means for converting the electric power generated in the cogeneration device into heat;
    Auxiliary heating means to compensate for the shortage of heat,
    As a one round-life for a predetermined time, and demand change specifying means for pre-specifying the change over time in the respective heat demand and power demand of one round-life Contact and following one round Kiso been within which each,
    Power purchase means capable of supplying insufficient power,
    While consumption is generated in said one rotation period by the cogeneration system the amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand content in said one rotation period, allowed to consume the heat becomes excessive in the next cycle and, and compensates for the amount of heat shortage in the auxiliary heating means, said by dividing one rotation period to set the time interval available capital, each set amount of power generated by the plurality of stages of the cogeneration unit in each of the divided time Assuming the operation state and the stop state, the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank is not less than 0 and does not exceed the maximum heat storage amount, and the optimum operation state of the combination in which the converted value of the primary energy is minimized And operating the combined heat and power supply device with a plurality of rated power generation amounts and converting surplus power when the power demand is smaller than a set power generation amount into heat by the electrothermal conversion means according to the determined optimum operating state. With features Cogeneration system method of operation that.
  6. In the operation method of the cogeneration system according to claim 5,
    The predetermined time as one cycle T, with its one period T and the next one period T heat demand and power demand respectively demand changes specific means to pre-specified temporal changes in the respective
    The amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand within one cycle T is generated and consumed within the one cycle T by the combined heat and power supply device, and excess heat is allowed to be consumed in the next cycle. In addition, the shortage of heat is supplemented by the auxiliary heating means, and the one cycle T is divided every set time interval d, and the combined heat and power unit is operated at each of the set power generation amounts in a plurality of stages at each divided time. Assuming a state to be stopped and a state to be stopped, the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank always satisfies the following conditional expression (13), and the converted value PE of the following primary energy [Expression (16 )] Is determined as the optimum operating state of the combination that minimizes the surplus power when the combined heat and power unit is operated with the rated power generation amount in a plurality of stages and the power demand is smaller than the set power generation amount according to the determined optimum operating state. The method of operating a cogeneration system and converting into heat by said electrothermal converter.
    Here, S [t + (n−1) d] indicates the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank at the start of operation for each divided time. In addition, n is a positive integer of 1 to T / d, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is a release from the system. The amount of heat. S max indicates the maximum heat storage amount of the heat storage tank.
    HT n indicates the amount of heat acquired within the divided time interval d, and is expressed by the following equation (14).
    Here, F m is the set power amount, k m represents the thermoelectric ratio at the set power amount F m respectively. m is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2 and up to the set number of power generation levels. H n is the amount of converted heat obtained by converting surplus power into heat by the electrothermal conversion means, and integrates F m > E n (t ′), and is expressed by the following equation (15).
    However, if e (t ′) <F m , E n (t ′) = e (t ′)
    If e (t ′) ≧ F m , E n (t ′) = F m
    Here, E n (t ′) is the set power amount when the load power exceeds the set power generation amount Fm, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the set power generation amount Fm. (T ′) is a function indicating a change with time in power demand (load power) specified in advance.
    In the above equation (14), BO (t ′) represents a function when the auxiliary heating means is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the shortage of heat occurs.
    PE = ΣPE n = ΣGI n · α + ΣBI n · α '+ ΣBE n · β (16)
    Here, ΣPE n is the total primary energy of n = 1 to T / d. GI n is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (17), α is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣGI n · α is n = 1 to T The sum of / d is obtained. BI n is the fuel supply amount required for the operation of the auxiliary heating means, α ′ is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣBI n · α ′ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d Yes.
    Here, GI (t ′) is the fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used, and is zero in the operation stop state.
    ΣBE n is an input amount of the shortage of electric power within a predetermined time T that is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (18), and β is a converted value of electric power to primary energy, and n = 1 to T / d.
    Here, GP is a power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is represented by the following equation (19).
    Here, E (t ′) is a power amount that becomes the set power amount when the load power exceeds the set power generation amount Fm, and becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the set power generation amount Fm.
  7. A combined heat and power generation device that generates the rated amount of power and heat;
    A heat storage tank for storing heat generated by the cogeneration device;
    Power selling means for selling the electric power generated by the cogeneration device to a third party;
    Auxiliary heating means to compensate for the shortage of heat,
    As a one round-life for a predetermined time, and demand change specifying means for pre-specifying the change over time in the respective heat demand and power demand in that one rotation period,
    Power purchase means capable of supplying insufficient power,
    While consumption is generated in said one rotation period by the cogeneration system the amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand content or the majority within said one rotation period, consumes heat became excessive in the next cycle allow the, and compensates the amount of heat of the shortage in the auxiliary heating means, said by dividing one rotation period to set the time interval available capital, stopped in a state of operating the cogeneration system in each of the divided time The optimal operating state of the combination in which the converted value of the primary energy is minimized is set so that the fluctuation value of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank is not less than 0 and does not exceed the maximum heat storage amount. And operating the combined heat and power supply device with a rated power generation amount according to the determined optimum operating state and selling surplus power when the power demand is smaller than the power of the rated power generation amount to the third party by the power selling means. Koji Method of operating a configuration system.
  8. In the operation method of the cogeneration system according to claim 7,
    The predetermined time as one period T, comprising a demand changes specific means to pre-specified changes over time in each heat demand and power demand within the 1 period T,
    The amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand in the one cycle T or most of the heat is generated and consumed in the one cycle T by the combined heat and power supply device, and excess heat is consumed in the next cycle. And the supplementary heating means compensates for the shortage of heat, divides the one period T into set time intervals d, and stops the state in which the combined heat and power device is operated at each divided time. Assuming the state, the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank always satisfies the following conditional expression (20), and the converted value PE of the following primary energy [Expression (22)] is minimum. The combined operation of the combined heat and power unit is operated at the rated power generation amount, and surplus power when the power demand is smaller than the rated power generation power is The method of operating a cogeneration system, wherein a sell three parties.
    Here, S [t + (n−1) d] indicates the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank at the start of operation for each divided time. In addition, n is a positive integer of 1 to T / d, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is a release from the system. The amount of heat. Smax indicates the maximum heat storage amount of the heat storage tank.
    HT n indicates the amount of heat acquired within the divided time interval d, and is expressed by the following equation (21).
    Here, F indicates the power of the rated power generation amount, and k indicates the thermoelectric ratio.
    In the above equation (21), BO (t ′) represents a function in the case where the auxiliary heating means is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the shortage of heat occurs.
    PE = ΣPE n
    = ΣGI n · α + ΣBI n · α '+ ΣBE n · β-ΣSE n · γ (22)
    Here, ΣPE n is the total primary energy of n = 1 to T / d. GI n is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (23), α is a converted value to the primary energy of fuel, and ΣGI n · α is n = 1 to T The sum of / d is obtained. BI n is the fuel supply amount required for the operation of the auxiliary heating means, α ′ is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣBI n · α ′ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d Yes.
    Here, GI (t ′) is the fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used, and is zero in the operation stop state.
    ΣBE n is an input amount of insufficient power within a predetermined time T that is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (24), and β is a converted value of power to primary energy, n = 1 to T / d.
    Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is represented by the following equation (25).
    Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the power of the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power. Further, ΣSE n is the surplus power amount sold to the third party by the power selling means, and is integrated by F> E n (t ′), expressed by the following equation (26), and γ is the first This is a conversion value obtained by converting the price when selling to three parties into primary energy, and the sum of n = 1 to T / d is obtained.
    However, if e (t ′) <F, E n (t ′) = e (t ′)
    If e (t ′) ≧ F, E n (t ′) = F
    Here, E n (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the power of the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power, and e ( t ′) is a function indicating a change with time in power demand (load power) specified in advance.
  9. A combined heat and power device that operates with the power generation amount set in multiple stages and generates the power and heat of the set power generation amount,
    A heat storage tank for storing heat generated by the cogeneration device;
    Power selling means for selling the electric power generated by the cogeneration device to a third party;
    Auxiliary heating means to compensate for the shortage of heat,
    As a one round-life for a predetermined time, and demand change specifying means for pre-specifying the change over time in the respective heat demand and power demand of one round-life Contact and following one round Kiso been within which each,
    Power purchase means capable of supplying insufficient power,
    While consumption is generated in said one rotation period by the cogeneration system the amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand content in said one rotation period, allowed to consume the heat becomes excessive in the next cycle and, and compensates for the amount of heat shortage in the auxiliary heating means, said by dividing one rotation period to set the time interval available capital, each set amount of power generated by the plurality of stages of the cogeneration unit in each of the divided time Assuming the operation state and the stop state, the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank is 0 or more and does not exceed the maximum heat storage amount, and the optimum operation state of the combination in which the converted value of the primary energy is minimized And operating the combined heat and power supply device with a plurality of rated power generation amounts and selling the surplus power when the power demand is smaller than the set power generation amount to the third party by the power selling means according to the determined optimum operating state. It is characterized by Method of operating a cogeneration system.
  10. In the operation method of the cogeneration system according to claim 9,
    The predetermined time as one cycle T, with its one period T and the next one period T heat demand and power demand respectively demand changes specific means to pre-specified temporal changes in the respective
    The amount of heat corresponding to the heat demand within one cycle T is generated and consumed within the one cycle T by the combined heat and power supply device, and excess heat is allowed to be consumed in the next cycle. In addition, the shortage of heat is supplemented by the auxiliary heating means, and the one cycle T is divided every set time interval d, and the combined heat and power unit is operated at each of the set power generation amounts in a plurality of stages at each divided time. Assuming the state of being stopped and the state of stopping, the fluctuation value S (t + n · d) of the heat storage amount in the heat storage tank always satisfies the following conditional expression (27), and the converted value PE of the following primary energy [Expression (29 )] Is determined as the optimum operating state of the combination that minimizes the surplus power when the combined heat and power unit is operated with the rated power generation amount in a plurality of stages and the power demand is smaller than the set power generation amount according to the determined optimum operating state. The method of operating a cogeneration system, characterized in that sell to a third party by the power selling unit.
    Here, S [t + (n−1) d] indicates the amount of heat stored in the heat storage tank at the start of operation for each divided time. In addition, n is a positive integer of 1 to T / d, h (t ′) is a function indicating a temporal change in heat demand specified in advance, and ex (t ′) is a release from the system. The amount of heat. S max indicates the maximum heat storage amount of the heat storage tank.
    HTn represents the amount of heat acquired within the divided time interval d, and is expressed by the following equation (28).
    Here, F m is the set power amount, k m represents the thermoelectric ratio at the set power amount F m respectively. m is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2 and up to the set number of power generation levels.
    In the above equation (28), BO (t ′) represents a function in the case where the auxiliary heating means is activated so as to compensate for the shortage when the shortage of heat occurs.
    PE = ΣPE n
    = ΣGI n · α + ΣBI n · α '+ ΣBE n · β-ΣSE n · γ (29)
    Here, ΣPE n is the total primary energy of n = 1 to T / d. GI n is a fuel supply amount required for the operation of the combined heat and power supply device, and is expressed by the following equation (30), α is a converted value to the primary energy of fuel, and ΣGI n · α is n = 1 to T The sum of / d is obtained. BI n is the fuel supply amount required for the operation of the auxiliary heating means, α ′ is a converted value to the primary energy of the fuel, and ΣBI n · α ′ is the sum of n = 1 to T / d Yes.
    Here, GI (t ′) is the fuel supply amount specified by the combined heat and power supply device to be used, and is zero in the operation stop state.
    ΣBE n is an input amount of insufficient power within a predetermined time T that is one cycle T, and is expressed by the following equation (31), and β is a converted value of power to primary energy, n = 1 to T / d.
    Here, GP is the power generation amount of the combined heat and power supply device, and is represented by the following equation (32).
    Here, E (t ′) is the rated power amount when the load power exceeds the power of the rated power generation amount, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the rated power. Further, ΣSE n is the surplus power amount sold to the third party by the power selling means, and is integrated by F> E n (t ′), expressed by the following equation (33), and γ is the first This is a conversion value obtained by converting the price when selling to three parties into primary energy, and the sum of n = 1 to T / d is obtained.
    However, if e (t ′) <F m , E n (t ′) = e (t ′)
    If e (t ′) ≧ F m , E n (t ′) = F
    Here, E n (t ′) is the set power amount when the load power exceeds the set power generation amount Fm, and is the power amount that becomes the load power amount when the load power is smaller than the set power generation amount F m . e (t ′) is a function indicating a change with time in power demand (load power) specified in advance.
  11. The operation of the cogeneration system according to any one of claims 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 , 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. In the method
    A combination that includes start / stop times setting means for setting the number of start / stops in one cycle of the combined heat and power supply device, and the number of start / stops in one cycle of the combined heat and power supply device is equal to or less than the set number of times, and the primary energy conversion value PE is minimized. A cogeneration system operation method that seeks the optimal operating state of a vehicle.
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