JP4574169B2 - Small imaging device - Google Patents

Small imaging device Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4574169B2
JP4574169B2 JP2003579407A JP2003579407A JP4574169B2 JP 4574169 B2 JP4574169 B2 JP 4574169B2 JP 2003579407 A JP2003579407 A JP 2003579407A JP 2003579407 A JP2003579407 A JP 2003579407A JP 4574169 B2 JP4574169 B2 JP 4574169B2
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Prior art keywords
ssid
conductive
imaging
utility
lens
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JP2005533530A (en
Inventor
ウェルズ、デイビッド
ペテレンズ、トマシュ・ジェイ
ペンセル、ラルフ
マルクス、デイビッド・ティー
マルソー、デイビッド・ピー
ヤコブセン、スティーブン・シー
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サーコス・インベストメンツ・エルシーSarcos Investment Lc
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Priority to US36569202P priority Critical
Priority to US36556102P priority
Priority to US43126102P priority
Priority to US10/391,513 priority patent/US7591780B2/en
Priority to US39148903A priority
Priority to US10/391,490 priority patent/US7787939B2/en
Priority to PCT/US2003/008312 priority patent/WO2003081831A2/en
Application filed by サーコス・インベストメンツ・エルシーSarcos Investment Lc filed Critical サーコス・インベストメンツ・エルシーSarcos Investment Lc
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/04Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor combined with photographic or television appliances
    • A61B1/05Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor combined with photographic or television appliances characterised by the image sensor, e.g. camera, being in the distal end portion

Description

  The present invention relates to a solid state imaging device (SSID), and more particularly to a small imaging device suitable for observing the inside of a small opening or being inserted into a small diameter region. These devices can be used for the purpose of medical imaging in a patient's body via a catheter and for other uses.

  Various types of small-sized imaging devices utilizing advances in integrated circuit technology are known. Such small imaging devices are particularly useful for medical diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. If the imaging device can be made small enough to observe the site of interest, the human body, which could previously be observed only by surgical methods, can be reduced by using a minimally invasive catheter. It can be observed.

  Other uses for extremely small imaging devices are also recognized. For example, such a device can be used for various purposes such as monitoring the state and function of the inside of the device for monitoring, or for imaging where size and weight are important in space engineering. it can.

  Although the present invention can be applied to various applications as described above, the advantages of the present invention are most noticeable particularly in medical imaging applications. The importance of imaging a part of a living body, particularly a human body, located inside a small orifice or lumen has been recognized. Various types of endoscopes have been developed for such purposes.

  A particularly remarkable development in imaging technology has been in the field of SSID. Such imaging devices, including charge injection devices (CID), charge-coupled devices (CCD) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices, are used in endoscopes to reduce the size of conventional small imaging devices and optical fibers. It is a replacement for the bundle. However, when designing a catheter-mediated imaging device, it is necessary to have the ability to bend or curve without breaking or damaging the distal end of the catheter. This is necessary to minimize trauma to the living body and to steer the end to the desired position.

  Thus, it is desirable to produce a small device that is steerable and capable of providing a good quality image for a given size.

  To further reduce the size of an imaging device using an SSID provided at the end of a catheter or other flexible umbilical, it is necessary to focus on areas beyond conventional devices and techniques. In the first embodiment, the miniature imaging device has a utility guide, SSID, lens and umbilical. The utility guide has at least one opening configured to support the utility. The SSID can be supported by a utility guide and may have an imaging array on its top surface and a conductive element on its side, the imaging array being electrically coupled to the conductive element. The lens is optically coupled to the imaging array. The umbilical including the conductive line can be supported by the at least one opening described above, and the conductive line is electrically connected to the conductive element on the side surface of the SSID. In one embodiment, the conductive element may consist of a metal trace that is electrically coupled to the imaging array via a conductive pad provided on the top surface. Furthermore, the utility guide and SSID may consist of a single integrated part. Also, the conductive lines can be connected to the conductive elements by direct bonding joints rather than wire bonding.

  In another embodiment, the miniature imaging device has an SSID, a lens and an umbilical. The SSID includes, as an integral structure, an imaging array that is electrically connected to the conductive pads and further has at least one penetrating utility opening. The lens can be optically coupled to the imaging array. The umbilical includes a conductive line supported by at least one opening, and the conductive line is directly electrically coupled to the conductive pad. The conductive lines are directly electrically coupled to the conductive pads by bonding rather than wire bonding. Furthermore, the SSID may have a plurality of openings.

  For both embodiments, the solid-state imaging device may have a light source or fluid source supported by the device. Furthermore, a monitor and a processor provided at a remote position with respect to the SSID can be provided so that an image obtained by the SSID can be observed in real time. This is usually accomplished by an umbilical that includes a conductive line. The umbilical conductive line may provide a conductive wire configured to provide power, ground, clock signal and output signal.

  In a more detailed embodiment of the present invention, an optical insert can be optically placed between the lens and the imaging array. Such inserts may consist of other lenses such as wide-angle lenses or fiber optic or color filters. An example of a color filter insert is one that is configured to convert a monochromatic camera image into a multicolor image. Further, in any of the embodiments, the SSID may be composed of an imaging element selected from the group consisting of CCD, CID, and CMOS, and the lens may be composed of a GRIN lens.

  Regarding the related method, the operation method of the micro camera includes: (a) a process of optically coupling a lens to an SSID imaging array; and (b) securing a plurality of conductive paths, at least one of which is Arranging along a plurality of non-coplanar surfaces of the SSID, (c) supplying power to the SSID via the first conductive path of the conductive paths, and (d) of the conductive paths And receiving a signal from the SSID via the second conductive path.

  In another embodiment, a method of operating a microcamera includes: (a) optically coupling a lens to an SSID imaging array; and (b) providing power to the SSID via a first conductive path. And (c) a step of transmitting an image observation signal from the SSID via a second conductive path, wherein the first conductive path includes a first conductive umbilical wire, 1 conductive pad and a first bonding bond that directly couples an end of the first conductive umbilical wire to the first conductive pad, the second conductive path comprising a second conductive path It may include a conductive pad, a second conductive umbilical wire, and a second bonding bond that directly bonds an end of the second conductive umbilical wire to the second conductive pad. .

  In both of these embodiments, other processes such as a process of illuminating the periphery of the lens and a process of providing grounding and control for the SSID via the third and fourth conductive paths are included as desired. be able to. In more detail, the optical coupling process may include attaching the lens directly to the imaging array. Alternatively, the optical coupling process may include a process of placing an optical insert between the lens and the imaging array.

  A method of manufacturing an SSID as described above includes: (a) forming a feature including a conductive pad electrically coupled to an imaging array in a predetermined region on a substrate having a certain thickness; ) The portion other than the predetermined region is removed so as to reduce the thickness of the portion other than the predetermined region of the substrate, and the SSID has an upper surface on which the conductive pad is formed and a side surface adjacent to the upper surface. Forming the substrate attached to a substrate having a reduced thickness; (c) three-dimensionally masking the SSID so that the conductive pad and the side surface are exposed; and (d) the conductive layer. The pad and the side surface may be coated with a conductive material, and the conductive pad and the side surface may be electrically coupled to each other. Other processes can be added as desired. For example, in the process of removing the substrate portion, the predetermined area may be masked with a first photoresist so that the predetermined area is protected against the removal process. In addition, if desired, the method may further include a step of removing the first photoresist before the step of three-dimensionally masking the SSID. In one embodiment, the method further includes the step of separating the SSID from the substrate having a reduced thickness after the step of coating the conductive material. The process of masking the SSID three-dimensionally is performed using a second photoresist, or further includes the process of removing the second photoresist after the process of coating the conductive material. Can do.

  In another embodiment, a method of manufacturing an SSID includes: (a) forming a feature including a conductive pad electrically coupled to an imaging array in a predetermined region on a substrate having a thickness; (B) A step of removing a portion other than the predetermined region so as to reduce a thickness of a portion other than the predetermined region of the substrate, and forming an SSID attached to the substrate having a reduced thickness. And (c) forming a plurality of utility openings penetrating the SSID, and (d) separating the SSID from the substrate having a reduced thickness.

  In yet another embodiment, a miniature imaging device includes (a) an SSID that includes an imaging array, and (b) a GRIN lens that is optically coupled to the imaging array of the SSID. The GRIN lens may be substantially cylindrical. In one embodiment, the GRIN lens includes a first flat end for receiving light, a second flat end for transmitting light to the imaging array, and a non-translucent coating or sleeve. And an outer curved surface that prevents unwanted light from entering the GRIN lens. The GRIN lens may be optically coupled to the imaging array by direct contact between the second flat end and the imaging array. The direct contact can be realized by interposing a translucent or semi-translucent adhesive between the second flat end and the imaging array.

  The SSID may further include a conductive pad configured to be electrically coupled to the imaging array. In this case, the umbilical may include a conductive line, and may be configured to supply power to the imaging array via the conductive pad and to send a signal from the imaging array. In one embodiment, the conductive line includes a plurality of conductive wires individually bonded to the plurality of conductive pads by soldering, wire bonding, solder bumping, eutectic bonding, electroplating or conductive epoxy. . The SSID may comprise an imaging element selected from the group consisting of CCD, CID and CMOS.

  It may further comprise a utility guide coupled to the device and configured to support the utility. Such utilities may include a light source or fluid source supported on at least one of the SSID and the utility guide. It is also possible to have a processor and a remotely located monitor so that the image obtained by the SSID can be viewed in real time.

  In yet another embodiment, a method for observing a small lumen opening or inwardly comprises: (a) a micro camera including a GRIN lens optically coupled to an SSID imaging array; Inserting into the opening of the small lumen; (b) illuminating the periphery of the GRIN lens in or near the opening of the small lumen; and (c) the small lumen. Receiving in the GRIN lens light or photon energy reflected from an object in or within the aperture of the aperture and providing focused light or photon energy to the imaging array; (d) Converting the focused light or photon energy into digital data; and (e) the digital data so that it can be observed on a remotely located monitor. Processing a and a process. Such a method can be implemented by using a GRIN lens as a lens. The GRIN lens is surrounded by a first flat end for receiving light, a second flat end for transmitting light to the imaging array, and a non-translucent coating or sleeve, It may have an outer curved surface that prevents unwanted light from entering the GRIN lens. The SSID may comprise an imaging element selected from the group consisting of CCD, CID and CMOS.

  Yet another miniature imaging device is also disclosed. The small imaging apparatus includes a plurality of imaging arrays each supported by an SSID, and a plurality of GRIN lenses optically coupled to the plurality of imaging arrays. In one embodiment, the plurality of imaging arrays may be supported by a common SSID. In another embodiment, the plurality of imaging arrays may be respectively supported by a plurality of SSIDs. In any embodiment, stereo imaging can be provided if the plurality of imaging arrays are arranged on a common plane. Alternatively, if there are a plurality of SSIDs, a plurality of micro cameras can be arranged along a common umbilical. In yet another embodiment, the plurality of imaging arrays may be arranged to provide a plurality of non-parallel viewing imaging.

  In yet another embodiment, the miniature imaging device includes a lens, an SSID, an umbilical, and an adapter. Although not essential, the lens may be a GRIN lens. The SSID may include an imaging array optically coupled to the lens. The umbilical can include a conductive line, and the adapter can support a lens and provide continuity between the SSID and the conductive line. Alternatively, the adapter may be a rigid body that provides conduction between the SSID and the conductive line via a conductive path. The SSID is electrically connected to the conductive path at the first surface of the adapter, and the conductive line is electrically connected to the conductive path at a second surface forming a non-identical surface of the adapter. Thus, the conductive path may be provided along a plurality of mutually adjacent surfaces of the adapter.

  In either embodiment, the conductive lines may include wires that provide power, ground, clock signals, and output signals. The SSID may further include a conductive pad that is electrically coupled to the imaging array and provides electrical continuity between the SSID and the adapter. Again, the SSID may be an imaging element selected from the group consisting of CCD, CID and CMOS.

  For the adapter, the length, width and height of the adapter can all be less than 500 μm. The adapter may be configured to transmit at least four different electrical signals simultaneously without interfering with each other. Further, the adapter may be electrically coupled to the SSID by a conductive material so as to form a rigid bond or electrically connected to the conductive line by a conductive material so as to form a second rigid bond. Can be combined.

  As described above, an optical insert can be provided between the lens and the imaging array of the SSID. However, in embodiments using an adapter, the color filter insert can be integrated into the adapter.

  The SSID, adapter or lens may further comprise a utility guide configured to support utilities. Typical utilities include light sources or fluid sources, but other types of utilities may exist as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art. In some embodiments, a utility is supported on the SSID, adapter or utility guide.

  Still another micro-camera operating method includes (a) a process of optically coupling a lens to an SSID imaging array electrically coupled to a rigid adapter, and (b) securing a plurality of conductive paths. A process of arranging at least one of the adapters along a plurality of non-coplanar surfaces of the adapter; and (c) supplying power to the SSID through a first conductive path of the conductive paths. (D) receiving a signal from the SSID through a second conductive path of the conductive paths. In this case, it is possible that the lens is also supported by the adapter.

  As a process that can be added as desired, there is a process of illuminating the periphery of the lens. In a more detailed embodiment, the optical coupling step includes attaching the lens directly to the imaging array or placing an optical insert between the lens and the imaging array of the SSID. The process of securing the conductive path may include a process of securing at least four conductive paths.

  An adapter manufacturing method includes: (a) a process of forming a conductive material layer on an adapter substrate; (b) a process of forming a photoresist layer on the conductive material layer; and (c) a first of the conductive material layer. Developing a portion of the photoresist layer such that a portion is exposed and a second portion of the conductive material layer is protected; and (d) the first of the conductive material layer from the adapter substrate. And a process of removing the portion.

  The process that can be added as desired includes a process of providing the removable substrate on the work substrate and then providing the adapter substrate on the removable layer as a previous process. Also, if desired, a process of removing the adapter substrate from the removable layer after removing the first portion of the conductive material layer from the adapter substrate can be performed. In one embodiment, the process of developing the photoresist layer includes a process of heating from under the working substrate and a portion of the photoresist layer that protects the first portion of the conductive material layer. Irradiation process. After the process of removing the first portion of the conductive material layer from the adapter substrate, the photoresist layer can be completely removed.

  Such adapters are extremely small, for example, whose length, width and height are all less than 500 μm, and the method described above provides a unique way of manufacturing such useful devices. To do. When an adapter is used to support the lens, an opening that penetrates the adapter substrate can be provided.

  In any of the small imaging devices described above, any of various control or control devices such as a tension wire and a micro-machined tube can be used.

  Other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the detailed description of the invention which, by way of example, illustrates the features of the invention in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

  Hereinafter, embodiments shown in the drawings will be described. While specific terms are used in the description, it should be understood that they are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. Modifications to the features of the illustrated invention and further applications of the principles of the illustrated invention are possible to those skilled in the art who have read this specification, but they should be considered within the scope of the present invention. It is.

  An “SSID”, “solid-state imaging device”, or “SSID chip” in an embodiment generally includes a substrate that carries an imaging array or pixel array for collecting image data, and is further electrically coupled to the imaging array. There may be a conductive pad that facilitates conduction between the two. In one embodiment, the SSID can include silicon or a silicon-like substrate or an amorphous silicon thin film transistor (TFT), in which various features are typically formed. Such features can include imaging arrays, conductive pads, metal traces, circuits, and the like. Other integrated circuit components can be provided depending on the desired application. However, if there is a means for collecting visual data or photon data and a means for transmitting the data to provide a visual image or image reconstruction, it is not necessary to have all these components. In some embodiments, the SSID may have utility openings through the SSID in order to support various utilities.

  The term “umbilical” may include a collection of utilities for operating an SSID or micro camera as a whole. Typically, an umbilical includes conductive lines, such as one or more conductive wires, to provide power, ground, clock signals and output signals for SSIDs, but not all of these are necessarily required. . For example, the ground can be supplied by another means rather than through an umbilical line, such as a camera housing. Umbilicals include, for example, light sources, temperature sensors, force sensors, fluid irrigation or aspiration members, pressure sensors, optical fibers, microtweezers, substance collection tools, drug delivery devices, radiation generators, laser diodes, Other utilities such as electrocautery and electrical stimulators can also be included. Other utilities will be apparent to those skilled in the art and will be understood by this specification.

  A “GRIN lens” or “distributed index lens” refers to a special lens having a refractive index that varies radially from the central optical axis of the lens to an outer diameter. In one embodiment, such a lens is cylindrical and can be formed such that the optic axis extends from a first flat end to a second flat end. By changing the refractive index from the optical axis in the radial direction, this shape lens can simulate the effect of a more traditional shape lens. Although a GRIN lens is shown in the drawing, other lenses as known to those skilled in the art can also be used in the present invention.

  With these definitions in mind, the following description is made with reference to the accompanying drawings, which illustrate examples of the present invention.

  With reference to FIGS. 1 and 2, the present invention is embodied as a medical imaging system 10 including a catheter 12. The catheter 12 has imaging capability due to the imaging device generally indicated at 14 provided at its distal end 15. The system further includes equipment 16 that allows an imaging fluid, such as clear saline, to be delivered from reservoir 18 to the distal end of the catheter for replacement with bodily fluids to obtain a clear image. Also, a pump 20 is provided, which can be manually operated by a doctor who performs medical imaging, or can be automated and electrically controlled, based on a control signal from the doctor or sensor, or based on a software command Thus, a fluid can be applied as necessary.

  In addition, the imaging system 10 can be controlled to generate an image of a portion of the patient (not shown) close to the end portion 15 and displayed on the monitor 24 or stored in the data storage device 26. To that end, a processor 22 such as a suitably programmed computer is provided. The interface 28 powers the imaging device 14 via an electrical umbilical 30 that includes a conductive wire 32 passing through the catheter 12, a fluid dispenser 34, and a light source 44, and based on signals received from the imaging device. Send a digital image signal to the processor. This interface can also be configured to control the pump 20 based on a control signal from a processor or physician performing the imaging process.

  Turning to FIG. 2 in more detail, the imaging device 14 at the distal end 15 may include a utility guide 36 for supporting or supporting the umbilical 30 that may include a conductive wire 32, a fluid dispenser 34 and a light source 44. Other components that can be supported by the utility guide include temperature sensors, force sensors, fluid infusion or aspirators, pressure sensors, optical fibers, microtweezers, substance collection tools, drug delivery devices, radiation generators, laser diodes, An electrocautery and an electrical stimulator may be included. The utility guide also supports the SSID or solid state imaging device 38. The SSID includes an imaging array (not shown) and conductive pads 42 for connecting conductive wires to the SSID. Although the utility guide and SSID are shown as two separate units, it should be understood that a single integrated unit may be formed. The light source shown is an optical fiber supported by a utility guide. However, other light sources such as those supported by the SSID can be used. For example, the SSID can include a light emitting diode (LED) configured to illuminate a region immediately adjacent to the end portion. With such an SSID, the GRIN lens 40 is shown optically coupled to an SSID imaging array.

  If a GRIN lens 40 is used, the lens can be generally cylindrical. In one embodiment, the GRIN lens has a first flat end that receives light, a second flat end that allows light to pass through the imaging array, and is opaque to prevent unwanted light from entering the GRIN lens. And an outer curved surface surrounded by a covering or sleeve member. The GRIN lens can be optically coupled to the imaging array with its second flat end in direct contact with the SSID 38 imaging array. Such direct contact may include an optically transparent or translucent adhesive at the boundary between the second flat end and the imaging array. Alternatively, the GRIN lens can be optically coupled to the SSID imaging array via an intermediate optical element such as an optical fiber, a color filter, or an arbitrarily shaped optical lens (such as a prism or wide angle lens). You can also.

  The catheter 12 can be configured to be bendable and flexible so that it can be steered within the patient's body and is not traumatic. For example, the catheter can include a micromachined tube 46 at the distal end, increasing the flexibility of the tube by a not-shown cut-out portion, and in the vicinity of the distal end by outflow of imaging fluid. Replacing bodily fluids in the area can make it possible to obtain a clearer image. Further, such a micro-processed tube can be easily guided to a desired position by selecting a desired route when the catheter advances by bending.

  Catheter 12 can have an internal wire that can be tensioned adjacent one side of the distal portion, which is known to be known in the art and when the wire is tensioned, distal portion 15. Work to warp. The combination of bowing and rotation of the distal end of the catheter allows the device to be steered. Another way to allow the distal portion to be directed to the desired location is to provide a microactuator (not shown) such as an element that expands or contracts in response to application of a current signal. For example, such an element can be replaced with a tension wire.

  As will also be appreciated, although this system is shown as an example of a medical imaging system, such a structure is useful for other applications and other devices (eg, other devices) where very small imaging devices are useful. It can also be used in visual sensors, monitoring devices, etc.).

  Further, for all the embodiments described herein, the intended apparatus can be very small in size, and SSID imaging arrays are more desirable than would be desirable in other applications. It may have a small number of pixels. As technology advances, the pixel size becomes smaller and it becomes possible to provide clearer images and data. However, when using a small number of pixels in the imaging array, the resolution of the image provided by the device can be improved by software that processes the image data received from the SSID. The processor shown in FIG. 1 may be suitably programmed to improve the resolution of the scanned image from the SSID array based on information received from the slightly moved SSID, eg, by controlled vibration. it can. The processor can analyze how the image data from the imaging array is affected by the vibration and can improve the image based on that information.

  Referring to FIG. 3, an example of a utility guide 36 is shown. The utility guide has a plurality of utility openings 60 and a central opening 62. The utility guide may be made of any material that does not interfere with the function of the SSID (not shown). For example, the utility guide can be made of silicon that has been processed by deep reactive ion etching to form the desired structure. Alternatively, high polymer materials such as SU-8 polymer material manufactured by IBM, Foturan, a photosensitive glass by Corning, or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) molded by the LIGA (Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung) process. Molecular materials can also be used to form such structures. The utility guide has two functions: SSID support and utility support provided by the umbilical.

  FIG. 4 shows an example of an SSID 38 that can be used in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. The SSID has an imaging array 48 that is electrically coupled to the conductive pad 42 by an electrical coupling 52. All of these features 48, 42, 52 are formed in the substrate 54 during SSID manufacturing. In addition, conductive strips or fine metal wires 56 are provided on the SSID to provide conduction between the conductive pads and the sides of the SSID (not shown). The position of the GRIN lens 40 relative to the imaging array is also shown.

  FIG. 5 shows an assembled micro camera 50 using the utility guide 36 of FIG. 3 and the SSID 38 of FIG. The utility guide has a plurality of utility openings 60 and one central opening (not shown). The SSID is supported by a utility guide and bonded to the utility guide by epoxy material, anodic bonding, eutectic bonding. Alternatively, the utility guide can be formed by micromachining by a deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process using the SSID as a starting material, thereby eliminating the process of connecting the utility guide to the SSID. The SSID has a conductive strip 56 that provides conduction from its top surface 72 to its side surface 74. Thereby, the conductive wire 32 of the umbilical 30 can be supported by the utility opening of the utility guide and can be attached to the conductive strip by the bonding joint 58 such as a solder joint on the side surface. The solder joints are made from a conductive bonding material such as silver or gold filled epoxy, silver or gold solder, or other suitable conductive or eutectic conductive material. Can be. Alternatively, the connection between the conductive strip and the conductive wire can be made through wire bonding, solder bumping, eutectic bonding, electroplating, or conductive epoxy. However, in this configuration, a direct bonding connection that does not include wire bonding between the conductive strip and the conductive wire is preferable because the risk of breakage of the electric connection is small and good maneuverability is obtained. The conductive strip is electrically coupled to a conductive pad (not shown), and the conductive pad is electrically coupled to an imaging array (not shown) so that electrical coupling is made between the imaging array and the umbilical conductive wire. Is established.

  The SSID can be any solid-state imaging element, such as a CCD, CID or CMOS imaging device. The substrate 54 of the SSID 38 can include silicon, a material such as silicon, or can be made of an amorphous silicon thin film transistor (TFT), and various features are typically formed therein. Such features include an imaging array (not shown), conductive pads (not shown), and conductive strips or metal wires 56 (which are typically provided locally after the SSID foundry process). May be included. Depending on the desired application, other integrated circuit components may be provided, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) (not shown) that irradiate light around the lens. The above components are exemplary, and if there is a means of collecting visual or photon data and any means of converting that data into a visual image or visual reconstruction, it is not necessary to have all of these components.

  Conductive wire 32 provides two functions: the function of guiding the direction of the SSID, for example by applying tension, and the function of providing an electrical connection between any power supply / signal processor (not shown) and the SSID. Although it is possible, having two functions in this way is not essential. Alternatively, it can be steerable by microfabricated tubes, as is known in the art. An example of such a micromachined tube is described in US Pat. No. 6,428,489, which is hereby incorporated by reference. In more detail about umbilicals, umbilical conductive wires can provide power, ground, clock signals or control and output signals to the SSID. In addition, the electrical umbilical 30 including conductive wires can include an insulating coating around the individual utilities and / or the entire umbilical.

  The micro camera lens 40, SSID 38 and utility guide 36 can be fused or joined together as desired. For example, an epoxy such as a UV curable epoxy can be used to bond the lens to the SSID imaging array 48. Similarly, the utility guide can be bonded to the SSID using epoxy. When using such epoxies, care must be taken not to use UV light at such an intensity that damages the SSID or other structure of the device.

  6 and 7 show another micro camera assembly 70 where the lens 40 is held in place by a lens holder 64. The lens holder may include a utility aperture for supporting or guiding a utility such as a light source or fluid aspirators / dispensers. The lens holder also has a lens opening 66 for supporting the lens. When the lens is a GRIN lens, an opaque coating or sleeve covering the curved surface or the periphery of the lens can be provided to prevent light from entering the lens from a place other than the flat surface on the side away from the SSID. When the lens holder is formed from an opaque material, the lens holder can act in part as an opaque sleeve that prevents unwanted light from entering from the sides.

  The SSID 38 and the utility guide 36 are configured in the same manner as described with reference to FIG. Specifically, the SSID has a substrate 54 that carries an imaging array 48 and conductive strips or metal wires 56. The utility guide 36 has a utility opening 60 aligned with the utility opening 68 of the lens holder 64. Utilities that supply power to and signal to the SSID, such as conductive wires (not shown), typically terminate at the SSID and need not be supported by the utility opening in the lens holder. The utility opening of the lens holder is primarily intended to support utilities used at or near the lens, such as fluid dispenser / aspirator, optical utility, tweezers, and the like.

  Referring now to FIG. 8, there is shown another SSID 38 in which utility openings 82a, 82b are integrally provided. The SSID has a substrate 54 on which conductive pads 42 and an imaging array 48 are formed. Since the SSID has five utility openings 82a, 82b, various utilities can be supported by the SSID without using a separate utility guide as described in connection with FIG. Lens 40 is shown as being positionable relative to the imaging array.

  FIG. 9 shows a system 80 using the SSID 38 of FIG. In this embodiment, the SSID includes an imaging array (not shown), a conductive pad 42, and a substrate 54 that bears an electrical coupling portion 52 provided between the imaging array and the conductive pad. The SSID is electrically coupled to the umbilical 30 at the conductive pad 42. Specifically, the umbilical conductive wire 32 is supported by four utility openings 82 a and is electrically coupled to the conductive pads 42 by respective solder joints 58. These four conductive wires can be used to provide power, ground and clock signals to the SSID and to send image signals from the SSID to a remote processor / monitor device (not shown). Only four of the five openings are used to support the conductive wires. The larger fifth opening 82b is a light source, fluid aspirator and / or dispenser, temperature sensor, force sensor, pressure sensor, optical fiber, microtweezers, substance collection tool, drug delivery device, radiation generator, laser diode, electrical Other utilities such as cautery and electrical stimulators can be supported. The fifth opening 82b can also support a plurality of utility devices, or an additional opening (not shown) can be provided in the SSID to support another utility. The lens 40 can be positioned relative to the SSID so that it is optically coupled to the imaging array. All that has been said in another embodiment, such as for example FIG. 5, with respect to lenses, SSIDs, umbilicals, apertures, etc., can also be applied to this embodiment.

  10 and 11 show another micro camera assembly 90 in which the lens 40 is held in place by a lens holder 64. Similar to FIGS. 6 and 7, the lens holder may include a utility opening 68 for supporting or guiding the utility. The lens holder also has a lens opening 66 for supporting the lens. Similar to the SSID shown in FIG. 8, this SSID has a conductive pad 42, utility openings 82a, 82b and an imaging array 48 formed as an integral unit. Utilities such as conductive wires (not shown) that provide power to the SSID and / or transmit signals therefor do not need to be supported by the utility opening in the lens holder. The utility opening of the lens holder is primarily intended to support utilities used at or near the lens. As shown in FIG. 11, when the lens holder is installed at a predetermined position with respect to the SSID, the utility opening 82a and the conductive pad 42 are exposed, and the conductive wire (not shown) interferes with the lens holder. And means for supporting the conductive pad so that it is attached to the conductive pad.

  12 and 13 schematically show a preparation process for forming a plurality of SSIDs 38 on a common substrate 102. FIG. 12 shows a plurality of SSID formations of FIG. 8, and FIG. 13 shows a plurality of SSID formations of FIG. Both fabrication methods provide a means for providing a plurality of SSIDs including a substrate 54 on which an imaging array 48 and conductive pads 42 are formed. FIG. 12 further includes openings 82a and 82b formed in the SSID itself. The conductive pads are not shown in FIG. 13 because they are not visible because of the conductive strip 56.

  Next, with regard to the details of the SSID manufacturing method, FIGS. 14a to 14e show one possible embodiment. This process is described as an example. It is possible to individually manufacture one SSID by the process described below or another known chip manufacturing method, or to manufacture more than four SSIDs collectively as described above. You can also. Preliminarily, VLSI design specifications can be sent to the CMOS foundry, where multiple “chips” or feature groupings 88 can be fabricated on a single silicon production substrate 102. Individual feature assemblies on the production substrate are processed and separated to form individual SSIDs.

  FIG. 14a shows a manufacturing substrate 102 that supports a plurality of feature collections 88 (each feature collection being an individual SSID). Individual feature collections include an imaging array 48, conductive pads 42 and other circuit components (not shown). When sent from a foundry, the entire substrate is typically coated entirely with oxy-nitride, silicon dioxide, or the like. This protective coating and all other thin film layers can be removed by reactive ion etching (RIE) to expose the silicon top surface.

  Referring to FIG. 14b, each feature collection 88 can be covered with a photoresist material 110 to protect the necessary areas in a subsequent separation step. In one example, the photoresist can be coated to a thickness of about 10 μm. Referring to FIG. 14c, the unprotected regions, i.e., the regions between individual feature assemblies, can be etched by a known process, such as a deep reactive ion etching process. The etching can be performed until the manufacturing substrate 102 becomes thin and the SSID substrate 54 (the same material as the manufacturing substrate) is exposed. The thickness of the thinned production substrate is, for example, about 50 μm.

  FIGS. 14d and 14e show a 3-by-3 array (rather than a 2-by-2 array as in FIGS. 14a-14c) to show how a single SSID is masked and covered with a conductive strip. An array of SSIDs is shown. Note that although only one complete SSID (middle of the array) masking and metallization is shown, this process is typically done for all SSIDs present on the array. Further, prior to masking, the photoresist material is removed, and then 1.5 μm silicon dioxide (not shown) is deposited on the SSID array and production substrate 102 using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. . The silicon dioxide can then be removed from the conductive pad (not shown) using reactive ion etching (RIE). When etching is complete, only the conductive pads are exposed and ready to mask the array of SSIDs on the thinned manufacturing substrate.

  FIG. 14 d shows a photomask 114 having a plurality of notches 116. The photomask is formed as a three-dimensional structure so that the upper surface 118 and the side surface 120 of each SSID are partially exposed only in a desired region. In other words, the photomask is formed on an array of three-dimensional structures of SSIDs and patterned so that the side and top portions of each SSID, including the exposed conductive pad locations, can be selectively metallized. The Once masked, a metal coating can be applied by sputtering to coat the exposed surface of each individual SSID. For example, Ti / Pt sputtering via a lift-off process can be used for metallization.

  This process allows each of the four sides of each SSID to be processed to have a conductive strip 56 that joins the top and side of the SSID, as shown in FIG. 14e. Exist to control). Subsequently, reactive ion etching (RIE) can be used again to remove the silicon production substrate 102 and separate each SSID from the production substrate.

  Other SSIDs based on embodiments of the present invention can be created using similar procedures. For example, in the SSID shown in FIG. 8, there is no thin metal wire “around the corner”, so the three-dimensional masking process shown in FIG. 14d is not necessary, but otherwise the same as described above. Can be formed. Further, the process of forming the utility opening through the SSID can be performed by drilling, masking (such as FIG. 14b) that allows material removal by etching at the opening, or other known processes.

  Referring to FIG. 15, another system, generally designated 130, is shown. In this embodiment, the distal end 15 of the catheter 12 is shown. An outer sleeve 138 is provided telescopically so as to cover the outside of the catheter. The catheter can be retracted into the sleeve as desired by differential movement on the proximal side (not shown) of the device. The outer tube of the catheter can be micromachined to have a tendency to bend near the SSID 38. For example, as illustrated, a plurality of openings 132 may be formed on one side of the tube by micromachining, and the tube may be bent so that a portion of the tube is folded in the opposite direction. The tip can be oriented in the desired direction by partially or completely retracting the curved portion of the catheter into the outer sleeve. In one embodiment, such a micromachined tube is formed from a superelastic material, such as a NiTi alloy, with built-in shape memory capability, so that the tip of the tip can be repeated without causing a material set. You can change direction. To support this structure, a further outer sleeve 134 is provided adjacent to the GRIN lens 40 and the SSID. As described above, a conductive strip 56 including a conductive wire 32 can be provided.

  In another example, a tension wire 136 can be provided in the lumen within the catheter proximate the large diameter or outer portion of the catheter 12. The tension wire 136 allows the tip to be oriented in a desired direction by applying tension that tends to straighten the tip 15 of the catheter. The tension wire is attached to the SSID 38, extends through the catheter to the proximal end, and is operable by the physician performing the imaging operation. Also, as noted above, the catheter can have equipment for supplying imaging fluid, light, and other utilities.

  Referring to FIG. 16, a system generally designated 140 has an SSID 38 attached to a hinge 142 formed from a superelastic material incorporating shape memory capability. This hinge is connected to a tube 144 that defines a lumen 146 of the catheter 12. A tension wire 148 is attached to the hinge and from a first direction where the SSID is 180 degrees opposite along the longitudinal axis of the catheter to a second position generally coincident with the longitudinal axis and away from the catheter. To be directed. By combining this with the rotation of the catheter, the tip can be directed in various directions. A rounded corner guide 149 is attached to the end of the tube so that the tension wire and hinge bend in a rounded manner so that they can be elastically deformed as shown without kinking. ing. As described above, a conductive wire (not shown) can also be provided.

  With continued reference to FIGS. 17 and 18, another system is shown generally designated 150. As shown, control means for changing the orientation of the field of view of the SSID 38 provided on the catheter 12 and / or the distal portion 15 of the catheter is illustrated. A deformable outer sleeve 152 having a mirror element 154 at the end is provided. An aperture 156 proximate to the GRIN lens 40 and mirror element allows proper imaging.

  In the arrangement shown in FIG. 17, the angled surface of the mirror allows the lateral posterior side of the catheter to be viewed at an angle 158 of 25 to 50 degrees with respect to the longitudinal axis of the catheter. The field of view 160 based on such placement, spacing, and angular relationships between elements can be about 15-25 degrees. The SSID may have one or more lumens 162 to carry imaging fluid to the distal portion of the catheter and to supply power to the SSID imaging array (not shown). As will be appreciated, the imaging fluid can also be delivered to the imaging site via another lumen 164 or a guide catheter or entirely separate catheter (not shown).

  In another arrangement shown in FIG. 18, the deformable outer sleeve 152 bends so that it can be seen directly through the opening 156. Also, the rear can be seen at various angles by deflecting the deformable outer sleeve 152 larger or smaller. A tension wire 166 attached adjacent to one side of the tube (the bottom surface in FIG. 18) deflects the deformable outer sleeve when tension is applied. Another way to deform the sleeve is to form the sleeve from a NiTi alloy. Thereby, for example, by introducing an imaging fluid of a different temperature or by causing a current to flow, a temperature change is caused to change from the first arrangement shown in FIG. 17 to the second arrangement shown in FIG. The shape changes. In the last two embodiments, the tip basically has two states, a deformed state and an undeformed state.

  Referring now to FIG. 19, a system generally designated 170 has a GRIN lens 40 and an SSID 38. The SSID can include silicon or a substrate such as silicon or an amorphous silicon thin film transistor (TFT) 176, and various features are typically formed. Features including imaging array 48, conductive pads 42, metal wires (not shown), circuits (not shown), etc. may be formed. With respect to the conductive pad, the connection between the conductive pad and the conductive line of the umbilical (not shown) can be made by soldering, wire bonding, solder bumping, eutectic bonding, electroplating and conductive epoxy. However, direct solder bonding that does not include wire bonding between the electrical umbilical and the conductive pad is preferable because the risk of breakage of the electrical bonding is small and good maneuverability is obtained. In one embodiment, the umbilical conductive line can provide power, ground, clock signal, and output signal with respect to the SSID. For example, another integrated circuit component such as a light emitting diode (LED) 174 for irradiating light around the GRIN lens may be provided according to a desired application.

  If there is a visual data collection and image transmission device and means for connecting the data collection and transmission device to a visual data signal processor, it is not necessary to have all of the above components. Moreover, although not shown in FIG. 19, other parts, such as an umbilical, a housing, an adapter, and a utility guide, can also be provided. The SSID 38 may consist of any solid state imaging element such as a CCD, CID or CMOS imaging element. Further, as shown in the figure, the GRIN lens 40 is covered with a curved surface by an opaque coating 178 to prevent light from entering other than the flat surface farthest from the SSID.

  FIG. 20 shows another system 180 in which a plurality of imaging arrays 48 a, 48 b, 48 c are provided on a common SSID 38. Although only three imaging arrays are shown in this perspective view, there are five imaging arrays in this embodiment (ie, one imaging array is provided on each of the five surfaces of the substrate 176, and the back surface of the substrate). Is used to connect to umbilicals). Each imaging array is optically coupled to a GRIN lens 40a, 40b, 40c, 40d, 40e, respectively. As will be appreciated, this is just one configuration in which multiple imaging arrays can be used with multiple GRIN lenses. In other similar embodiments, fewer or more imaging arrays may be used and / or may be part of multiple SSIDs. Umbilical connections are not shown, but it is understood that umbilicals may be provided to operate the SSID and its multiple imaging arrays (to allow signal splitting or use of separate power and / or signal sources) I want to be.

  In FIG. 21, a system capable of stereo imaging is shown as a whole with reference numeral 190. More specifically, a plurality of imaging arrays 48a and 48b are shown arranged on the same SSID 38 in the same plane. A pair of GRIN lenses 40a, 40b are shown as being optically coupled to the two imaging arrays. In addition to the imaging array, the SSID also includes other features including a conductive pad 42 for providing conduction to an umbilical (not shown).

  Referring to FIG. 22, the system 200 includes a plurality of micro cameras 170a, 170b, 170c disposed along the umbilical 30 and attached to the umbilical conductive wire. The umbilical has a proximal end 204 that can be connected to a processor / monitor (not shown) for viewing the image, and a distal end 206. Each micro camera has an SSID 38 and a GRIN lens 40. In the illustrated embodiment, the microcamera 170c closest to the distal end is optically coupled to an optical fiber 202 that may have a GRIN lens at its distal end, as shown later in FIG. However, the microcamera closest to the distal end can actually be provided at the distal end of the catheter. To approximate the size of the microcamera of the present invention, a structure 208 is shown that generally represents the size of a small coin, such as a US dime coin.

  Referring to FIG. 23, a conventional method for providing conduction between the conductive pads 42 on the SSID 38 and another structure 11 is shown in the system 210 as using soldered or bonded wires 13. ing. This connection method is known as wire bonding. The connection thus formed is inherently fragile and susceptible to damage, especially when the SSID can move relative to other structures. Such movement can deflect and stress the delicate wire, causing damage and creating an undesired short between two or more wires.

  Referring to FIG. 24, in contrast, the system generally designated 220 has a connector block or adapter 52 that provides mechanical attachment and electrical connection. In other words, the connector body or adapter body provides both stability and coupling between the SSID 38 and the umbilical 30 and electrical connection.

  The adapter 52, in the illustrated embodiment, has conductive strips 56 in a non-conductive substrate material that are connected to the first surface 17 configured for connection with the umbilical 30. The second surface 19 configured for connection with the SSID 38 is connected around the corner. The conductive strip is configured to align with the umbilical conductive wire 32 and the SSID conductive pad 42. Also, the lens 40 is illustrated as being optically coupled to the SSID. It should be noted that although the adapter is shown as being connected to the umbilical, other structures may be connected to the SSID by the adapter. Such other structures include another chip, a board or other structure provided with the chip, a connector further coupled to an additional structure such as a conductive strip, wire strip or cable, or a conductor attached. There is a flexible strip.

  Referring to FIG. 25, as shown in the system 230, instead of the adapter 52 having a straight line shape, an adapter having a circular or cylindrical cross section may be provided. As a result of the cylindrical connector body being pressed against the flat surface of another structure, the conductor is pressurized and slightly deformed, resulting in a gap between the adapter, the conductive pad (not shown) on the SSID 38, and the conductive strip 56. A good connection is realized. Epoxies and other adhesives are used to hold such assemblies together and fill the gaps around the cylindrical body. Again, the SSID includes an imaging array 48, and the lens 40 is configured to be optically coupled to the imaging array.

  With reference now to FIGS. 26-28, another embodiment of the present invention is embodied as a system 240. In this system, the distal portion 15 of the catheter 12 includes a lens 40 that is optically coupled to the SSID 38. The SSID is electrically coupled to the adapter 52. The adapter is supported by a micromachined tube 46 and is configured to fit therein at the distal end of the tube. The adapter has a channel 55 through which the wire 32 or conductive strip of the umbilical 30 can pass. The micro-processed tube section itself is configured to operate in a telescopic manner. This allows the distal portion of the catheter to be assembled and easily connected to the remaining portion of the catheter. The conductive strip can have a ribbon formed from a non-conductive material such as KAPTON with conductive traces thereon and a dielectric over it, providing an electrical umbilical to the SSID through the adapter. . As described above, the conductive strip can be returned to the proximal instrument (not shown) through the catheter. At the end of the conductive strip, individual conductive wires 32 are separated from the non-conductive strip and bonded to conductive pads (not shown in FIGS. 26-28) on the adapter. Thus, the adapter provides a power path from the umbilical to the SSID.

  With reference to FIG. 29, in another embodiment generally designated 250, the catheter 12 is extruded having a central lumen 252 and a plurality of auxiliary lumens 254 disposed therearound. Having a pipe section. In this configuration, imaging fluid can be delivered to the distal portion 15 of the catheter through the central lumen or one or more auxiliary lumens. The central or auxiliary lumen may also support conductive lines such as conductive wires 32 that send and receive electrical signals, power, ground and / or control to the SSID. The electrical signal is transmitted from the umbilical to the SSID via a conductive strip on the adapter 52. The conductive strip provides conduction between the SSID and the umbilical conductive wire. The conductive strip can appropriately include a conductive metal, a conductor formed on the KAPTON strip as described above, or an insulated wire or a non-insulated wire. In this embodiment, the SSID has a light emitting diode (LED) 66 configured to illuminate a region near the end portion and an imaging array 48.

  As described above, the adapter 52 facilitates electrical connection and attachment of the SSID 38. The adapter supports the SSID 38 and is coupled to the remainder of the catheter including the micromachined portion 46. A lens 40 that can be coupled to the SSID 38 is also provided. This lens can be configured to focus the image on the focal plane of the imaging array 48. Alternatively, the SSID 38, filter or additional optical element can simply be protected. The chip can be attached to the lens using a non-conductive optically clear adhesive or epoxy.

  The micromachined portion 46 has transverse slots 47 formed in an alternating pattern in the tube, as shown, to provide greater flexibility to the distal portion 15 of the catheter 12. Further details of the structure of micromachined tubes and parts provided with similar slots can be found in US Pat. No. 6,428,489. This document is incorporated herein by reference. The slot formed by micromachining may traverse the auxiliary lumen 254, or may be deep enough to traverse the central lumen 252. Thereby, it becomes possible to send the fluid from the inside of the catheter through the slot to the region near the distal end portion of the catheter. As noted above, this can be used to supply imaging fluids such as clear saline when the catheter is positioned in place within the patient's body, or to treat a target site near the distal end of the catheter. It can be used to send drugs. It is also possible to collect body fluid near the distal end for one sample through one or more lumens of the catheter.

  In another embodiment, a tension wire (not shown) may be passed through the auxiliary lumen 254 of the catheter and attached to the proximal end of the adapter 52. By making the flexible portion of the catheter tube more flexible and using a tension wire, as is known in the art, tension is applied to one or more tension wires to position the distal end portion 15 of the catheter in the desired orientation. The end portion can be directed in various directions. In one embodiment, the tension wire may comprise an umbilical conductive wire 32 that can be configured to send and receive power, control, ground, and / or image signals along the catheter 12 to the distal portion 15. it can.

  Referring to FIG. 30, a system generally designated 260 is shown. In this embodiment, connector block or adapter 52 has a conductive path that surrounds its body or substrate 78. For example, the conductive strip 56 made of a conductive metal can be formed on the surface by film formation using lithography or masking or other known techniques. Alternatively, an adapter can be created by laminating a conductive material and a non-conductive material, and then cutting out a plurality of blocks crossing the laminated surface to form a bulk body or substrate of the adapter. Since the conductive layer is exposed on the surface around the periphery of the connector body, the adapter can have conductors disposed on the surface. As will be appreciated, it may be useful to interconnect various portions of the surface with conductors around the counter block. For example, in one application of this embodiment, the adapter can be used at any angle of rotation about its longitudinal axis.

  In the system 270 of FIG. 31, an adapter 52 as described in FIG. 30 is useful for connecting the chip to other structures in various ways. Specifically, an adapter 52 that includes a substrate 78 having a conductive strip 56 connects the two opposing surfaces of the adapter. In the illustrated example, two devices, such as two SSIDs 38, each having a conductive pad 42 are shown. As shown, both the conductive path between the SSID conductive pads and the mechanical coupling between the two SSIDs can be formed. Many other configurations are possible, such as the two SSIDs 38 'shown in outline being connected to the adapter in other configurations.

  Referring to FIG. 32, the system 280 has an adapter 52 that may include a substrate 78 with a conductive strip 56 configured as described above, each conductive strip being from the first side 21 to the second side. 23 with a conductive path. The conductive strip can be as described above, i.e., deposited on the connector body by a masking process, a lithographic process and subsequent etching, or such a conductive strip is formed. Or many other methods. In another embodiment, the conductor may be formed by removing material from the substrate 78 by machining, etching or other methods to form slots (not shown). The slots can be filled with a conductive material, and the resulting conductor block can be machined to expose the material surface within each slot in the final shape.

  In FIG. 33, reference numeral 290 is generally assigned and two SSIDs 38 (or other multi-chip interfaces) are shown. The SSID 38 has conductive pads 42 that can be connected to two adapters 52. Each adapter 52 has a conductor or conductive strip 56 that provides conduction between at least two sides. The board 78 or each adapter can be coupled together so that the conductors are in contact to form a conductive path. In another embodiment, the conductors may be first coupled together and then coupled to the two chips to achieve the connection. In some embodiments, the mechanical connection can be further strengthened, such as by using a further block connecting the two connector bodies and connecting them across the connector blocks.

  Referring to FIGS. 34 and 35, additional methods for implementing further embodiments of the present invention are shown generally at 300 and 310, respectively. The system starts with a preform block 25 formed from a non-conductive material. A conductive path is formed by modifying a predetermined portion of the block. For example, the conductive material 27 can be modified as shown by masking the preform and introducing a conductive material into the preform block by crystal diffusion. The mask can simply be a series of long strips, and the preform can be cut from the flat substrate after the crystal diffusion process. The preform material is modified to a depth of 29, after which the adapter 52 is machined from the preform. The resulting adapter 52 has a substrate 78 and the conductive body or strip 56 with the material modification traverses the first surface 31 and the second surface 33.

  In another embodiment, the preform may simply be slotted, such as by using a chip fabrication saw that forms the slot to the desired width and depth. The slot can then be filled with a conductive material. Once the conductive material is cured, the adapter 52 can be removed from the preform 25 by machining and the resulting structure is the same as described above.

  Referring to FIGS. 36 and 37, in another embodiment, generally designated 320 and 330, long strips of conductive material 27 arranged alternately to form individually isolated conductive paths and The connector body is formed by generating a layer structure in which the non-conductive material 35 is provided on a non-conductive substrate. A layer 37 of non-conductive material is further formed thereon. As will be appreciated, the adhesive or other method used to obtain such a layer structure depends on the material. However, a conventional bonding technique using an adhesive such as a solvent, welding, or the like can be used.

  In another embodiment, such a structure is formed by forming grooves in the preform 25, filling these grooves with conductive material 27 to form conductors, and further providing a layer 37 of other non-conductive material thereon. It is possible to form with. For example, a groove filled with a soft conductor (emollient conductor) is provided in a ceramic substrate, and after the conductor is cured, it can be flattened by lapping. Then, the upper layer made of ceramic is attached with an adhesive. When the preform block is completed, the adapter 52 can be separated by micromachining, grinding, or the like. The resulting adapter can have a substrate 78 and a conductive path extending from the first surface 39 to the second surface 41 via the conductive strip 56.

  38 and 39, another system, generally designated 340, includes a lens 40, such as a GRIN lens, that optically couples to the imaging array 48 of the SSID 38. In one embodiment, the lens can be bonded to the imaging array with a transparent adhesive. Conductive pads are also provided on the SSID and are configured to allow electrical signals, power, ground and / or control to be sent to and received from the SSID.

  The SSID 38 can include silicon or a substrate such as silicon or an amorphous silicon thin film transistor (TFT), and various features are usually formed. Features including imaging array 48, conductive pads 42, fine metal wires (not shown), circuits (not shown), etc. can be formed. With respect to the conductive pads, the connection between the conductive pads and the adapter 52 can be made by soldering, wire bonding, solder bumping, eutectic bonding, electroplating and conductive epoxy. However, in this structure, a direct solder connection that does not include wire bonding between the conductive strip and the conductive pad is preferable because the risk of damaging the electrical bonding is small and good maneuverability is obtained. The same applies to the electrical connection between the umbilical conductive wire and the conductive strip of the adapter. In one embodiment, the umbilical can provide power, ground, clock signal, and output signal to the SSID through an adapter. Other integrated circuit components such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) (not shown) for irradiating light to the area around the GRIN lens may be provided depending on the desired application. When the LED is on the SSID, the adapter can be made of a transparent material so that light can pass through. The above components are exemplary, so if you have a means to collect visual or photon data and any means to convert that data into a visual image or visual reconstruction, you need to have all these components. Absent. The SSID can consist of any solid-state imaging element such as a CCD, CID or CMOS imaging device.

  The lens 40 may be a GRIN lens that has a curved surface covered with an opaque coating and prevents light from entering from other than a flat surface that is farthest from the SSID. Alternatively, if the lens 40 is supported by an adapter 52 having an opening 68, the adapter can perform the same function as an opaque coating.

  The adapter 52 has four conductive strips 56 configured to provide conduction in a “turned corner” configuration. These conductive strips are arranged to contact the conductive pads 42 on the SSID 38 when the adapter and SSID are combined. In this structure, the umbilical 30 including the conductive wire 32 can be electrically coupled to the conductive strip. By connecting a conductive wire to the conductive strip during assembly, the conductive pad is activated and power, signal, ground and / or control can be sent to and received from the SSID.

  Referring now to FIGS. 40 and 41, in an embodiment generally designated 350, the lens 40 is supported by a connector block or adapter 52 and an auxiliary lens holder. The adapter and the auxiliary lens holder are configured to receive and hold the GRIN lens through the respective openings 68 and 69. The adapter can include two different materials. The first material can be a non-conductive material that forms the substrate 78. The substrate supports one or more conductive strips 56 made of a conductive material such as metal. The conductive strip serves to provide conduction between the umbilical, which in this embodiment includes the insulated conductive wire 32, and the conductive pad 42 on the SSID 38. The conductive wire can be bonded to the conductive strip using a conductive bonding material such as silver or gold filled epoxy, silver or gold solder or other suitable adhesive or eutectic conductive material.

  Each of the conductive wires 32 can also be supported in place by a utility or wire guide 36, and more particularly by passing each wire through a lumen 60 defined by the utility guide. The conductive wire provides continuity between the adapter 52 (and ultimately the SSID chip) and the computer interface (not shown) through the umbilical, and the SSID can be connected to a power source, signal processor, ground or control device (not shown). Link with other structures such as The conductive wire can also be used for steering as a tension wire. However, this is not always necessary, as another means of controlling the orientation of the camera head can be provided.

  Each of the conductive strips 56 is configured to allow current to flow from a location on the side of the adapter 52 to a location on the bottom of the adapter. Details of the conductive strip can be understood with reference to FIGS. With reference to FIGS. 17 and 18, the conductive pads 42 are electrically coupled to the imaging array 48 of the SSID 38. In addition, each of the conductive wires 32 is electrically coupled to a corresponding conductive strip 56. Thus, when assembling the adapter to the SSID, matching the conductive strips and conductive pads allows power and data signals to be further addressed through their corresponding conductive strips through their umbilical conductive wires from their sources. It can be sent to the imaging array through the conductive pad (or received from the imaging source).

  42 and 43, in the system generally designated 360, the distal portion 15 of the imaging catheter includes a lens 40, such as a GRIN lens. The lens is supported laterally by a connector block or adapter 52. Although an auxiliary lens holder as described above can be used, it is not used in this embodiment. Also in this embodiment, the adapter has two functions: a function of supporting the lens and a function of electrically connecting the electrical umbilical 30 and the SSID 38. The adapter typically includes a non-conductive substrate material 78 and a conductive strip 56. Non-conductive substrate material is SU-8 polymer material manufactured by IBM, Phototuran, a photosensitive glass manufactured by Corning, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) molded by LIGA (Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung), or It can be a refractory material or a polymeric material, such as silicon treated by oxidized deep trench reactive ion etching (DRIE). In one embodiment, the material can be substantially transparent so that confirmation of attachment of the adapter to the SSID can be made easier by visual inspection, such as with a microscope. If the SSID has a light source such as an LED incorporated in it, the transparent block material allows light to be sent forward. As described above, the conductive strip can be attached to the adapter, whereby a conductive path can be secured by turning a corner from the side surface to the bottom surface of the adapter. A central opening 69 for supporting the lens can also be provided in the adapter.

  The electrical umbilical 30 including the conductive wire 32 can have an insulating coating 88. The conductive wire is supported by a utility guide 36 having a plurality of lumens 60. In this embodiment, the insulating coating is removed near the end of the wire. This is to allow the conductive wire 32 to contact the conductive strip 56, thereby providing an electrical via the conductive wire between the SSID 38 and the power supply, controller, and / or processor (not shown). Connection can be provided. In this embodiment, each conductive wire is attached to the conductive strip at the side and is connected between them by a conductive bonding material 82 that can be used to electrically couple the two conductive lines as described above. The electrical contact is maintained.

  On the bottom surface of the adapter 52, the conductive strip 56 is also in contact with the conductive pad 42 of the SSID 38. This contact is also fixed by using the conductive bonding material 84 as described above. The SSID can have an imaging array 48, additional IC elements (not shown), conductive pads, and electrical connections 52 between the conductive pads and the imaging array. In addition, the SSID can further include a microprocessor and a light source such as the LED described above.

  The components of the miniature imaging device can be combined or fused together as desired. For example, an epoxy such as a UV curable epoxy can be used to couple the lens 40 to the SSID imaging array 48. However, when using such epoxies, care must be taken not to use UV light at such an intensity that damages the SSID and other structures of the device. Other locations where bonding materials such as epoxy can be used to hold the components together include between the lens and adapter 52, between the SSID substrate and utility guide 36, and between the utility guide and electrical umbilical (tension wire). As long as you work or not). The utility guide can be similarly coupled to the remainder of the catheter (not shown).

  The structure of the above embodiment not only serves to hold the lens in place on the SSID 38, but also provides power, ground, control and / or data signals from the conductive wires adjacent to the sides to the conductive pads on the SSID. This is easily realized by a very small adapter 52 that also works. However, adapters have other advantages. For example, with this structure, positioning and alignment of the lens on the SSID can be easily realized. This is particularly beneficial because the overall width of the imaging device may be less than about 0.5 mm. Furthermore, since the wire is attached to the side of the adapter, there is no need to bend the conductive wire. Thereby, the strength of the entire wire and the small imaging apparatus can be increased, and connection and assembly can be facilitated. Thus, in this embodiment, the adapter structure facilitates the manufacture of a very small imaging device.

  Next, how the adapter 52 can be formed in one embodiment will be described. 44a-44h illustrate the manufacture of two adapters. This is an example, and it is possible to make individual adapters individually, or to make more than two adapters simultaneously, in the process described below, or using other known chip manufacturing processes. . The figure is shown as a cross-sectional view, and one of the two adapters is shown along line 4-4 in FIG. Hereinafter, FIGS. 44a to 44h will be described together in order.

  Referring to FIG. 44a, a substrate 102 used to make an adapter is shown. The substrate can be, for example, a silicon wafer. A removable layer 104 is formed or grown on the substrate. If the substrate 102 is a silicon wafer, the removable layer 104 can be a thermal silicon dioxide layer. A suitable thickness can be about 0.5 μm. This provides a working base for manufacturing one or more main lens holders.

  For example, a polymer layer 106 such as SU-8 manufactured by IBM can be spin coated onto a silicon dioxide layer having a desired thickness. Subsequently, these layers are selectively exposed to UV light using a mask to form the desired structure. Each of these polymer blocks can be a substrate for an adapter. As an example of the size of this structure, the height can be 300 μm, the length can be 360 μm, and the width can be 380 μm. The central aperture holding the lens can be about 300 μm in diameter. Thus, in the case of the present example in which the length is 360 μm and the diameter of the opening is 300 μm, there is a distance of at most 30 to 35 μm between the end of the opening and the end of the polymer. The above dimensions are given as examples. Larger or smaller blocks can be formed based on the disclosed methods.

  A thin metal wire material 108 is formed on the upper surface of the polymer 106 to an appropriate thickness by sputtering or vapor deposition. The metal wire material finally becomes a conductive strip. For example, gold can be used as a thin metal wire material. Moreover, the appropriate thickness of the metal fine wire to be formed depends on the size of the SSID to be manufactured. However, a thickness of about 0.5 μm can be used as a thickness suitable for this example.

  Thus, a photoresist material 110 can be added over the metal wire material. The photoresist material can be any material that can be altered by exposure to energy such as heat or UV light. Also, the photoresist material can be diluted depending on the application to obtain the desired result. In one embodiment, a photoresist material that is sensitive to heat by solvent evaporation may be used. The photoresist can be selectively exposed using UV light, and the UV-exposed photoresist can be removed by developing with a developing device (using a positive type photoresist), or the unexposed photoresist can be removed. It can be developed and removed with a developing device (using a negative photoresist). Due to variations in thickness, the photoresist evaporates at different rates, leaving a photoresist material shaped, for example, as shown in FIG. 44b. Depending on the photoresist material used, the difference in thickness can be as much as ten times or more, for example 2 μm in one region and 20 μm in another region. When the photoresist material 110 having a desired shape is formed, the photoresist material is irradiated with UV light 116 from the side opposite to the substrate 102. Photomask 114 can be used to develop only the desired discrete portions of the photoresist material, as shown in FIG. 44c. At this time, only a thin portion of the photoresist material, that is, the upper portion is removed.

  In FIG. 44c, the photoresist material is removed and the exposed portion of the fine metal line element can be removed by, for example, wet etching or dry etching. FIG. 44d shows the state of the photoresist material after it has been partially removed as described above. Subsequently, as shown in FIG. 44e, the photoresist material is completely removed. The photoresist material can be removed using materials known to react with the selected photoresist material. In one example, acetone can be used to remove the photoresist material.

  Next, as shown in FIG. 44f, a saw cut 112 can be formed in the substrate using, for example, a chip-manufacturing saw to reach, for example, approximately half of the substrate. This process forms an opening for removing the removable layer 104 as shown in FIG. 44g. For example, if the removable layer 104 comprises silicon dioxide, hydrofluoric acid (HF) can be used to react with the removable layer to release the polymer 106 from connection with the substrate. When the silicon dioxide is removed, the fine metal wire portion 108 not attached to the polymer 106 can be broken away as shown in FIG. 44h. Thus, the two adapters 52 can be separated from the substrate 102 and each can be used with a catheter carrying an SSID as described above.

  The embodiments described so far have shown GRIN lenses optically coupled to the SSID imaging array by direct bonding or bonding. However, the term “optically coupled” also provides additional means of collecting light from the GRIN lens and coupling the lens to the SSID imaging array. For example, another optical element such as a color filter, an optical fiber, or a lens having a desired shape such as a prism or a wide-angle lens can be provided between the GRIN lens and the SSID. In particular, by using a filter having a predetermined pattern such as a Bayer filter pattern, it is possible to realize a system for converting monochromatic imaging into multicolored colors. The basic building block of the Bayer filter pattern is a 2 × 2 pattern having one blue (B), one red (R), and two green (G) square regions. The advantage of using a Bayer filter pattern is that all color information can be recorded simultaneously using only one sensor, and a smaller and less expensive device can be provided. In one embodiment, a demosaicing algorithm can be used to convert the isolated color mosaic into a true color mosaic of the same size. Each color pixel can be used more than once, and the true color of one pixel can be determined by averaging the values of the nearest neighboring pixels.

  Specifically, referring to FIGS. 45 to 47, the color filter insert denoted by reference numeral 370 as a whole has a filter substrate 372 and a color filter mosaic portion 374 that are generally optically transparent. This filter insert generally consists of a green transparent color material 376, a blue transparent color material 378, and a red transparent color material 377. Each of the transparent color materials 376, 378, 377 can be composed of a polymerized color resin available from Brewer Science. In one embodiment, the green color material 376 can be placed on a transparent filter substrate first, followed by the red color material 377 and the blue color material 378 in the appropriate space defined by the green material. Each transparent color material can be configured to be the size of an SSID image array pixel. The optically transparent filter substrate can be, for example, a polymeric material such as SU-8 available from IBM and can be about 20 μm thick, although other thicknesses can be used.

  Referring to FIG. 48, in the system 380, a color filter insert 370 having an optically transparent filter substrate 372 and a color filter mosaic 374 is disposed between the lens 40 and the imaging array 48 of the SSID 38. Any bonding technique or mechanical coupling may be used to connect the SSID to the lens via a color filter insert or optical fiber to achieve the optical connection, for example, bonding with an optically clear bonding epoxy. it can. FIG. 48 also shows another structure similar to that described in connection with FIG.

  49 and 50 show an example of the relationship between the color filter insert 370 and the adapter 52 as a lower perspective view and an upper perspective view, respectively, and the color filter can be directly integrated on the adapter. . The adapter includes the substrate 78 and the conductive strip 56 as described above.

  Referring to FIG. 51, in the system 390, a color filter insert 370 having an optically transparent filter substrate 372 and a color filter mosaic 374 is disposed between the lens 40 and the SSID 38 imaging array (not shown). ing. FIG. 52 shows another system 400 in which optical fiber 202 is used to optically couple lens 40 to an SSID 38 imaging array (not shown). Any bonding technique or mechanical coupling can be used to connect the SSID to the lens via a color filter insert or optical fiber to achieve an optical connection, such as bonding with a transparent bonding epoxy. As described above, in both FIGS. 51 and 52, the imaging device provided at the distal portion 15 is a utility guide 36 for supporting the umbilical 30 which may include a conductive wire 32 and other utilities (not shown). Can have. 51 and 52 both show a micromachined tube 46 that supports the camera and allows it to change direction.

  As will be appreciated, imaging devices based on the principles of the present invention can be very compact and are useful in solving various imaging problems, particularly, for example, small openings or lumens in the human body (trocars). The inside of a small opening, such as when imaging a part located inside an artificial or anatomical structure (such as a lumen) or through a small cut, etc. This structure is useful for solving the problem of imaging a new location, and the structure facilitates miniaturization and simplification of the assembly. In fact, due to the fact that the SSID is a solid state element and other features, these cameras could be made on the micron order and were previously inaccessible areas (dental / orthodontic, faropio tube, heart, lung, ear To reach the front yard, etc.). Also, larger lumens and cavities including the colon, stomach, esophagus and other similar body structures are less burdensome on the patient and can be observed more comfortably. Furthermore, such a device can also be used for tissue analysis in situ.

  It should be understood that the above-described embodiments are examples of the application of the principles of the present invention. While the invention has been described in terms of an embodiment of the invention and shown in the drawings, various modifications and changes can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications can be made without departing from the principles and concepts of the invention as set forth in the claims.

1 is a schematic diagram of an exemplary medical imaging system based on the principles of the present invention. FIG. FIG. 2 is a side view of one embodiment of the present invention, showing the apparatus 14 of FIG. FIG. 6 is a top view of a utility guide that can be used in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 is a top view of an SSID that can be used in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 5 is a side view of an exemplary micro camera of the present invention using the utility guide of FIG. 3 and the SSID of FIG. 4. It is a disassembled assembly perspective view of another Example of this invention. It is a perspective view of the assembly state of the Example of FIG. FIG. 6 is a top view of an SSID with an integrated utility opening according to another embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 9 is a perspective view of an exemplary micro camera of the present invention using the SSID of FIG. It is a disassembled assembly perspective view of another Example of this invention. It is a perspective view of the assembly state of the Example of FIG. It is a top view which shows several SSID on the common board | substrate in the stage of a manufacturing process. It is a top view which shows another aspect of several SSID on the common board | substrate in the stage of a manufacturing process. It is a typical perspective view which shows the manufacturing process based on one Example of this invention. It is a typical perspective view which shows the manufacturing process based on one Example of this invention. It is a typical perspective view which shows the manufacturing process based on one Example of this invention. It is a typical perspective view which shows the manufacturing process based on one Example of this invention. It is a typical perspective view which shows the manufacturing process based on one Example of this invention. It is sectional drawing of one Example of this invention. It is sectional drawing of another Example of this invention. It is sectional drawing of another Example of this invention in a 1st structure. FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view of the device of FIG. 8 in a second position. FIG. 3 is a perspective view of an SSID optically coupled to a coated GRIN lens. It is a perspective view which shows one Example of several GRIN lens arrange | positioned at single SSID and an array form. It is a perspective view which shows another Example of several GRIN lens arrange | positioned at single SSID and an array form. It is a typical perspective view which shows the several micro camera arrange | positioned in order along an umbilical as an array. 1 is a schematic perspective view of a conventional wire bonding connection system according to the prior art. 1 is a schematic exploded perspective view of an embodiment of a connector system according to the present invention. 1 is a schematic exploded perspective view of one embodiment of a connector system according to the present invention, wherein the SSID is movable so that various angles can be seen with respect to the umbilical. It is a perspective view of another Example of this invention. FIG. 27 is a top view of the apparatus of FIG. 26. FIG. 27 is a side view of the apparatus of FIG. 26 rotated 90 degrees with respect to FIG. It is a disassembled assembly perspective view of another Example of this invention. It is a perspective view of the adapter in which the conductive path in one Example was integrated. It is a typical side view which shows the connection between two chips | tips (for example, SSID) containing the adapter of FIG. It is a perspective view of the adapter in which the electrically conductive path in another Example was integrated. It is a typical side view which shows the connection between two chips | tips (for example, SSID) containing the adapter of FIG. FIG. 6 is a schematic perspective view showing a manufacturing method for obtaining an adapter by modifying a connector body to form a conductive path penetrating the inside, where the adapter has not yet been cut out, and a larger preform material block The outline is shown inside. FIG. 35 is a cross-sectional view of the connector body shown in FIG. 34 taken along line 2-2. FIG. 6 is a schematic perspective view illustrating another manufacturing technique for forming an adapter having one or more conductive paths extending therethrough, showing a preform block formed according to one embodiment; The formed connector body is indicated by an outline. FIG. 37 is a perspective view of the connector body of FIG. 36 after being formed from a block by machining. FIG. 6 is an exploded perspective view of another embodiment of the present invention, where the connector block also supports the lens. FIG. 39 is an exploded sectional view of the embodiment of FIG. 38. It is a disassembled assembly perspective view of another Example of this invention. It is a perspective view in the assembly state of the Example of FIG. It is sectional drawing of another Example of this invention. 43 is a perspective view of the adapter or connector block of FIG. 42. FIG. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view showing two adapters at various stages of manufacture. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view showing two adapters at various stages of manufacture. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view showing two adapters at various stages of manufacture. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view showing two adapters at various stages of manufacture. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view showing two adapters at various stages of manufacture. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view showing two adapters at various stages of manufacture. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view showing two adapters at various stages of manufacture. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view showing two adapters at various stages of manufacture. 1 is a plan view along the optical axis of an exemplary color filter insert that can be used with an imaging apparatus according to the present invention. FIG. FIG. 46 is a side view of the color filter insert of FIG. 45. FIG. 46 is a second side view of the color filter insert of FIG. 45 rotated 90 degrees relative to FIG. It is typical sectional drawing which shows an example of the apparatus similar to what was shown in FIG. 40, and the color filter insert of FIG. 45 is inserted. FIG. 6 is a bottom perspective view of an exemplary adapter or connector block with an integrated color filter insert. FIG. 6 is a top perspective view of an exemplary adapter or connector block with an integrated color filter insert. It is a typical side view which shows another Example in which the color filter insert of FIG. 45 was inserted. It is a typical side view which shows another Example in which the optical fiber was inserted.

Claims (11)

  1. A small imaging device,
    (A) a substantially flat shaped utility guide having at least two utility openings configured to support the utility, the two utility openings being centered on a major surface of the utility guide; The utility guides located on opposite sides of each other;
    (B) an SSID disposed on the upper surface of the utility guide and between the two utility openings,
    i) an imaging array provided on an upper surface of the SSID; and ii) an SSID provided on a surface of the SSID and having a conductive element electrically coupled to the imaging array;
    (C) a GRIN lens disposed on the imaging array;
    (D) a conductive wire electrically coupled to the conductive element and disposed to be supported by the utility opening through the interior of each of the two utility openings disposed on opposite sides of the SSID; each extending along two opposite side of the SSID, compact imaging apparatus characterized by having a conductive wire.
  2.   The small imaging apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the conductive element is formed of a thin metal wire and is electrically coupled to the imaging array via a conductive pad provided on the upper surface.
  3.   The small imaging apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the utility guide and the SSID form an integral single part.
  4.   The small imaging apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the conductive wire is coupled to the conductive element by direct bonding rather than wire bonding.
  5.   The small imaging device according to claim 1, further comprising a light source or a fluid source supported by the device.
  6.   The small imaging apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising a processor and a remotely disposed monitor so that an image obtained by the SSID can be viewed in real time.
  7. The small imaging apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the conductive wire includes power, ground, a clock signal, and an output signal.
  8. The small imaging apparatus according to claim 1, wherein an optical insert is disposed between the GRIN lens and the imaging array.
  9. 9. The miniature imaging device of claim 8, wherein the optical insert comprises a color filter insert configured to provide a multicolor image from a monochromatic camera image.
  10. 2. The compact imaging apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the SSID is an image element selected from the group consisting of a CCD, a CID, and a CMOS.
  11. 2. The miniature imaging device according to claim 1, wherein the imaging device is received in a micromachined tube configured to be capable of manipulating the distal end of the device.
JP2003579407A 2002-03-18 2003-03-18 Small imaging device Active JP4574169B2 (en)

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US36569202P true 2002-03-18 2002-03-18
US36556102P true 2002-03-18 2002-03-18
US43126102P true 2002-12-06 2002-12-06
US39148903A true 2003-03-17 2003-03-17
US10/391,490 US7787939B2 (en) 2002-03-18 2003-03-17 Miniaturized imaging device including utility aperture and SSID
US10/391,513 US7591780B2 (en) 2002-03-18 2003-03-17 Miniaturized imaging device with integrated circuit connector system
PCT/US2003/008312 WO2003081831A2 (en) 2002-03-18 2003-03-18 Miniaturized imaging device

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EP1486077A4 (en) 2008-03-26
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WO2003081831A2 (en) 2003-10-02

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