JP4329810B2 - cylinder block - Google Patents

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Publication number
JP4329810B2
JP4329810B2 JP2006312108A JP2006312108A JP4329810B2 JP 4329810 B2 JP4329810 B2 JP 4329810B2 JP 2006312108 A JP2006312108 A JP 2006312108A JP 2006312108 A JP2006312108 A JP 2006312108A JP 4329810 B2 JP4329810 B2 JP 4329810B2
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Prior art keywords
cylinder
cylinder block
porous
liner
cylinder liner
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JP2008128054A (en
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俊裕 高見
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トヨタ自動車株式会社
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D19/00Casting in, on, or around objects which form part of the product
    • B22D19/0009Cylinders, pistons
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D19/00Casting in, on, or around objects which form part of the product
    • B22D19/02Casting in, on, or around objects which form part of the product for making reinforced articles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D19/00Casting in, on, or around objects which form part of the product
    • B22D19/08Casting in, on, or around objects which form part of the product for building-up linings or coverings, e.g. of anti-frictional metal

Description

The present invention relates to a cylinder block for use in an internal combustion engine such as an automobile engine. In particular, the present invention relates to a measure for improving the strength of a deck surface portion in a cylinder block.

  As a cylinder block used for an automobile engine or the like, one made of an aluminum alloy is becoming popular in order to reduce its weight.

  The cylinder block is generally manufactured by casting, but is often manufactured by die casting from the viewpoint of achieving high processing accuracy and shortening the processing time. In particular, in the above-described cylinder block made of aluminum alloy, in order to ensure the mechanical strength, wear resistance, heat resistance, etc. of the cylinder bore inner surface with which the piston is slidably contacted, the member forming the bore inner surface is made of cast iron or the like. The cylinder liner is often manufactured by integrally casting (see, for example, Patent Document 1 below).

  In addition, as the shape of the cylinder block, an open deck type in which a water jacket as a cooling water passage molded inside the block opens to the block upper surface (a mating surface with the cylinder head: deck surface), and a water jacket opens to the block upper surface. However, the open deck type is particularly suitable for the above-described die casting because the core is not required for casting.

  On the other hand, in recent years, it has been required to increase the in-cylinder pressure during the expansion stroke in order to increase the engine output. In particular, in a diesel engine, the in-cylinder pressure is higher than that of a gasoline engine (currently generally about 16 MPa). Therefore, when further increasing the in-cylinder pressure to increase the output, Even higher strength is required.

  However, when the cylinder block is manufactured by die casting of the above-described aluminum alloy, the following casting defects may occur, and this casting defect portion has sufficient strength to improve the in-cylinder pressure. There was a possibility that could not get.

  That is, since die casting is performed by pressurizing and feeding a molten aluminum alloy into the cavity of the mold, air is also fed simultaneously. If the aluminum alloy is cooled and solidified with air bubbles remaining in the molten metal, the portion where the air bubbles exist becomes a cast hole. In die casting, since the molten aluminum alloy is temporarily stored in the injection sleeve, an aluminum alloy oxide film is often generated on the surface of the molten metal in the injection sleeve. Then, there is a possibility that this oxide film will be sent into the cavity of the mold. In this case, if the aluminum alloy is cooled and solidified with this oxide film mixed, the remaining part of the oxide film is cast. It becomes a defect. Such a cast hole or a portion where an oxide film has a casting defect has a lower strength than other portions (a portion where no casting defect exists).

  On the other hand, a metal matrix composite (MMC) is known as one that increases strength by combining different materials. As a technique for applying this MMC to a cylinder block, for example, there are those disclosed in Patent Document 2 and Patent Document 3 below.

  In Patent Document 2, two annular projections are formed on the outer wall of a cylinder liner, and a cylinder fiber casting process is performed with a reinforcing fiber bundle preform made of alumina disposed between the annular projections. Like to do. Thus, the cylinder liner and the reinforcing fiber bundle are integrally cast into the cylinder block, and the expansion of the cylinder liner toward the cylinder head can be suppressed by the reinforcing fiber bundle.

Moreover, in the thing of patent document 3, the upper end part (end part by the side of a deck surface) of a cylinder liner is thinned, the rib is formed, and an inorganic fiber molded object is press-fit in the outer periphery of this rib. Then, after the cylinder liner and the inorganic fiber molded body are cast integrally with the cylinder block, the upper surface of the cylinder block is cut to form the deck surface, and the inner surface of the cylinder liner is cut to form the bore inner surface. Further, when the inner surface of the cylinder liner is cut, the rib formed on the upper end portion of the cylinder liner is removed together with the inner peripheral edge portion of the inorganic fiber molded body so that the MMC-made inorganic fiber molded body is exposed to the bore internal space. I have to.
JP 7-284905 A Japanese Utility Model Publication No. 63-19050 Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 10-220278

  The strength required for the cylinder block is required to withstand the in-cylinder pressure during the expansion stroke of the engine. More specifically, the in-cylinder pressure (combustion pressure) acts at the initial stage of the expansion stroke in which the in-cylinder pressure becomes maximum (for example, when the crank rotation angle advances by a dozen degrees of crank angle from the top dead center position of the piston). Since a particularly high stress acts on the portion, that is, the portion on the cylinder head side in the cylinder block (the upper portion in the case of an engine in which the cylinder shaft extends in the up-and-down direction), this portion needs high strength. Particularly in the open deck type cylinder block, the stress acts on the cylinder bore outer wall portion formed inside the water jacket. Therefore, in the cylinder head side region (the cylinder block upper end portion) of the cylinder bore outer wall portion. Sufficient strength must be secured to suppress deformation of the material. However, in view of the cooling performance with respect to the cylinder bore outer wall portion, it is preferable that the thickness of the cylinder bore outer wall portion is thin. Thus, the cylinder bore outer wall portion, particularly the cylinder head side region, is required to have a high strength despite being thin.

  However, in the one disclosed in Patent Document 2, the preform of the reinforcing fiber bundle is not disposed at the upper end portion of the cylinder liner. That is, the reinforcing preform is not disposed in the portion (the upper end portion of the cylinder block) where the highest strength is required. In addition, since the material (for example, aluminum alloy) constituting the cylinder block body flows as a molten metal on the outer peripheral side of the reinforcing preform in this portion, the air is mixed into the upper end portion of the cylinder block. There may be a casting defect due to contamination of the casting hole or oxide film, and the strength at this portion may be reduced.

  On the other hand, in the one disclosed in Patent Document 3, the MMC-made inorganic fiber molded body is exposed in the bore internal space at the deck surface portion as described above. That is, in this Patent Document 3, an MMC-made inorganic fiber molded body is disposed in a portion (the cylinder block upper end portion) where the highest strength is required. However, the material constituting the cylinder block body (aluminum alloy) flows as a molten metal on the outer peripheral side of the inorganic fiber molded body. For this reason, there may be a casting defect due to the mixing of the air or the oxide film at the upper end portion of the cylinder block. In this case as well, the strength at this portion may be reduced. There is sex.

  Further, in this Patent Document 3, since the rib of the cylinder liner is removed as described above, the MMC-made inorganic fiber molded body and the cylinder liner are in contact with each other only at the tip surface portion of the cylinder liner, and are in close contact with each other. It is not in the state that was done. In particular, the contact portion between the two is located at the upper end portion of the cylinder block where the temperature becomes high during the expansion stroke. There is a possibility that the inorganic fiber molded body may be peeled off. When such peeling occurs, it may cause a crack in the cylinder block body on the outer peripheral side of the inorganic fiber molded body.

  Furthermore, in this patent document 3, when cutting the cylinder liner inner surface, it is necessary to cut both the cylinder liner inner surface and the inner surface of the inorganic fiber molded body, and it is difficult to obtain high processing accuracy. In other words, compared to the case where the bore inner surface is made of a uniform material (for example, cast iron), it is necessary to process two types of materials having different cutting characteristics, so that it is difficult to perform the surface processing. Selection of a method and a cutting tool is difficult, and it is inferior to practicality.

The present invention has been made in view of the above points, and an object of the present invention is an open deck type cylinder block in which a metal matrix composite material is applied to a deck surface portion. while give close contact between the base composite material stably, it is to provide a cylinder block that high strength deck surface portion of the cylinder block is obtained.

-Solving principle-
The solution principle of the present invention devised to achieve the above object is that, in the deck surface portion (the mating surface with respect to the cylinder head and its peripheral portion), the cylinder surface of the open deck type in which the cylinder bore inner surface is formed by the cylinder liner. An MMC (metal matrix composite) is disposed in close contact with the outer periphery of the cylinder liner, and the outer periphery of the MMC faces the water jacket. In the area inside (bore side) of the water jacket, The material for forming the cylinder head main body (such as an aluminum alloy) is not present alone on the surface portion.

-Solution-
Specifically, the present invention is premised on a cylinder block in which a cylinder liner constituting an inner surface of a cylinder bore is integrally cast and is configured as an open deck type. A metal matrix composite in which a cylinder block forming material is impregnated with a cylindrical porous body in which the axial length of the cylinder block is set to be shorter than the axial length of the cylinder liner. Is mounted on the outer periphery of the cylinder liner on the cylinder block deck surface portion, the outer surface of the metal matrix composite faces the water jacket, and the entire inner surface of the metal matrix composite is brought into close contact with the outer surface of the cylinder liner. On the other hand, the inner surface of the cylinder liner faces the cylinder bore. Further, the metal matrix composite is molded by being impregnated into the porous body while the cylinder block forming material flows in the direction along the axis of the cylinder liner, and the molten cylinder block forming material flows into the porous body. The surface of the cylinder liner side is positioned on the downstream side in the molten metal flow direction with respect to the water jacket side region.

Moreover, the following structure is mentioned as another solution means for achieving the said objective. In other words, it is assumed that the cylinder block is formed by integrally casting the cylinder liner that constitutes the inner surface of the cylinder bore and is configured as an open deck type. For this cylinder block, a cylindrical porous body having a length in the axial direction shorter than the length in the axial direction of the cylinder liner is placed around the cylinder liner on the cylinder block deck surface. By casting in the mounted state, the cylinder block deck surface portion has a cylinder liner and a metal base formed by impregnating the porous body with the cylinder block forming material between the cylinder bore and the water jacket. Only the complex is present. Further, the metal matrix composite is molded by being impregnated into the porous body while the cylinder block forming material flows in the direction along the axis of the cylinder liner, and the molten cylinder block forming material flows into the porous body. The surface of the cylinder liner side is positioned on the downstream side in the molten metal flow direction with respect to the water jacket side region.

  Due to these specific matters, in the inner region of the water jacket in the mating surface portion (deck surface portion) with respect to the cylinder head, which is the portion where the highest strength is required in the cylinder block, the cylinder liner and the metal matrix composite material are used. Only the metal matrix composite is present, and the cylinder block forming material (for example, aluminum alloy) alone layer (cylinder block forming material that is not MMC) does not exist in this portion. That is, air or an oxide film that tends to flow into the deck surface during casting is captured by the porous body, and is prevented from flowing into the deck surface. Accordingly, there is no situation in which there is a casting defect due to air mixing or an oxide film on the deck surface portion of the cylinder block, and sufficient strength can be obtained at this portion. In addition, since the entire inner surface of the metal matrix composite is in close contact with the outer surface of the cylinder liner, the degree of adhesion between the metal matrix composite and the cylinder liner is stably maintained over a long period of time. It becomes possible.

Also, when molten metal (melt of cylinder block forming material) flows into the porous body through the cavity of the mold, bubbles and foreign substances (such as oxides of aluminum alloy) contained in the molten metal are porous. It flows into the cylinder liner side of the body, that is, the inner peripheral side, and is deposited on the inner peripheral side. For this reason, when the molten metal is cooled and solidified, the outer peripheral side (water jacket side) of the cylinder block forming material facing the surface (for example, the lower end surface) into which the molten metal flows in the porous body There will be no casting defects due to contamination of the casting cavity or oxide film. In particular, the in-cylinder pressure stress during the expansion stroke of the engine greatly acts on the outer peripheral side portion (water jacket side portion) between the cylinder bore and the water jacket. In addition, since it is possible to obtain a state in which there is no casting defect due to contamination of the oxide film, the strength at this portion can be sufficiently increased, and the reliability of the cylinder block can be improved.

  As another specific shape of the surface into which the molten metal flows in the porous body, the metal block composite is formed by impregnating the porous body while the cylinder block forming material flows in the direction along the axis of the cylinder liner. On the other hand, in the porous body, there may be mentioned one in which a concave portion is formed in an intermediate portion from the cylinder liner side to the water jacket side on the surface into which the melt of the cylinder block forming material flows.

  According to this specific matter, when the molten metal flows into the porous body through the mold cavity, bubbles and foreign matters (such as oxides of aluminum alloy) contained in the molten metal are formed in the porous body. The liquid flows toward the recessed portion and is deposited around the recessed portion. For this reason, when the molten metal is cooled and solidified, the outer peripheral side (water jacket side) of the cylinder block forming material facing the surface (for example, the lower end surface) into which the molten metal flows in the porous body There will be no casting defects due to contamination of the casting cavity or oxide film. Therefore, even in this configuration, it is possible to obtain a state in which there is no casting defect due to mixing of a cast hole or an oxide film in a region where a large stress acts (outer peripheral side portion: water jacket side portion). The strength can be sufficiently increased, and the reliability of the cylinder block can be improved.

  Moreover, the following are mentioned as a specific structure of the inner surface shape of a porous body. That is, as the inner surface shape of the porous body before being fitted to the outer surface of the cylinder liner, the inner diameter dimension on the cylinder block deck surface side is formed smaller than the inner diameter dimension on the anti-cylinder block deck surface side.

  According to this configuration, it is possible to obtain a state in which no gap is generated between the porous body and the cylinder liner in the state after the press-fitting while facilitating the press-in operation of the cylinder liner to the porous body. For this reason, similarly to the above, it is possible to avoid the presence of a single layer of the cylinder block forming material (for example, an aluminum alloy) (a cylinder block forming material that is not MMC) between the porous body and the cylinder liner, It is possible to reliably prevent the presence of the above-mentioned casting hole or casting defect between the porous body and the cylinder liner.

  Furthermore, the following are mentioned as a specific structure of the outer surface shape of a porous body. That is, as the outer surface shape of the porous body before being clamped, the outer diameter dimension on the cylinder block deck surface side is formed smaller than the outer diameter dimension on the anti-cylinder block deck surface side.

  In the present invention, since the outer surface of the metal matrix composite faces the water jacket, at the time of mold clamping at the time of casting, a water jacket molding die is formed over substantially the entire periphery of the outer surface of the porous body. Will be fitted. In this case, as described above, if the outer diameter dimension of the porous body on the cylinder block deck surface side is smaller than the outer diameter dimension of the anti-cylinder block deck surface side, the cylinder block deck surface of the porous body While facilitating the fitting operation of the water jacket molding die from the side, in this fitting (clamping) state, a state is obtained in which no gap is generated between the outer surface of the porous body and the water jacket molding die. be able to. For this reason, the molten metal of the cylinder block forming material (for example, an aluminum alloy) is prevented from flowing between the porous body and the water jacket molding die, and the above-mentioned cast hole or casting defect is formed on the outer peripheral side of the metal matrix composite. Can surely be prevented.

  In the present invention, for the open deck type cylinder block, a metal matrix composite made of MMC is disposed in close contact with the outer peripheral side of the cylinder liner on the deck surface portion that is a mating surface portion with respect to the cylinder head. By adopting a configuration in which the outer peripheral side of the body faces the water jacket, the component material (aluminum alloy or the like) of the cylinder head main body is not present alone on the deck surface portion in the inner region of the water jacket. For this reason, the strength of the deck surface portion can be sufficiently obtained. In addition, since the entire inner surface of the metal matrix composite is in close contact with the outer surface of the cylinder liner, the adhesion between the metal matrix composite and the cylinder liner can be stably maintained over a long period of time. become.

  Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. In the following embodiments, a case will be described in which the present invention is applied to a cylinder block having a siamese structure used in an in-line four-cylinder diesel engine for automobiles.

( Reference example )
Before describing each embodiment of the present invention, a reference example will be described.
-Outline configuration of cylinder block-
Figure 1 is a cylinder bores 11, 11 of the series 4-cylinder diesel engine according to the present embodiment, ... and plan view of the cylinder block 1 showing a peripheral portion (end view of the cylinder block 1 top), and a cylinder head The arrangement | positioning state of the deck surface 1a (cylinder block top surface), the cylinder row | line | column, and the water jacket (cooling water passage) 12 which are the mating surfaces is shown. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line II-II in FIG.

  In the following description, the leftmost cylinder in FIG. 1 is the first cylinder # 1, the right cylinder is the second cylinder # 2, and the right cylinder is the third cylinder. The cylinder located at # 3 and the right end will be described as the fourth cylinder # 4. Moreover, the upper side in FIG. 1 is described as the intake side, and the lower side is described as the exhaust side. The form of the cylinder number and the intake / exhaust system is not limited to this.

The cylinder block 1 according to the present reference example is mostly made of an aluminum alloy, and as shown in FIG. 1, a siamese cylinder barrel 2 having four cylinder barrels 21, 21,... Arranged in series. It has. The detailed configuration of the siamese cylinder barrel 2 will be described later.

  The cylinder block 1 is configured as an open deck type. That is, the water jacket 12 is opened to the deck surface 1a of the cylinder block 1 that is an assembly surface of the cylinder head.

  The water jacket 12 is formed between the outer wall of the cylinder block 1 and the Siamese cylinder barrel 2 so as to surround substantially the entire circumference of the Siamese cylinder barrel 2. Therefore, as shown in FIG. 1, the water jacket 12 extends along the cylindrical surface shape that is the outer peripheral surface of each cylinder barrel 21, 21,.

  Further, the cylinder block 1 has a cooling water inlet passage 12a for introducing cooling water from a water pump (not shown) into the water jacket 12 at one end side in the cylinder row direction (left end side in FIG. 1), that is, It is formed near the first cylinder # 1.

  The main flow of the cooling water in the water jacket 12 of the cylinder block 1 is that the cooling water introduced from the cooling water inlet passage 12a is substantially horizontal along the arrangement direction of the cylinder barrels 21, 21,. Thus, the cylinder block 1 is cooled. Specifically, the cooling water flowing in from the cooling water inlet passage 12a is divided into one side (the intake side which is the upper side in FIG. 1) and the other side (the exhaust side which is the lower side in FIG. 1) of the siamese cylinder barrel 2. Thus, each flows in a substantially horizontal direction from the first cylinder # 1 to the fourth cylinder # 4 (see the arrow in FIG. 1), whereby the cylinder block 1 is cooled. The cooling water that has cooled the cylinder block 1 is then introduced into a water jacket of the cylinder head to cool the cylinder head.

  It should be noted that head bolt holes 13, 13,... Through which the head bolts for assembling the cylinder head gasket and the cylinder head integrally are inserted at a plurality of locations in the cylinder block 1.

-Siamese cylinder barrel 2-
Next, the Siamese cylinder barrel 2 will be described. As described above, the siamese cylinder barrel 2 is composed of four cylinder barrels 21, 21,. Since the cylinder barrels 21, 21,... Are substantially the same in configuration, only one cylinder barrel 21 will be described here.

  The cylinder barrel 21 includes a cylinder liner 3 positioned on the inner peripheral side, and a flat cylindrical body 4 (hereinafter referred to as an MMC ring) having an MMC structure positioned on the outer peripheral side of the cylinder liner 3. This will be specifically described below.

  The cylinder liner 3 is formed of a cast iron cylinder and is a member constituting the inner surface of the cylinder bore 11 on which the piston slides. Thereby, the mechanical strength, wear resistance, heat resistance, etc. of the inner surface of the cylinder bore 11 are ensured.

  The MMC ring (metal matrix composite) 4 is an aluminum alloy (cylinder block forming material) that is formed into a porous molded body (preform) 41 (see FIG. 3) previously molded into a substantially flat cylindrical shape at the time of die-cast molding described later. The metal matrix composite material (MMC) comprised by being impregnated with the molten metal.

  The MMC ring 4 is formed so that the inner diameter dimension thereof substantially coincides with the outer diameter dimension of the cylinder liner 3, whereby the inner peripheral surface of the MMC ring 4 is in close contact with the outer peripheral surface of the cylinder liner 3. . On the other hand, the outer peripheral surface of the MMC ring 4 faces the water jacket 12. More specifically, each MMC ring 4, 4,... Has a flat mating surface 42 with the adjacent (adjacent cylinder) MMC ring 4, and the mating surfaces 42, 42 are in close contact with each other. It is arranged. Therefore, in each of the MMC rings 4, 4,..., The outer peripheral surfaces 43, 43,... Other than the mating surfaces 42, 42,.

  The length of the MMC ring 4 in the axial direction (vertical direction) is significantly shorter than the length of the cylinder liner 3 in the axial direction (vertical direction) (for example, the axial direction of the cylinder liner 3). The upper end surface 4a of the MMC ring 4 and the upper end surface 3a of the cylinder liner 3 are substantially flush with the deck surface 1a of the cylinder block 1. The cylinder liner 3 and the MMC ring 4 are integrally cast.

  The lower portion of the cylinder liner 3 extends to the vicinity of the skirt portion 1b of the cylinder block 1 (the portion constituting the upper side of the crank chamber). Further, an aluminum alloy (cylinder block forming material) exists between the outer periphery of the cylinder liner 3 in a region below the region where the MMC ring 4 is disposed and the water jacket 12.

  The casting process in which the cylinder liner 3 and the MMC ring 4 are integrally cast into the cylinder block 1 will be described later.

  Thus, the cylinder barrel 21 has a two-layer structure of the cylinder liner 3 on the inner peripheral side and the MMC ring 4 on the outer peripheral side in the deck surface portion, and is an aluminum alloy that is a constituent material of the cylinder block 1. A single layer (a layer of aluminum alloy that has not been converted to MMC) does not exist on the deck surface portion. That is, only the two-layer structure of the cylinder liner 3 and the MMC ring 4 exists between the cylinder bore 11 and the water jacket 12 in the deck surface portion.

-Casting of cylinder block 1-
Next, the casting process for manufacturing the cylinder block 1 having the above configuration will be described.

  In this casting process, a step of integrally assembling the cylinder liner 3 and the preform (porous body) 41 is performed as a previous step, and a cylinder barrel molded product in which the cylinder liner 3 and the preform 41 are integrated. Die-casting is performed in a state where is disposed in the mold 5 (see FIG. 4).

First, the process of assembling the cylinder liner 3 and the preform 41 integrally will be described. Since the cylinder block 1 according to this reference example has four cylinders, four cylinder liners 3, 3,... And four preforms 41, 41,.

  Each of the cylinder liners 3, 3,... Is made of a cast iron cylinder as described above and has the same structure.

  On the other hand, as the preforms 41, 41,..., The outer preforms 41A, 41A corresponding to the first cylinder # 1 and the fourth cylinder # 4, the second cylinder # 2, and the third cylinder # 3 are used. Corresponding inner preforms 41B, 41B are used.

  Each of the outer preforms 41A and 41A has a mating surface 42 formed at one location with the adjacent inner preform 41B. Further, the inner preforms 41B and 41B are formed with two mating surfaces 42 and 42 with the adjacent outer preform 41A and inner preform 41B, respectively.

  Further, the preforms 41A and 41B are specifically formed of ceramic fibers. For example, it consists of alumina fibers and carbon fibers. The components of the alumina fibers are 97% alumina and 3% silica, and the carbon fibers are 99.7% carbon. The fiber lengths of the alumina fiber and the carbon fiber are both 70-130 μm in average length, and 3-6 μm in average fiber diameter is used. In addition, the fiber volume ratio of the preforms 41A and 41B is 12 to 21%, and the fiber blending ratio is a mixture of alumina fiber volume ratio 8 to 16% and carbon fiber volume ratio 4 to 5%. Adjust to (12-21%). The reason for setting the alumina fiber and the carbon fiber to the above-described fiber length and fiber diameter is to keep the gap between the fibers at 20 to 80 μm in consideration of the impregnation property of the molten aluminum alloy. The preforms 41A and 41B are formed by bonding alumina fibers and carbon fibers with a ceramic binder.

  In addition, the constituent material of the preforms 41A and 41B is not limited to ceramic fibers, and may be other fiber materials or porous metal materials. In other words, the functions of the preforms 41A and 41B only need to be capable of capturing (trapping) bubbles or aluminum alloy oxides contained in the molten metal during die casting, which will be described later.

  The cylinder liners 3, 3,... Are fitted into the preforms 41A, 41A, 41B, 41B by press-fitting, and the upper end surfaces 4a, 3a are flush with each other. Thereby, the whole outer peripheral surface of the cylinder liner 3 and the whole inner peripheral surface of the preform 41 are brought into contact with each other in a close contact state.

  Thereafter, a cylinder barrel molded product in which the cylinder liner 3 and the preform 41 are integrated is preheated. For example, it is heated for a predetermined time by a heating furnace of about 400 ° C. This heating is for improving the impregnation property of the molten metal at the time of subsequent die casting. In addition, the heating temperature is not limited to that described above, and may be about 500 ° C., for example. Further, the heating method is not limited to the above-described method, and may be an electromagnetic induction method.

  Then, the preforms 41A, 41A, 41B, 41B fitted with the cylinder liners 3, 3,... Are arranged in the mold 5 with the mating surfaces 42, 42 being in contact with each other. FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the cylinder liner 3 and the preform 41 arranged in the mold 5 as seen from the direction along the cylinder row.

  As shown in FIG. 4, the mold 5 includes a bore pin 51, a water jacket molding mold 52, a side mold 53, and a lower mold 54.

  The bore pin 51 has a cylindrical shape whose outer diameter dimension substantially matches the inner diameter dimension of the cylinder liner 3 and is inserted into the cylinder liner 3 in a clamped state. The water jacket molding die 52 includes a pin hole 52a through which the bore pin 51 is inserted, and a water jacket molding portion 52b for molding the water jacket 12. In this clamped state, the lower end surface 4b of the preform 41 faces the cavity 57 formed between the water jacket forming portion 52b and the cylinder liner 3. The side mold 53 is for molding the outer wall surface of the cylinder block 1, and has a cavity 55 with a predetermined interval between the water jacket forming part 52 b and a cylinder with a predetermined interval with the cylinder liner 3. Each cavity 58 is formed. The lower die 54 is for molding the skirt portion 1 b of the cylinder block 1, and is positioned at a position where it abuts against the front end surface of the bore pin 51. Is forming. In this state, the lower end surface 3 b of the cylinder liner 3 faces the cavity 56.

  In this way, the mold 5 is clamped in a state where the cylinder liner 3 and the preform 41 are accommodated, and the molten aluminum alloy as a cylinder block forming material is pressed at a predetermined pressure from the cavity 56 formed by the lower mold 54. Injected.

  The molten metal flows through the cavity 56 between the lower mold 54 and the side mold 53, then flows in the cavities 58 and 57 in order, reaches the lower end surface 4 b of the preform 41, and is impregnated inside the preform 41. To go. For this reason, the MMC is formed by the preform 41 and the aluminum alloy, and this portion is formed as the MMC ring 4.

  Further, due to the presence of the preform 41, bubbles and aluminum alloy oxide contained in the molten metal are trapped in the vicinity of the lower end surface 4 b of the preform 41, and the bubbles and aluminum alloy are trapped inside the preform 41. Inflow of oxide is prevented. As a result, there is no casting defect due to mixing of a cast hole or an oxide film inside the MMC ring 4.

  On the other hand, the molten metal flowing into the cavity 55 between the water jacket molding die 52 and the side die 53 forms the outer wall of the cylinder block 1.

  In this manner, the water jacket 12 is formed between the aluminum alloy filled in the cavity 55, the aluminum alloy filled in the cavity 57, and the MMC ring 4 (see FIG. 2).

  In this manner, the cavities 55, 56, 57, and 58 are filled with the aluminum alloy, and the molten metal is cooled and solidified in a state where the preform 41 is made into MMC and the MMC ring 4 is formed, and then the mold is opened. The cylinder block 1 having the above configuration is obtained.

In the cylinder block 1 manufactured by the above casting process, as described above, the structure of the deck surface portion of the cylinder barrel 21 is a two-layer structure of the inner cylinder liner 3 and the outer MMC ring 4. The structure does not include an aluminum alloy single layer (a layer of aluminum alloy that is not MMC) that is a constituent material of the cylinder block 1. That is, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, only a two-layer structure of the cylinder liner 3 and the MMC ring 4 exists between the cylinder bore 11 and the water jacket 12 in the deck surface portion. For this reason, according to the present reference example , the cylinder liner 3 and the MMC ring 4 are provided in the inner area of the water jacket 12 in the deck surface 1a and the peripheral portion thereof, which are the parts requiring the highest strength in the cylinder block 1. In this part, there is no aluminum alloy single layer (material that is not MMC) that is a cylinder block forming material. Therefore, in the cylinder block 1, there is no situation in which there is a casting defect due to air intrusion or an oxide film in the deck surface 1a and its peripheral portion, and sufficient strength can be obtained in this portion. . Further, since the entire inner surface of the MMC ring 4 is in close contact with the outer peripheral surface of the cylinder liner 3, the degree of adhesion between the MMC ring 4 and the cylinder liner 3 can be stably maintained over a long period of time. It is possible.

  The preform 41 is formed in a substantially flat cylindrical shape. That is, the thickness dimension along the flowing direction of the molten metal is set to be relatively short. For this reason, the molten metal can easily reach the deck surface 1a, and there is no shortage of molten metal flowing into the deck surface 1a.

Further, as physical properties of the MMC (metal matrix composite material) constituting the MMC ring 4, the thermal expansion coefficient is 17 × 10 −6 to 18 × 10 −6 / ° C., and the Young's modulus is 200 to 250 Mpa. Yes, Vickers hardness is 135-150. A general die-cast aluminum alloy has a thermal expansion coefficient of about 20 × 10 −6 / ° C., a Young's modulus of 150 to 250 MPa, and a Vickers hardness of 98 to 105. For this reason, the provision of the MMC ring 4 prevents deformation of the inner surface of the cylinder bore 11 associated with the suppression of the thermal expansion coefficient (maintenance of roundness), increases the strength of the cylinder bore 11 associated with an increase in Young's modulus, and Vickers hardness. As a result of this improvement, excellent effects such as maintaining high sealing performance by preventing indentation at the head gasket contact portion can be exhibited.

(First Embodiment)
Next, a first embodiment of the present invention will be described. In the present embodiment, the shape of the preform 41 is different from that of the reference example . Other configurations and casting methods are the same as those in the above reference example . Therefore, here, the shape of the preform 41 will be mainly described.

  FIG. 5 is an enlarged cross-sectional view showing the preform 41 and its peripheral portion in a state where the cylinder liner 3 and the preform 41 are disposed in the mold 5 in the present embodiment.

As shown in FIG. 5, the preform 41 according to the present embodiment has an upper side (deck surface side: left side in the drawing) as the shape of the lower end surface 4 b (surface facing the cavity 57) toward the inner peripheral side. It is formed with the inclined surface which inclines in the direction. In other words, the lower end surface 4b of the preform 41 is located on the downstream side in the molten metal flow direction in the region on the cylinder liner 3 side than the region on the water jacket 12 side. Other portions have the same shape as the preform 41 in the reference example described above.

  When the molten metal is poured in a state in which the preform 41 having such a shape is disposed in the mold 5, the molten metal flows into the preform 41 from the cavity 57 and is included in the molten metal. Air bubbles and aluminum alloy oxide flow into the inner periphery of the preform 41 and are deposited on the inner periphery (see the arrows shown by broken lines in FIG. 5). For this reason, in a state where the molten metal is cooled and solidified, of the aluminum alloy facing the lower end surface 4b of the preform 41, the outer periphery (water jacket 12 side) is mixed with a cast hole or an oxide film. There will be no casting defects due to.

  In particular, the in-cylinder pressure stress during the expansion stroke of the engine greatly acts on the outer peripheral side portion of the cylinder barrel 21, but there is no casting defect due to mixing of a cast hole or an oxide film in a region where this large stress acts. Therefore, the strength at this portion can be sufficiently increased, and the reliability of the cylinder block 1 can be improved.

( Second Embodiment)
Next, a second embodiment will be described. Also in this embodiment, the shape of the preform 41 is different from those of the reference example and the first embodiment . Other configurations and casting methods are the same as those in the reference example and the first embodiment . Therefore, the shape of the preform 41 will be mainly described here.

  FIG. 6 is an enlarged sectional view showing the preform 41 and its peripheral portion in a state where the cylinder liner 3 and the preform 41 are disposed in the mold 5 in the present embodiment.

As shown in FIG. 6, the preform 41 according to the present embodiment has a concave portion 4 c formed in the center portion thereof as the shape of the lower end surface 4 b (surface facing the cavity 57). The recess 4 c is formed in an annular shape centering on the axis of the preform 41. In other words, a recess 4c is formed in the lower end surface 4b of the preform 41 at an intermediate portion extending from the cylinder liner 3 side to the water jacket 12 side. Other portions have the same shape as the preform 41 in the reference example and the first embodiment described above.

  When the molten metal is poured in a state in which the preform 41 having such a shape is disposed in the mold 5, the molten metal flows into the preform 41 from the cavity 57 and is included in the molten metal. Bubbles and aluminum alloy oxide flow toward the concave portion 4c formed in the lower end surface 4b of the preform 41 and are deposited around the concave portion 4c (see the arrow indicated by the broken line in FIG. 6). . For this reason, in a state where the molten metal is cooled and solidified, of the aluminum alloy facing the lower end surface 4b of the preform 41, the outer periphery (water jacket 12 side) is mixed with a cast hole or an oxide film. There will be no casting defects due to.

  As described above, the in-cylinder pressure stress during the expansion stroke of the engine greatly acts on the outer peripheral portion of the cylinder barrel 21, but there is no casting defect due to contamination of the cast hole or oxide film in the region where this large stress acts. Since the state can be obtained, the strength at this portion can be sufficiently increased, and the reliability of the cylinder block 1 can be improved.

( Third embodiment)
Next, a third embodiment will be described. Also in the present embodiment, the shape of the preform 41 is different from those in the reference example and each embodiment . Other configurations and casting methods are the same as those in the above reference example and each embodiment . Therefore, here, the shape of the preform 41 will be mainly described.

  FIG. 7 is an enlarged cross-sectional view showing the preform 41 and its peripheral portion in a state where the cylinder liner 3 and the preform 41 are disposed in the mold 5 in the present embodiment. Further, in FIG. 7, the cross-sectional shape of the preform 41 before being clamped is indicated by a virtual line.

  As shown in FIG. 7, the preform 41 according to the present embodiment has an inner diameter of the deck surface side (left side in the figure) and an inner diameter dimension of the counter deck surface side (right side in the figure). Smaller diameter. The inner diameter dimension on the side opposite to the deck surface substantially matches the outer diameter dimension of the cylinder liner 3, whereas the inner diameter dimension on the deck surface side is set to be slightly smaller than the outer diameter dimension of the cylinder liner 3. Yes.

  According to such setting of the inner diameter, the cylinder liner 3 can be easily press-fitted into the preform 41, but there is no gap between the preform 41 and the cylinder liner 3 after the press-fitting. Can be obtained. For this reason, it is possible to avoid the presence of a single layer of the cylinder block forming material (aluminum alloy) between the preform 41 and the cylinder liner 3 (cylinder block forming material that has not been converted to MMC). It is possible to reliably prevent the presence of the above-mentioned casting hole and casting defect between the cylinder liner 3 and the cylinder liner 3.

  Another feature of the preform 41 according to the present embodiment is its outer shape. That is, as the outer surface shape of the preform 41, the outer diameter dimension on the deck surface side (left side in the figure) is formed smaller than the outer diameter dimension on the counter deck surface side (right side in the figure). The outer diameter dimension on the deck surface side substantially matches the inner diameter dimension of the water jacket molding portion 52b of the water jacket molding die 52, whereas the outer diameter dimension on the counter deck surface side is the water jacket molding. The diameter is set slightly larger than the inner diameter of the water jacket forming portion 52b of the metal mold 52.

  According to such setting of the outer diameter dimension, the water jacket molding die 52 can be easily fitted from the deck surface side of the preform 41, but in this fitted (clamped) state, the preform 41 is not fitted. A state in which no gap is generated between the outer surface and the water jacket molding die 52 can be obtained. For this reason, the melt of the cylinder block forming material (aluminum alloy) is prevented from flowing between the preform 41 and the water jacket molding die 52, and the above-mentioned cast hole and casting defect are formed on the outer peripheral side of the MMC ring 4. It can be surely prevented from existing.

The configuration of this embodiment can be combined with the configurations of the first embodiment and the second embodiment described above.

-Other embodiments-
Each embodiment described above demonstrated the case where this invention was applied to the cylinder block 1 of the siamese structure used for the in-line 4-cylinder diesel engine for motor vehicles. The present invention is not limited to this, and can be applied to other types of diesel engines and gasoline engines. The present invention is also applicable to a cylinder block that does not have a siamese structure. Furthermore, the present invention can be applied not only to automobiles but also to engines used for other purposes. Also, the number of cylinders and the engine type (separate types such as in-line type, V type, and horizontally opposed type) are not particularly limited.

It is a top view of the cylinder block concerning a reference example . It is sectional drawing along the II-II line in FIG. It is a perspective view for demonstrating the process of assembling a cylinder liner and a preform integrally. It is sectional drawing which looked at the state where the cylinder liner and the preform were arrange | positioned in the metal mold | die from the direction along a cylinder row | line | column. FIG. 3 is an enlarged cross-sectional view showing the preform and its peripheral portion in a state where the cylinder liner and the preform are arranged in a mold in the first embodiment. It is a figure equivalent to FIG. 5 in 2nd Embodiment. It is a figure equivalent to FIG. 5 in 3rd Embodiment.

Explanation of symbols

1 Cylinder block 1a Deck surface (top surface)
11 Cylinder bore 12 Water jacket 3 Cylinder liner 4 MMC ring (metal matrix composite)
41 Preform (porous material)

Claims (8)

  1. In the cylinder block that is integrally cast into the cylinder liner that constitutes the inner surface of the cylinder bore and is configured as an open deck type,
    A metal matrix composite formed by impregnating a cylinder block forming material into a cylindrical porous body whose axial dimension is set to be shorter than the axial dimension of the cylinder liner is a cylinder block deck surface. The metal matrix composite is mounted on the outer periphery of the cylinder liner in the portion, the outer surface faces the water jacket, and the entire inner surface is in close contact with the outer surface of the cylinder liner, while the inner surface of the cylinder liner is It is configured to face the cylinder bore ,
    The metal matrix composite is formed by impregnating the porous body while the cylinder block forming material flows in the direction along the axis of the cylinder liner, and the molten cylinder block forming material flows into the porous body. The cylinder block is characterized in that the area on the cylinder liner side is located downstream of the area on the water jacket side in the flow direction of the molten metal .
  2. In the cylinder block that is integrally cast into the cylinder liner that constitutes the inner surface of the cylinder bore and is configured as an open deck type,
    Casting is performed with a cylindrical porous body whose axial length is set shorter than the axial length of the cylinder liner mounted around the cylinder liner on the cylinder block deck surface. In the cylinder block deck surface portion, only the cylinder liner and the metal matrix composite formed by impregnating the porous body with the cylinder block forming material exist between the cylinder bore and the water jacket. It is made the composition ,
    The metal matrix composite is formed by impregnating the porous body while the cylinder block forming material flows in the direction along the axis of the cylinder liner, and the molten cylinder block forming material flows into the porous body. The cylinder block is characterized in that the area on the cylinder liner side is located downstream of the area on the water jacket side in the flow direction of the molten metal.
  3. In the cylinder block that is integrally cast into the cylinder liner that constitutes the inner surface of the cylinder bore and is configured as an open deck type,
    A metal matrix composite formed by impregnating a cylinder block forming material into a cylindrical porous body whose axial dimension is set to be shorter than the axial dimension of the cylinder liner is a cylinder block deck surface. The metal matrix composite is mounted on the outer periphery of the cylinder liner in the portion, the outer surface faces the water jacket, and the entire inner surface is in close contact with the outer surface of the cylinder liner, while the inner surface of the cylinder liner is It is configured to face the cylinder bore,
    The metal matrix composite is formed by impregnating the porous body while the cylinder block forming material flows in the direction along the axis of the cylinder liner, and the molten cylinder block forming material flows into the porous body. A cylinder block characterized in that a concave portion is formed in an intermediate portion from the cylinder liner side to the water jacket side on the surface.
  4. In the cylinder block that is integrally cast into the cylinder liner that constitutes the inner surface of the cylinder bore and is configured as an open deck type,
    Casting is performed with a cylindrical porous body whose axial length is set shorter than the axial length of the cylinder liner mounted around the cylinder liner on the cylinder block deck surface. In the cylinder block deck surface portion, only the cylinder liner and the metal matrix composite formed by impregnating the porous body with the cylinder block forming material exist between the cylinder bore and the water jacket. It is made the composition,
    The metal matrix composite is formed by impregnating the porous body while the cylinder block forming material flows in the direction along the axis of the cylinder liner, and the molten cylinder block forming material flows into the porous body. A cylinder block characterized in that a concave portion is formed in an intermediate portion from the cylinder liner side to the water jacket side on the surface.
  5. In the cylinder block that is integrally cast into the cylinder liner that constitutes the inner surface of the cylinder bore and is configured as an open deck type,
    A metal matrix composite formed by impregnating a cylinder block forming material into a cylindrical porous body whose axial dimension is set to be shorter than the axial dimension of the cylinder liner is a cylinder block deck surface. The metal matrix composite is mounted on the outer periphery of the cylinder liner in the portion, the outer surface faces the water jacket, and the entire inner surface is in close contact with the outer surface of the cylinder liner, while the inner surface of the cylinder liner is It is configured to face the cylinder bore,
    The metal matrix composite is formed by press-fitting a porous body to the outer surface of a cylinder liner, and then impregnating the porous body with a cylinder block forming material. The inner surface shape of the porous body before being fitted to the outer surface of the cylinder is such that the inner diameter dimension on the cylinder block deck surface side is smaller than the inner diameter dimension on the anti-cylinder block deck surface side. block.
  6. In the cylinder block that is integrally cast into the cylinder liner that constitutes the inner surface of the cylinder bore and is configured as an open deck type,
    Casting is performed with a cylindrical porous body whose axial length is set shorter than the axial length of the cylinder liner mounted around the cylinder liner on the cylinder block deck surface. In the cylinder block deck surface portion, only the cylinder liner and the metal matrix composite formed by impregnating the porous body with the cylinder block forming material exist between the cylinder bore and the water jacket. It is made the composition,
    The metal matrix composite is formed by press-fitting a porous body to the outer surface of a cylinder liner, and then impregnating the porous body with a cylinder block forming material. The inner surface shape of the porous body before being fitted to the outer surface of the cylinder is such that the inner diameter dimension on the cylinder block deck surface side is smaller than the inner diameter dimension on the anti-cylinder block deck surface side. block.
  7. In the cylinder block that is integrally cast into the cylinder liner that constitutes the inner surface of the cylinder bore and is configured as an open deck type,
    A metal matrix composite formed by impregnating a cylinder block forming material into a cylindrical porous body whose axial dimension is set to be shorter than the axial dimension of the cylinder liner is a cylinder block deck surface. The metal matrix composite is mounted on the outer periphery of the cylinder liner in the portion, the outer surface faces the water jacket, and the entire inner surface is in close contact with the outer surface of the cylinder liner, while the inner surface of the cylinder liner is It is configured to face the cylinder bore,
    The metal matrix composite is formed by press-fitting a porous body to the outer surface of the cylinder liner, and then impregnating the porous body with a cylinder block forming material, and then clamping the mold. The outer surface of the porous body before being formed is such that the outer diameter dimension on the cylinder block deck surface side is smaller than the outer diameter dimension on the anti-cylinder block deck surface side.
  8. In the cylinder block that is integrally cast into the cylinder liner that constitutes the inner surface of the cylinder bore and is configured as an open deck type,
    Casting is performed with a cylindrical porous body whose axial length is set shorter than the axial length of the cylinder liner mounted around the cylinder liner on the cylinder block deck surface. In the cylinder block deck surface portion, only the cylinder liner and the metal matrix composite formed by impregnating the porous body with the cylinder block forming material exist between the cylinder bore and the water jacket. It is made the composition,
    The metal matrix composite is formed by press-fitting a porous body to the outer surface of the cylinder liner, and then impregnating the porous body with a cylinder block forming material, and then clamping the mold. The outer surface of the porous body before being formed is such that the outer diameter dimension on the cylinder block deck surface side is smaller than the outer diameter dimension on the anti-cylinder block deck surface side.
JP2006312108A 2006-11-17 2006-11-17 cylinder block Expired - Fee Related JP4329810B2 (en)

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JP2006312108A JP4329810B2 (en) 2006-11-17 2006-11-17 cylinder block
PCT/IB2007/003279 WO2008059330A1 (en) 2006-11-17 2007-10-30 Cylinder block and method for producing cylinder block

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DE102007060502B4 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-09-10 Daimler Ag Method for producing a cylinder crankcase
ITRM20090047A1 (en) * 2009-02-02 2010-08-03 Giorgio Grossi Method and apparatus for the containment of thermal expansion in the area of ​​the upper dead point cilidri endothermic engines two- and four-stroke
DE102009059057A1 (en) * 2009-12-18 2011-06-22 MAHLE International GmbH, 70376 Assembly of cylinder liner and crankcase
WO2014085430A2 (en) * 2012-11-27 2014-06-05 Quinton Aaron S Stabilized engine casting core assembly, method for making an engine body, and engine body formed thereby
CN103867329B (en) * 2014-03-12 2016-08-24 无锡华源凯马发动机有限公司 Aluminium alloy single-cylinder water cooled diesel engine stepped liner
US9429063B2 (en) 2014-03-14 2016-08-30 Hyundai Motor Company Cylinder block
CN204357543U (en) 2014-11-21 2015-05-27 康明斯排放处理公司 Nitrogen oxide signal multiplex system
DE102015201994A1 (en) 2015-02-05 2016-08-11 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Reciprocating engine, motor vehicle
AT519596A1 (en) * 2017-02-14 2018-08-15 Avl List Gmbh Method for producing a cast liquid chilled cylinder crankcase

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JPH09170487A (en) * 1995-05-26 1997-06-30 Toyota Motor Corp Manufacture of cylinder block
JPH10220278A (en) * 1997-02-10 1998-08-18 Toyota Motor Corp Cylinder block of an internal combustion engine and manufacture of it

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KR101509749B1 (en) * 2013-11-27 2015-04-07 현대자동차 주식회사 Engine having cylinder block

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