JP4302759B2 - Waste heat utilization equipment - Google Patents

Waste heat utilization equipment Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4302759B2
JP4302759B2 JP2007239962A JP2007239962A JP4302759B2 JP 4302759 B2 JP4302759 B2 JP 4302759B2 JP 2007239962 A JP2007239962 A JP 2007239962A JP 2007239962 A JP2007239962 A JP 2007239962A JP 4302759 B2 JP4302759 B2 JP 4302759B2
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Prior art keywords
expander
rotational speed
rankine
pressure
pex
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JP2009068459A (en
Inventor
慶一 宇野
宏 木下
道夫 西川
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株式会社デンソー
株式会社日本自動車部品総合研究所
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Priority to JP2007239962A priority Critical patent/JP4302759B2/en
Priority claimed from US12/232,010 external-priority patent/US7950230B2/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/16Energy recuperation from low temperature heat sources of the ICE to produce additional power
    • Y02T10/166Waste heat recovering cycles or thermoelectric systems

Description

  The present invention relates to a waste heat utilization device that recovers power by utilizing waste heat of an internal combustion engine for a vehicle, for example.

  2. Description of the Related Art Conventionally, a waste heat utilization device that recovers power using waste heat of an internal combustion engine is known. This waste heat utilization apparatus includes a Rankine cycle. For example, in the Rankine cycle described in Patent Document 1, a heater that heats a working fluid by waste heat of an internal combustion engine, and a heated working fluid that expands and rotates. An expander that generates a driving force and a condenser that condenses the expanded working fluid are provided.

The rotational speed of the expander is controlled so that the high-pressure side pressure (inlet side pressure) of the refrigerant flowing into the expander matches the target pressure.
JP 2004-60462 A

  Considering the high-pressure side pressure suppresses the gas-liquid two-phase conversion of the refrigerant flowing into the expander, and the appropriate viscosity (appropriate viscosity) of the lubricating oil required for the Rankine cycle components (for example, the sliding part of the expander) It is effective to secure the oil film thickness. However, on the other hand, if the low-pressure side pressure (outlet-side pressure) of the refrigerant flowing out of the expander is too high, there is a risk that the differential pressure from the high-pressure side pressure cannot be sufficiently secured and the expander is overexpanded. . That is, since the expander cannot be operated with proper expansion, there has been a problem that stable and efficient Rankine cycle operation cannot be performed.

  In view of the above problems, an object of the present invention is to provide a waste heat utilization apparatus capable of recovering power stably and efficiently using waste heat of an internal combustion engine.

  In order to achieve the above object, the present invention employs the following technical means.

  In the first aspect of the present invention, the working fluid in the cycle is heated by the heater (22) by the waste heat of the internal combustion engine (10), and the heated working fluid is expanded by the expander (23) to mechanically. In a waste heat utilization apparatus having a Rankine cycle (20) that recovers energy and condenses and liquefies the expanded working fluid in a condenser (24) and circulates it to the heater (22) side by a pump (21). 23) temperature detecting means (206) for detecting the inlet side temperature, inlet side pressure detecting means (207) for detecting the inlet side pressure (Pex_in) of the expander (23), and outlet side of the expander (23) An outlet side pressure detecting means (208) for detecting pressure (Pex_out), an inlet side temperature detected from the temperature detecting means (206), and an inlet side pressure (Pex_in) detected from the inlet side pressure detecting means (207) Based on the superheat degree information (SH) at the inlet of the expander obtained based on the pressure information (P) in consideration of the outlet side pressure (Pex_out) obtained from the outlet side pressure detection means (208). ) And the Rankine operation control means (32, S4) for controlling the indicated rotational speed (N_id).

  According to this configuration, by considering the superheat degree information (SH), it is possible to ensure the appropriate viscosity of the lubricating oil necessary for the equipment of the Rankine cycle (20) (for example, the sliding portion of the expander (23)). Can do. Moreover, since the pressure information (P) including the outlet side pressure (Pex_out) is taken into consideration, a sufficient differential pressure (ΔP) from the inlet side pressure (Pex_in) of the expander (23) on the high pressure side can be secured. The overexpansion of the expander (23) can be suppressed. That is, considering the high pressure side condition (superheat degree information (SH)) and the low pressure side condition (pressure information (P)), the expander (23) is appropriately expanded, and a stable and efficient Rankine cycle (20 ) Can be performed.

  In the invention according to claim 2, the Rankine operation control means (S4) derives the command rotational speed (N_id), based on the superheat degree information (SH) and the pressure information (P), the maximum rotational speed (Nmax). And a minimum and maximum number of revolutions (Nmin), and a maximum and minimum number of revolutions setting step (S41 to S43, S411).

  According to this configuration, the superheat degree information (SH) and the pressure information are obtained by using the maximum rotation speed (Nmax) and the minimum rotation speed (Nmin) obtained in the maximum and minimum rotation speed setting steps (S41 to S43, S411). In consideration of (P), a preferred embodiment can be obtained.

  In the invention according to claim 3, the pressure information (P) is the outlet side pressure (Pex_out) or the differential pressure (ΔP) between the inlet side pressure (Pex_in) and the outlet side pressure (Pex_out), and is the highest. In the minimum rotation speed setting step (S41 to S43), the first maximum rotation speed (Nmax1) and the first minimum rotation speed (Nmin1) of the expander (23) are calculated based on the superheat degree information (SH), and Based on the pressure information (P), the second maximum rotation speed (Nmax2) and the second minimum rotation speed (Nmin2) of the expander (23) are calculated, and the maximum rotation speeds calculated from the respective conditions (Nmax1, Nmax2) and the minimum rotation speeds (Nmin1, Nmin2) are compared, and the smaller one is set as the maximum rotation speed (Nmax) and the minimum rotation speed (Nmin). .

  When the degree of superheat (SH) is sufficiently large, the indicated rotational speed (N_id) of the expander (23) can be increased. However, if the indicated rotational speed (N_id) is increased, a sufficient differential pressure (ΔP) May not be obtained, and there is a risk of overexpansion.

  On the other hand, when there is no possibility of overexpansion, the indicated rotational speed (N_id) can be increased. However, if the indicated rotational speed (N_id) is increased, the degree of superheat (SH) may be excessively reduced. Come. Therefore, if the lower one of the maximum rotation speed (Nmax1, Nmax2) and the minimum rotation speed (Nmin1, Nmin2) obtained based on each of the superheat degree information (SH) and the pressure information (P) is adopted, the expansion will occur. The overexpansion of the machine (23) can be suppressed, and a sufficient degree of superheat (SH) can be ensured.

  As described above, according to this configuration, the maximum / minimum rotation speed setting steps (S41 to S43) can be suitably performed in consideration of both the superheat degree information (SH) and the pressure information (P).

  In the invention according to claim 4, the pressure information (P) is a pressure ratio Pr (Pr = Pex_in / Pex_out) between the inlet side pressure (Pex_in) and the outlet side pressure (Pex_out), and the maximum and minimum rotational speed setting step. In (S411), the minimum rotational speed (Nmin) is set to a predetermined value, and the maximum rotational speed (Nmax) is set to the superheat degree information (SH) and the pressure ratio (Pr) of the expander (23). Based on this, a predetermined increase / decrease value is added and set.

  According to this configuration, by appropriately setting the increase / decrease value, when the operating condition of the internal combustion engine (10) changes rapidly, the maximum rotational speed (Nmax) (and thus the indicated rotational speed (N_id)) is immediately Therefore, smooth and precise control is possible.

  In the invention according to claim 5, the increase / decrease value is larger when both the superheat degree information (SH) and the pressure ratio (Pr) are larger than when both the superheat degree information (SH) and the pressure ratio (Pr) are smaller. It is characterized by being set large.

  A large pressure ratio (Pr) means that the outlet side pressure (Pex_out) is low and a sufficient differential pressure (ΔP) is obtained. According to this configuration, when the pressure ratio (Pr) and the superheat degree information (SH) are both appropriate values, the maximum rotational speed (Nmax) (and thus the indicated rotational speed (N_id)) is increased, and the expander ( The mechanical energy from 23) can be efficiently regenerated.

  In the invention according to claim 6, the Rankine operation control means (S4) is added to the maximum rotation speed (Nmax) and the minimum rotation speed (Nmin) set in the maximum and minimum rotation speed setting steps (S41 to S43, S411). And an instruction rotation speed determination step (S44) for determining an instruction rotation speed (N_id) based on the battery voltage of the battery (33) for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy and storing it.

  According to this configuration, the instruction rotation speed (N_id) is finally determined in consideration of the battery voltage, so that the battery (33) is prevented from being overcharged and stable operation of the Rankine cycle (20) can be performed. It becomes possible.

  In the invention according to claim 7, the Rankine operation control means (S4) is configured such that when the command rotational speed (N_id) of the expander (23) is zero, the command rotational speed (N_id) even after a predetermined time has elapsed. It is characterized by having a suspension postponement step (S45 to S48) for shifting to a control for stopping the expander (23) only when is zero.

  According to this configuration, by waiting for an instruction to stop the expander (23) for a predetermined time, if the indicated rotational speed (N_id) is not zero during that time due to vehicle-side conditions, the Rankine cycle (20) Driving continues. Then, the operation of the Rankine cycle (20) is stopped only when the indicated rotational speed (N_id) is zero within a range exceeding the predetermined time. For this reason, consumption of the electric power required at the time of restart of Rankine cycle (20) can be suppressed.

  In the invention according to claim 8, Rankine operation determination control means (32, S1) for determining whether or not there is an operation instruction that is output when the operation condition is satisfied in the initial operation of the Rankine cycle (20). It is characterized by providing.

  According to this configuration, for example, the Rankine cycle (20) is operated only when operating conditions such as the cooling water temperature and amount of the internal combustion engine (10), the front wind speed and front wind temperature of the condenser, and the battery voltage are satisfied. Can do.

  In the ninth aspect of the present invention, it is determined whether or not the Rankine cycle (20) is normally started before the instruction rotational speed (N_id) of the expander 23 is controlled by the Rankine operation control means (S4). The Rankine start control means and Rankine start determination control means (32, S2, S3) are provided.

  According to this structure, it becomes possible to perform control of Rankine cycle (20) with higher reliability.

In the invention according to claim 10, Rankine stop control means (32, S5) for instructing the indicated rotational speed (N_id) of the expander (23) to zero after the expander (23) has been lowered to a predetermined rotational speed.
It is characterized by providing.

  According to this configuration, when the Rankine cycle (20) is stopped, since the rotation is stopped after the differential pressure (ΔP) of the expander (23) is reduced, the runaway of the expander (23) is suppressed and stable. Thus, the Rankine cycle (20) can be stopped.

  The invention according to claim 11 is characterized by comprising Rankine stop determination control means (32, S6) for determining whether or not the Rankine cycle (20) has stopped normally.

  According to this structure, it becomes possible to perform control of Rankine cycle (20) with higher reliability.

  In addition, the code | symbol in the bracket | parenthesis of each said means shows a corresponding relationship with the specific means of embodiment description later mentioned.

(First embodiment)
Hereinafter, a first embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS.

  FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram showing the entire system of a waste heat utilization apparatus 1 having a Rankine cycle 20. As shown in FIG. 1, the waste heat utilization apparatus 1 of this embodiment is applied to a vehicle using an engine 10 as a drive source.

  The engine 10 is a water-cooled internal combustion engine, and is provided with a radiator circuit 11 that cools the engine 10 by circulation of engine cooling water, and a heater circuit 12 that heats conditioned air using cooling water (hot water) as a heat source. .

  The radiator circuit 11 is provided with a radiator 13. The radiator 13 cools the cooling water circulated by the hot water pump 14 by exchanging heat with the outside air. The hot water pump 14 may be either an electric pump or a mechanical pump. A heater 22 of a Rankine cycle 20 to be described later is disposed in the flow path on the outlet side of the engine 10, and cooling water flows through the heater 22. A shut valve 18 is provided on the upstream side of the heater 22, and by opening / closing control of the shut valve 18, it is possible to appropriately adjust whether or not the coolant is circulated to the heater 22 side.

  In the radiator circuit 11, there is provided a radiator bypass passage 15 through which the cooling water flows around the radiator 13, and the cooling water amount that flows through the radiator 13 by the thermostat 16 and the cooling water amount that flows through the radiator bypass passage 15. And are to be adjusted.

  The heater circuit 12 is provided with a heater core 17, and cooling water (hot water) is circulated by the hot water pump 14. The heater core 17 is disposed in an air conditioning case of the air conditioning unit, and heats conditioned air blown by a blower (all not shown) by heat exchange with hot water. The heater core 17 is provided with an air mix door (not shown), and the amount of conditioned air flowing through the heater core 17 is varied by opening and closing the air mix door.

  On the other hand, the Rankine cycle 20 collects waste heat energy (cooling water heat) generated in the engine 10, and uses this waste heat energy as mechanical energy (driving force of the expander 23 (detailed later)), It is converted into electric energy (the amount of power generated by a generator 25 (details will be described later)). Hereinafter, the Rankine cycle 20 will be described.

  The Rankine cycle 20 includes a pump 21, a heater 22, an expander 23, and a condenser 24, which are connected in a ring shape to form a closed circuit. Further, a bypass channel 26 that bypasses the expander 23 is provided between the heater 22 and the condenser 24, and a bypass valve 27 is provided in the bypass channel 26.

  The pump 21 is an electric pump that circulates refrigerant (working fluid, hereinafter referred to as “RA refrigerant”) in the Rankine cycle 20 using a generator 25 operated by an energization control circuit 30 described later as a drive source. is there. In this embodiment, it is coaxial with the drive shaft of the expander 23.

  The heater 22 is a heat exchanger that heats the RA refrigerant by exchanging heat between the RA refrigerant sent from the pump 21 and the high-temperature cooling water flowing through the radiator circuit 11.

  The expander 23 is a fluid device that generates a rotational driving force by the expansion of the RA refrigerant superheated by the superheater 22. A generator 25 is connected to the drive shaft of the expander 23. Then, the generator 25 is operated by the driving force of the expander 23, and the electric power generated by the generator 25 is charged to the battery 33 through an inverter 31 that constitutes an energization control circuit 30 described later. ing. The RA refrigerant flowing out from the expander 23 reaches the condenser 24.

  The condenser 24 is connected to the discharge side of the expander 23 and is a heat exchanger that condenses and liquefies the RA refrigerant by exchanging heat with cooling air blown by an axial flow type so-called suction type blower fan 28.

  The generator 25 is a rotating machine having both functions of an electric motor and a generator, and is controlled by an energization control circuit 30. A pump 21 is connected to the shaft on one end side of the generator 25, and an expander 23 is connected to the shaft on the other end side.

  The energization control circuit 30 is a control means for controlling the operation of various devices in the waste heat utilization apparatus 1, and includes an inverter 31 and a control device 32 (ECU). The inverter 31 controls the operation of the generator 25 connected to the expander 23, and charges the battery 33 with the generated power when the generator 25 is operated by the driving force of the expander 23. . The energization control circuit 30 has a known timer function.

  Further, in the Rankine cycle 20, a cooling water temperature sensor 201 that detects the temperature of the cooling water flowing into the heater 22, a flow rate sensor 202 that detects the amount of cooling water flowing through the heater 22, and a wind speed in front of the condenser 24 are detected. A wind speed sensor 203 that detects the temperature of the front surface of the condenser 24, a condenser temperature sensor 204 that detects the temperature of the front wind of the condenser 24, a pump temperature sensor 205 that detects the inlet refrigerant temperature to obtain the inlet subcooling degree (subcool) of the pump 21, An expander temperature sensor 206 (temperature detection means) for detecting the inlet side refrigerant temperature, an inlet side pressure sensor 207 (inlet side pressure detection means) for detecting the inlet side pressure Pex_in of the expander 23, Various sensors such as an outlet side pressure sensor 208 (outlet side pressure detecting means) for detecting the outlet side pressure Pex_out are provided.

  And based on the detection signal from these various sensors 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, etc., the control device 32 controls the operation of the inverter 31, the blower fan 28, and the pump 22. In addition, the generator 25 and the like of the expander 23 are controlled together.

(Operation)
(Main flow)
Next, the operation based on the above configuration and the operation and effect thereof will be described. FIG. 2 is a flowchart showing a main flow regarding the operation control of the Rankine cycle 20 of the present embodiment.

  As shown in FIG. 2, the main flow includes Rankine operation determination control (S1), Rankine activation control & activation determination control (S2, S3), Rankine operation control (S4), Rankine stop control (S5), Rankine stop determination control. (S6) and an abnormality coping measure (S7).

  First, in the Rankine operation determination control in Step S1, it is determined whether or not there is a Rankine operation instruction. And when there exists an operation instruction (S1: YES), it progresses to Rankine starting control & starting judgment control of Steps S2 and S3. If there is no operation instruction (S1: NO), step S1 is repeated.

  In Rankine start-up control & start-up determination control in steps S2 and S3, it is determined whether Rankine cycle 20 has started normally. And when it starts normally (S2, S3: YES), it progresses to Rankine operation control of Step S4.

  In the Rankine operation control in step S4, it is determined whether or not the operation of the Rankine cycle 20 should be stopped. And when there exists an instruction | indication which should be stopped (S4: YES), it progresses to Rankine stop control of step S5. If there is no instruction to stop (S4: NO), step S4 is repeated. In Steps S2 and S3, when the Rankine cycle 20 is not normally started (S2, S3: NO), the routine proceeds to Rankine stop control in Step S5 without passing through Step S4.

  After the Rankine stop control in step S5, the process proceeds to the Rankine stop determination control in step S6.

  In the Rankine stop determination control in step S6, it is determined whether the Rankine cycle 20 has stopped normally. And when it stops normally (S6: YES), it returns to Rankine operation determination control of step S1, and repeats this main flow hereafter.

  On the other hand, in the Rankine stop determination control in step S6, if the Rankine cycle 20 has not stopped normally (S6: NO), that is, if it has stopped abnormally, the process proceeds to step S7, and an abnormality handling measure is executed.

  Hereinafter, the detailed control content of each control step S1-S7 is demonstrated sequentially.

(S1 Rankine operation determination control)
FIG. 3 is a flowchart illustrating details of Rankine operation determination control in step S1. As shown in FIG. 3, first, in step S11, it is determined whether or not the coolant temperature detected from the coolant temperature sensor 201 is greater than a predetermined value Twc. If the coolant temperature is greater than the predetermined value Twc (S11: YES), the process proceeds to step S12, and it is determined whether or not the coolant flow rate detected from the flow sensor 202 is greater than a predetermined value Gwc. . On the other hand, when the cooling water temperature is equal to or lower than the predetermined value Twc in step S11 (S11: NO), the process of step S11 is repeated.

  In step S12, when the coolant flow rate is larger than the predetermined value Gwc (S12: YES), the process proceeds to step S13, and the condenser front wind speed detected from the wind speed sensor 203 arranged on the front face of the condenser 24 is determined in advance. It is determined whether or not the predetermined value Vac is greater. On the other hand, when the cooling water flow rate is equal to or less than the predetermined value Gwc in step S12 (S12: NO), the process returns to step S11 again.

  In step S13, if the condenser front wind speed is greater than the predetermined value Vac (S13: YES), the process proceeds to step S14, where the condenser front surface temperature detected from the condenser temperature sensor 204 is from a predetermined value Tac. Whether it is low or not is determined. On the other hand, when the condenser front wind speed is equal to or lower than the predetermined value Vac in step S13 (S13: NO), the process returns to step S11 again.

  In step S14, when the condenser front surface temperature is lower than the predetermined value Tac (S14: YES), the process proceeds to step S15, and it is determined whether or not the battery voltage value is smaller than a predetermined value Ebc. On the other hand, when the condenser front surface temperature is equal to or higher than the predetermined value Tac in step S14 (S14: NO), the process returns to step S11 again.

  In step S15, when the battery voltage value is lower than the predetermined value Ebc (S15: YES), after issuing a Rankine operation instruction in step S16, the process proceeds to Rankine activation control & activation determination control (S2, S3). If the battery voltage value is greater than or equal to the predetermined value Ebc (S15: NO), the process returns to step S11 again.

  The numerical values of the predetermined values Twc, Gwc, Vac, Tac, and Ebc are set to boundary values that can regenerate the energy generated by the expander 23 and the generator 25 when the Rankine cycle 20 is started. ing.

  As described above, in each of steps S11 to S15, a Rankine operation instruction is issued only when all the conditions of the cooling water temperature, the cooling water flow rate, the condenser front wind speed, the condenser front temperature, and the battery voltage are cleared. If even one of the conditions is not satisfied, the stop state is maintained without issuing a Rankine operation instruction, and this control routine (step S1) is repeated.

  By this control routine (step S1), it becomes possible to operate only when the Rankine cycle 20 is in a condition that can sufficiently regenerate energy.

(S2, S3 Rankine start control & start determination control)
FIG. 4 is a flowchart for explaining details of Rankine activation control in step S2, and FIG. 5 is a flowchart for explaining details of Rankine activation determination control in step S3, which is executed continuously after step S2.

  As shown in FIG. 4, it is determined in step S21 whether or not the bypass valve 27 is open. If the bypass valve 27 is open (S21: YES), the minimum rotational speed of the expander is instructed in step S22. To do. This minimum rotation speed can be set to 2000 rpm, for example. By this instruction, the generator 25 is driven as an electric motor, and the pump 21 and the expander 23 are driven.

  On the other hand, if the bypass valve 27 is closed in step S21 (S21: NO), the bypass valve 27 is controlled to be opened in step S23.

  Even if the expander 23 is driven with the bypass valve 27 opened, there is no differential pressure ΔP between the inlet and the outlet of the expander 23. In Steps S21 to S23, when the expander 23 and the pump 21 are driven, the bypass valve 27 is first controlled to be in an open state so that no pressure is suddenly generated in the expander 23, and each slide is performed. By avoiding contact sliding between the members, wear of each sliding member in a poorly lubricated state until the lubricating oil circulating with the RA refrigerant is evenly distributed in the Rankine cycle 20 is prevented.

  After the expander 23 and the pump 21 are driven, a timer is started in step S24, and the process proceeds to step S25. In step S25, the degree of supercooling (subcool) obtained based on the temperature detected from the pump temperature sensor 205 is greater than a predetermined value SCpc, and the expander inlet refrigerant temperature obtained from the expander temperature sensor 206 is It is determined whether or not the predetermined value is larger than a predetermined value Texc.

  If the degree of supercooling is greater than the predetermined value SCpc and the expander inlet refrigerant temperature is greater than the predetermined value Texc (S25: YES), the timer is stopped in step S26, and the bypass valve 27 is closed in step S28. Control.

  On the other hand, in step S25, if either the degree of supercooling or the expander inlet refrigerant temperature is equal to or less than the predetermined value SCpc, Texc (S25: NO), a predetermined time has elapsed in step S27. It is determined whether or not. If the predetermined time has not elapsed (S27: NO), the process returns to step S25 again to determine whether or not the predetermined condition is satisfied.

  That is, if both the conditions of the degree of supercooling and the expander inlet refrigerant temperature are satisfied within a predetermined time, the process proceeds to the next Rankine start determination control (see step S3, FIG. 5), but neither of the conditions is satisfied In this case, the process proceeds to Rankine stop control (S5) without proceeding to Rankine start determination control.

  Then, after the bypass valve 27 is controlled to be closed in step S28, a timer is started in step S31 as shown in FIG. Next, in step S32, it is determined whether or not the Rankine regeneration amount is greater than 0 and whether the differential pressure ΔP between the inlet side pressure Pex_in and the outlet side pressure Pex_out of the expander 23 is greater than a predetermined value ΔPc. Is done.

  When the Rankine regeneration amount is larger than 0 and the differential pressure ΔP of the expander 23 is larger than the predetermined value ΔPc (S32: YES), the timer is stopped in Step S33, and it is determined that Rankine is operating in Step S35. Thereafter, the routine proceeds to Rankine operation control (S4, see FIG. 6).

  On the other hand, if the Rankine regeneration amount is 0 or the differential pressure ΔP of the expander 23 is equal to or smaller than the predetermined value ΔPc in step S32 (S32: NO), whether or not a predetermined time has elapsed in step S34. Is judged. If the predetermined time has not elapsed (S34: NO), the process returns to step S32 again to determine whether or not the predetermined condition is satisfied.

  In other words, if both the Rankine regeneration amount and the differential pressure ΔP of the expander 23 are satisfied within a predetermined time, the process proceeds to the next Rankine operation control (S4). The process proceeds to Rankine stop control (S5) without proceeding to the operation control.

  According to the control routine (S3, S4) described in detail above, when starting the Rankine cycle 20, the conditions (supercooling degree, refrigerant temperature at the expander inlet) and the initial conditions (Rankine regeneration amount) that are the preconditions for starting. Since the differential pressure ΔP) of the expander 23 is checked and confirmed to be appropriate, stable start-up is possible. In addition, because the timer function is used to set the allowable time until each condition is met, if it does not reach an appropriate value within the time, it shifts to stop control, and wasted power required for startup. Can be suppressed.

(S4 Rankine operation control)
FIG. 6 is a flowchart for explaining the details of Rankine operation control in step S4, which is the main part of the present invention. FIG. 7 is a control characteristic diagram showing the correspondence between the high pressure side condition and the rotation speed (maximum rotation speed, minimum rotation speed). FIG. 8 shows the low pressure side condition and the rotation speed (maximum rotation speed, minimum rotation speed). FIG. 9 is a control characteristic diagram showing the correspondence between the battery voltage and the command rotational speed N_id.

  As shown in FIG. 6, first, in step S41, based on FIG. 7, the maximum rotational speed Nmax1 and the minimum rotational speed Nmin1 of the expander 23 are determined from the high pressure side condition. Here, the high-pressure side condition is the degree of superheat SH (superheat) at the inlet of the expander 23 obtained based on the inlet-side refrigerant temperature and refrigerant pressure (inlet-side pressure Pex_in) of the expander 23 detected from the expander temperature sensor 206. Degree information).

  Next, in step S42, based on FIG. 8, the maximum rotational speed Nmax2 and the minimum rotational speed Nmin2 of the expander 23 are determined from the low pressure side condition. Here, the low pressure side condition is the outlet side pressure Pex_out of the expander 23 detected from the outlet side pressure sensor 208 (pressure information P in the present embodiment).

  In step S43, the maximum rotation speeds Nmax1 and Nmax2 and the minimum rotation speeds Nmin1 and Nmin2 are compared, and the smaller values are determined as the maximum rotation speed Nmax and the minimum rotation speed Nmin.

  In step S44, based on FIG. 9, the command rotational speed N_id of the expander 23 is determined based on the battery voltage. As shown in FIG. 9, generally, when the battery voltage is low, the indicated rotational speed N_id is set large (for example, when the battery voltage is E_low or less, the indicated rotational speed N_id = Nmax), and when the battery voltage is high, the indicated rotational speed is set. N_id is set small. Thus, when determining the command rotational speed N_id of the expander 23, it is possible to prevent the battery 33 from being overcharged by considering the battery voltage.

  After the designated rotational speed N_id of the expander 23 is determined, it is determined in step S45 whether or not the designated rotational speed N_id is zero. If it is not zero (S45: NO), the instruction rotational speed N_id of the expander 23 is instructed in step S47, the expander 23 and the pump 21 are driven at the instruction rotational speed N_id, and the process returns to step S41.

  On the other hand, if the indicated rotational speed N_id determined in step S44 is zero (S45: YES), it is determined whether or not a predetermined time has elapsed in step S48 after starting the timer in step S46 (first routine). To be judged. If the predetermined time has not elapsed (S48: NO), the process returns to step S41 again, and after the processing up to step S45, if the indicated rotational speed N_id is still zero (S45: YES), step S46 is performed. To continue the timer count (after the second routine). Then, it is determined again in step S48 whether or not a predetermined time has passed. If the predetermined time has passed (S48: YES), the routine goes to Rankine stop control (S5).

  That is, in the processing from step S45 to S48 (stop postponement step), when the indicated rotational speed N_id is zero, the Rankine cycle 20 is not immediately stopped, but continuously for a predetermined time, the designated rotational speed N_id. It stops only when is zero. In other words, the stop process of the Rankine cycle 20 is delayed for a predetermined time. Thereby, power consumption required when restarting the Rankine cycle 20 can be suppressed.

  Next, effects of steps S41 to S43 (maximum / minimum rotation speed determination step) will be described. First, the relationship between the rotation speed of the expander 23 and the superheat degree SH will be briefly described. First, when the rotation speed of the expander 23 is increased, more refrigerant flows, so that evaporation in the heater 22 cannot catch up, and the degree of superheat SH at the inlet of the expander 23 decreases. It is necessary to keep the superheat degree SH sufficiently large in order to secure a sufficient degree of evaporation in the heater 22 and prevent the RA refrigerant flowing into the expander 23 from being two-phased. This is also important for ensuring the viscosity of the lubricating oil circulating through the oil 20.

  For this reason, when the superheat degree SH is large, the rotational speed can be increased. However, when the superheat degree SH is small, the rotational speed is decreased so as to obtain an appropriate superheat degree SH and consequently an appropriate lubricating oil viscosity. It is desirable.

  On the other hand, the relationship between the rotational speed of the expander 23 and the outlet side pressure Pex_out will be described. When the rotational speed is increased, the outlet side pressure Pex_out increases. Conversely, if the rotational speed is decreased, the outlet side pressure Pex_out decreases. The value of the inlet side pressure Pex_in is determined from the volume ratio between the pump 21 and the expander 23.

  When the outlet side pressure Pex_out is large (when the differential pressure ΔP is small), there is a possibility of overexpansion. Therefore, when the outlet side pressure Pex_out is small (when the differential pressure ΔP is large), the rotation speed can be increased. However, when the outlet side pressure Pex_out is large, it is desirable to reduce the rotational speed.

  From the above relationship, for example, when the degree of superheat SH is sufficiently large, the rotational speed can be increased. However, if the rotational speed is increased, the outlet side pressure Pex_out increases and there is a risk of overexpansion.

  On the other hand, when the outlet side pressure Pex_out is sufficiently small and the differential pressure ΔP is sufficient and there is no risk of overexpansion, the rotational speed can be increased. However, if the rotational speed is increased, the degree of superheat SH becomes too small. There is a risk that it will end up. Therefore, if the lower one of the maximum rotation speeds Nmax1 and Nmax2 and the minimum rotation speeds Nmin1 and Nmin2 obtained based on the degree of superheat SH and the outlet side pressure Pex_out is used, the overexpansion of the expander 23 is suppressed. And sufficient superheat degree SH can be ensured.

  Thus, by considering the superheat degree SH as the high-pressure side condition, it is possible to prevent the gas-liquid two-phase of the refrigerant flowing into the expander 23 and to sufficiently secure the viscosity of the lubricating oil that lubricates the expander 23. can do.

  Further, by considering the outlet side pressure Pex_out of the expander 23 as the low pressure side condition, it becomes possible to sufficiently secure the differential pressure ΔP with respect to the inlet side pressure Pex_in, and to suppress the overexpansion of the expander 23. it can. That is, a stable Rankine cycle 20 can be operated.

(S5 Rankine stop control)
FIG. 10 is a flowchart illustrating details of Rankine stop control in step S5.

  As shown in FIG. 10, first, in step S51, the minimum rotational speed of the expander is instructed, and in step S52, the bypass valve 27 is controlled to be in the open state. Thereafter, in step S53, the expander zero rotation is instructed, the expander 23 and the pump 21 are stopped, and the process proceeds to the next Rankine stop determination control (S6). The “expander minimum rotation speed” here is a predetermined value different from the minimum rotation speed Nmin obtained in step S43 shown in FIG. 6 as described above.

  According to this control routine (S5), when the Rankine cycle 20 is stopped, the expander 23 is set to a predetermined rotational speed, the bypass valve 27 is opened, and then a zero rotation instruction is given. As described above, the bypass valve 27 is opened to stop after the differential pressure ΔP of the expander 23 is eliminated, so that the runaway of the expander 23 is suppressed and the Rankine cycle 20 can be stably stopped.

(S6 Rankine stop judgment control)
FIG. 11 is a flowchart for explaining the details of Rankine stop determination control in step S6.

  As shown in FIG. 11, first, in step S61, it is determined whether or not the differential pressure ΔP of the expander 23 is lower than a predetermined value. When the differential pressure ΔP is lower than the predetermined value (S61: YES), it is determined in step S62 that the Rankine cycle 20 has stopped normally, and the routine returns to the Rankine operation determination control (S1), and the main flow (FIG. Repeat the control of 2).

  On the other hand, if the differential pressure ΔP is greater than or equal to the predetermined value (S61: NO), it is determined in step S63 that the Rankine cycle 20 has stopped abnormally, and the process proceeds to the abnormality handling process (S7, FIG. 12).

  According to this control routine (S6), the differential pressure ΔP of the expander 23 is used as a criterion, and when the Rankine cycle 20 is abnormally stopped, the main flow is not repeated, so that the Rankine cycle with high reliability is achieved. 20 can be set.

(S7 abnormality handling measures)
When the Rankine cycle 20 is abnormally stopped, an abnormality countermeasure is executed. Specifically, for example, the shut valve 18 is controlled to be closed. In this case, since the cooling water does not flow into the heater 22, the operation of the Rankine cycle 20 can be forcibly stopped.

(Second Embodiment)
Next, a second embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. In this embodiment, steps that are the same as those in the first embodiment are denoted by the same reference numerals as those in the first embodiment, and hereinafter, description will be made by paying attention to differences from the first embodiment. .

  FIG. 12 is a flowchart illustrating the details of Rankine operation control (S4) in the present embodiment. In the present embodiment, the maximum / minimum rotation speed setting step (S411) in the Rankine operation control (S4) is different from the first embodiment, and the other apparatus configuration and control are the same. (S411) will be described in detail, and the other description will be omitted.

  As shown in FIG. 12, in step S411, the maximum rotational speed of the expander 23 is determined according to the value of the superheat degree SH at the inlet of the expander 23 and the pressure ratio Pr of the expander 23 (pressure information P in the present embodiment). Determine the increase or decrease of Nmax. The minimum rotation speed Nmin is a constant value. Here, the pressure ratio Pr of the expander 23 is expressed as a ratio (Pr = Pex_in / Pex_out) between the inlet side pressure Pex_in and the outlet side pressure Pex_out.

  FIG. 13 is a diagram showing an increase / decrease in the maximum rotational speed Nmax of the expander 23 based on the degree of superheat SH and the pressure ratio Pr. Here, the constant value of the minimum rotational speed Nmin and the initial value of the maximum rotational speed Nmax can be set to predetermined values, respectively. The standard for “increase / decrease” in the maximum rotational speed Nmax is a predetermined initial value for the first routine, and the maximum rotational speed Nmax after the previous routine is used for the second and subsequent routines. In FIG. 13, the limit value when the maximum rotational speed Nmax is increased is set in advance, and the maximum rotational speed Nmax is controlled so as not to exceed the limit value. Further, the limit value when the maximum rotational speed Nmax is lowered is set to the value (constant value) of the minimum rotational speed Nmin, and both the pressure ratio Pr and the superheat degree SH are in the minimum range (Pr <Pr_min, SH <SH_min). ), The value of the minimum rotational speed Nmin is assumed to be 0.

  In FIG. 13, in the “no change” portion indicated by shading, the value of the superheat degree SH and the pressure ratio Pr at the value of the maximum rotational speed Nmax at that time is appropriate, and the maximum rotational speed Nmax is maintained as it is. Therefore, there is no increase / decrease (increase / decrease value = 0), which means that the maximum rotation speed Nmax is not changed.

  For example, from the region Q1 (Pr_low <Pr <Pr_high, SH_min <SH <SH_low) in which both the pressure ratio Pr and the superheat degree SH are in an appropriate range, the pressure ratio Pr decreases due to a change in vehicle conditions, and the region Q2 (Pr_min < Consider the case where Pr <Pr_low, SH_min <SH <SH_low).

  At this time, the decrease in the pressure ratio Pr means that the outlet side pressure Pex_out has increased. At this time, if the outlet side pressure Pex_out becomes larger than this, there is a possibility of overexpansion. Therefore, “decrease” (increase / decrease value is a negative value) is selected for increase / decrease, and control is performed to decrease the maximum rotation speed Nmax.

  Further, for example, consider a case where the superheat degree SH decreases from the region Q1 to the region Q3 (Pr_low <Pr <Pr_high, SH <SH_min) due to a change in vehicle conditions.

  At this time, since the superheat degree SH is equal to or less than the appropriate value, “decrease” is selected as the increase / decrease (the increase / decrease value is a negative value), and control is performed to secure the superheat degree SH by decreasing the maximum rotation speed Nmax.

  Further, for example, from the region Q4 (Pr_low <Pr <Pr_high, SH> SH_high) in which both the pressure ratio Pr and the superheat degree SH are in an appropriate range, the pressure ratio Pr increases due to a change in vehicle conditions, and the region Q5 (Pr> Consider the case of Pr_high, SH> SH_high).

  At this time, since the pressure ratio Pr and the superheat degree SH are both appropriate and sufficient values, the increase / decrease is selected to be “increase” (the increase / decrease value is a positive value), and the maximum rotational speed Nmax is increased, so It is controlled so that the electric energy can be efficiently regenerated to the maximum (to increase the regenerative amount).

  According to the embodiment described in detail above, for example, if the increase amount in the “increase” is set small, the condition of the pressure ratio Pr and the superheat degree SH corresponds to the region Q5 due to the change of the vehicle condition. In this case, when this condition (Pr> Pr_high, SH> SH_high) continues, the rotation speed (maximum rotation speed Nmax, command rotation speed N_id) is controlled to increase gradually.

  In this way, by appropriately setting the magnitude of the increase / decrease value, the indicated rotational speed N_id is immediately changed greatly when the vehicle conditions (such as an increase in the amount of cooling water flowing into the heater 22) change suddenly. Therefore, smoother and more precise control is possible.

(Other embodiments)
In the first embodiment, the pressure information P as the low pressure side condition is the outlet side pressure Pex_out of the expander 23. Instead, for example, the inlet side pressure Pex_in and the outlet side pressure Pex_out of the expander 23 The differential pressure ΔP (inlet side pressure Pex_in−outlet side pressure Pex_out) may be used. In this case, the characteristic diagram shown in FIG. 14 can be used with respect to the characteristic diagram described with reference to FIG. 8, and the same effects as those of the first embodiment can be obtained.

  In each of the above embodiments, in the characteristic diagram (FIG. 9) considering the battery voltage in step S44 (see FIGS. 6 and 12), the stepwise transition of the indicated rotational speed N_id may be continuous. In this case, the characteristic diagram shown in FIG. 15 can be used. In particular, the indicated rotational speed N_id when the battery voltage value is between E_low and E_high is made continuous so that the indicated rotational speed of the expander 23 is increased. Variations of values that N_id can take are widened, and more precise control can be performed.

  In each of the above embodiments, the pump 21 and the expander 23 are driven coaxially. However, as shown in FIG. 16, the pump 21 and the expander 23 are not driven coaxially (the pump 21 is driven by a dedicated electric motor (not shown)). ).

It is a schematic diagram which shows the whole system of the waste-heat utilization apparatus which has a Rankine cycle. It is a flowchart which shows the main flow regarding the operation control of Rankine cycle of 1st Embodiment. It is a flowchart explaining the detail of Rankine operation determination control. It is a flowchart explaining the detail of Rankine starting control. It is a flowchart explaining the detail of Rankine starting determination control performed continuously with Rankine starting control. It is a flowchart explaining the detail of Rankine operation control. It is a control characteristic diagram showing the correspondence between the high pressure side condition and the rotation speed (maximum rotation speed, minimum rotation speed). It is a control characteristic diagram showing the correspondence between the low pressure side condition and the rotation speed (maximum rotation speed, minimum rotation speed). It is a control characteristic figure which shows a response | compatibility with battery voltage and instruction | indication rotation speed. It is a flowchart explaining the detail of Rankine stop control. It is a flowchart explaining the detail of Rankine stop determination control. It is a flowchart explaining the detail of Rankine operation control in 2nd Embodiment. It is a figure which shows increase / decrease in the maximum rotation speed of an expander based on a superheat degree and a pressure ratio. FIG. 6 is a control characteristic diagram showing a correspondence between a low-pressure condition and a rotation speed (maximum rotation speed, minimum rotation speed) in another embodiment. It is a control characteristic figure which shows a response | compatibility with a battery voltage and instruction | indication rotation speed in another embodiment. It is a schematic diagram which shows the whole system of the waste-heat utilization apparatus which has a Rankine cycle in another embodiment.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Waste heat utilization apparatus 10 Internal combustion engine 20 Rankine cycle 21 Pump 22 Heater 23 Expander 24 Condenser 32 Control equipment (Rachin operation control means (S4), Rankine operation determination means (S1), Rankine start control means (S2), Rankine start determination control means (S3), Rankine stop means (S5), Rankine stop determination control means (S6))
33 Battery 206 Expander temperature sensor (temperature detection means)
207 Inlet side pressure sensor (Inlet side pressure detecting means)
208 outlet side pressure sensor (outlet side pressure detecting means)
P Pressure information Pex_out Outlet side pressure (pressure information)
ΔP (pressure information)
Pr pressure ratio (pressure information)
SH Superheat degree (superheat degree information)

Claims (11)

  1. The working fluid in the cycle is heated by the heater (22) by the waste heat of the internal combustion engine (10), the heated working fluid is expanded by the expander (23), and mechanical energy is recovered. In the waste heat utilization apparatus having a Rankine cycle (20) in which the working fluid is condensed and liquefied by a condenser (24) and circulated to the heater (22) side by a pump (21).
    Temperature detecting means (206) for detecting the inlet side temperature of the expander (23);
    Inlet side pressure detection means (207) for detecting the inlet side pressure (Pex_in) of the expander (23);
    Outlet side pressure detection means (208) for detecting the outlet side pressure (Pex_out) of the expander (23);
    Superheat degree information (SH) at the inlet of the expander obtained based on the inlet side temperature detected from the temperature detecting means (206) and the inlet side pressure (Pex_in) detected from the inlet side pressure detecting means (207) ) And pressure information (P) in consideration of the outlet side pressure (Pex_out) obtained from the outlet side pressure detecting means (208), the indicated rotational speed (N_id) of the expander (23) is controlled. A waste heat utilization device comprising Rankine operation control means (32, S4).
  2.   The Rankine operation control means (S4) derives the indicated rotational speed (N_id) based on the superheat degree information (SH) and the pressure information (P) based on the maximum rotational speed (Nmax) and the minimum rotational speed ( 2. The waste heat utilization apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising a maximum / minimum rotation speed setting step (S 41 to S 43, S 411) for setting Nmin).
  3. The pressure information (P) is the outlet side pressure (Pex_out) or a differential pressure (ΔP) between the inlet side pressure (Pex_in) and the outlet side pressure (Pex_out),
    In the maximum and minimum rotational speed setting step (S41 to S43),
    Based on the superheat degree information (SH), the first maximum rotational speed (Nmax1) and the first minimum rotational speed (Nmin1) of the expander (23) are calculated, and based on the pressure information (P) The second maximum rotation speed (Nmax2) and the second minimum rotation speed (Nmin2) of the expander (23) are calculated, and the maximum rotation speeds calculated from the respective conditions (Nmax1, Nmax2) and the minimum rotation speeds ( Nmin1, Nmin2) are compared, and the smaller one is set as the maximum number of rotations (Nmax) and the minimum number of rotations (Nmin).
  4. The pressure information (P) is a pressure ratio Pr (Pr = Pex_in / Pex_out) between the inlet side pressure (Pex_in) and the outlet side pressure (Pex_out).
    In the maximum and minimum rotational speed setting step (S411),
    The minimum rotational speed (Nmin) is set to a predetermined value, and the maximum rotational speed (Nmax) is based on superheat degree information (SH) of the expander (23) and the pressure ratio (Pr). The waste heat utilization apparatus according to claim 2, wherein a predetermined increase / decrease value is added and set.
  5.   The increase / decrease value is set larger as the superheat degree information (SH) and the pressure ratio (Pr) are both larger than when the superheat degree information (SH) and the pressure ratio (Pr) are both small. The waste heat utilization apparatus according to claim 4, wherein:
  6. The Rankine operation control means (S4)
    In addition to the maximum rotation speed (Nmax) and the minimum rotation speed (Nmin) set in the maximum / minimum rotation speed setting step (S41 to S43, S411), a battery that converts the mechanical energy into electrical energy and stores it ( 33. A waste according to any one of claims 2 to 5, further comprising a designated rotational speed determination step (S44) for determining the designated rotational speed (N_id) based on the battery voltage of 33). Heat utilization device.
  7.   The Rankine operation control means (S4), when the indicated rotational speed (N_id) of the expander (23) is zero and when the indicated rotational speed (N_id) is zero even after a predetermined time has elapsed. Only, it has a suspension postponement step (S45-S48) which transfers to the control which stops the said expander (23), The waste heat utilization apparatus as described in any one of Claims 1-6 characterized by the above-mentioned. .
  8. Rankine operation determination control means (32, S1) for determining whether or not there is an operation instruction that is output when the operation condition is satisfied in the initial operation of the Rankine cycle (20).
    The waste heat utilization apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 7, further comprising:
  9. Rankine activation control means and Rankine for determining whether or not the Rankine cycle (20) is normally activated before the control of the indicated rotational speed (N_id) of the expander 23 by the Rankine operation control means (S4) Activation determination control means (32, S2, S3)
    The waste heat utilization apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the waste heat utilization apparatus is provided.
  10. Rankine stop control means (32, S5) for instructing the indicated rotational speed (N_id) of the expander (23) to zero after the expander (23) has been lowered to a predetermined rotational speed
    The waste heat utilization apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the waste heat utilization apparatus is provided.
  11. Rankine stop determination control means (32, S6) for determining whether or not the Rankine cycle (20) has stopped normally.
    The waste heat utilization apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein the waste heat utilization apparatus is provided.
JP2007239962A 2007-09-14 2007-09-14 Waste heat utilization equipment Expired - Fee Related JP4302759B2 (en)

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US12/232,010 US7950230B2 (en) 2007-09-14 2008-09-09 Waste heat recovery apparatus
CN 200810212862 CN101387241B (en) 2007-09-14 2008-09-10 Waste heat recovery apparatus
DE200810046853 DE102008046853A1 (en) 2007-09-14 2008-09-12 Waste heat recovery device

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