JP4204157B2 - Toroidal continuously variable transmission for four-wheel drive vehicles - Google Patents

Toroidal continuously variable transmission for four-wheel drive vehicles Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4204157B2
JP4204157B2 JP34670399A JP34670399A JP4204157B2 JP 4204157 B2 JP4204157 B2 JP 4204157B2 JP 34670399 A JP34670399 A JP 34670399A JP 34670399 A JP34670399 A JP 34670399A JP 4204157 B2 JP4204157 B2 JP 4204157B2
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Japan
Prior art keywords
output
disk
input
wheel drive
continuously variable
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JP2001165266A (en
Inventor
メーケル イエルグ
エマンジョメ ネイザー
アダミス パナジオティス
テンベルゲ ペータ
ホフマン ラース
ペーターゼン ライナー
寛 加藤
尚 町田
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フオルクスワーゲン・アクチエンゲゼルシヤフトVolkswagen Aktiengesellschaft
日本精工株式会社
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H15/00Gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio, or for reversing rotary motion, by friction between rotary members
    • F16H15/02Gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio, or for reversing rotary motion, by friction between rotary members without members having orbital motion
    • F16H15/04Gearings providing a continuous range of gear ratios
    • F16H15/06Gearings providing a continuous range of gear ratios in which a member A of uniform effective diameter mounted on a shaft may co-operate with different parts of a member B
    • F16H15/32Gearings providing a continuous range of gear ratios in which a member A of uniform effective diameter mounted on a shaft may co-operate with different parts of a member B in which the member B has a curved friction surface formed as a surface of a body of revolution generated by a curve which is neither a circular arc centered on its axis of revolution nor a straight line
    • F16H15/36Gearings providing a continuous range of gear ratios in which a member A of uniform effective diameter mounted on a shaft may co-operate with different parts of a member B in which the member B has a curved friction surface formed as a surface of a body of revolution generated by a curve which is neither a circular arc centered on its axis of revolution nor a straight line with concave friction surface, e.g. a hollow toroid surface
    • F16H15/38Gearings providing a continuous range of gear ratios in which a member A of uniform effective diameter mounted on a shaft may co-operate with different parts of a member B in which the member B has a curved friction surface formed as a surface of a body of revolution generated by a curve which is neither a circular arc centered on its axis of revolution nor a straight line with concave friction surface, e.g. a hollow toroid surface with two members B having hollow toroid surfaces opposite to each other, the member or members A being adjustably mounted between the surfaces
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K17/00Arrangement or mounting of transmissions in vehicles
    • B60K17/34Arrangement or mounting of transmissions in vehicles for driving both front and rear wheels, e.g. four wheel drive vehicles
    • B60K17/348Arrangement or mounting of transmissions in vehicles for driving both front and rear wheels, e.g. four wheel drive vehicles having differential means for driving one set of wheels, e.g. the front, at one speed and the other set, e.g. the rear, at a different speed
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H37/00Combinations of mechanical gearings, not hereinbefore provided for
    • F16H37/02Combinations of mechanical gearings, not hereinbefore provided for comprising essentially only toothed or friction gearings
    • F16H37/021Combinations of mechanical gearings, not hereinbefore provided for comprising essentially only toothed or friction gearings toothed gearing combined with continuous variable friction gearing
    • F16H37/022Combinations of mechanical gearings, not hereinbefore provided for comprising essentially only toothed or friction gearings toothed gearing combined with continuous variable friction gearing the toothed gearing having orbital motion

Description

[0001]
[Industrial application fields]
The toroidal-type continuously variable transmission for a four-wheel drive vehicle according to the present invention is used as a transmission for a four-wheel drive vehicle in which both front and rear wheels are rotationally driven during traveling. In particular, the present invention is a large displacement engine having a large torque. The present invention provides a structure effective as a transmission for a large vehicle equipped with the.
[0002]
[Prior art]
The use of a toroidal continuously variable transmission as schematically shown in FIGS. This toroidal type continuously variable transmission supports an input disk 2 concentrically with an input shaft 1 and is arranged concentrically with the input shaft 1 as disclosed in, for example, Japanese Utility Model Publication No. 62-71465. An output side disk 4 is fixed to the end of the output shaft 3. A trunnion that swings around pivots 6 and 6 that are twisted with respect to the input shaft 1 and the output shaft 3 is disposed inside a casing 5 (see FIG. 8 described later) in which a toroidal continuously variable transmission is housed. 7 and 7 are provided.
[0003]
Each of these trunnions 7, 7 is provided with the pivots 6, 6 on the outer side surfaces of both ends concentrically with each other, each pair of trunnions 7, 7. The central axis of each of the pivots 6 and 6 does not intersect the central axis of each of the disks 2 and 4, but the twist position is perpendicular to the direction of the central axis of each of the disks 2 and 4. Exists. Further, the central portions of the respective trunnions 7 and 7 support the base half portions of the displacement shafts 8 and 8, and the respective trunnions 7 and 7 are swung around the pivot shafts 6 and 6, whereby the respective displacement shafts 8 and 8 are swung. , 8 can be adjusted freely. Power rollers 9 and 9 are rotatably supported around the front half of the displacement shafts 8 and 8 supported by the trunnions 7 and 7, respectively. And each power roller 9 and 9 is clamped between the inner side surfaces 2a and 4a of both the said input side and output side discs 2 and 4. As shown in FIG.
[0004]
The inner side surfaces 2a and 4a of the input side and output side discs 2 and 4 facing each other are each obtained by rotating a cross section of an arc centered on the pivot 6 or a curve close to such an arc. It has an arcuate concave surface. And the peripheral surface 9a, 9a of each power roller 9, 9 formed in the spherical convex surface is made to contact | abut to the said inner surface 2a, 4a. Further, a loading cam device 10 is provided between the input shaft 1 and the input side disc 2, and the input cam 2 is elastically pressed toward the output side disc 4 by the loading cam device 10. It can be freely rotated.
[0005]
When the toroidal continuously variable transmission configured as described above is used, the loading cam device 10 presses the input-side disk 2 against the plurality of power rollers 9 and 9 as the input shaft 1 rotates. Rotate. Then, the rotation of the input side disk 2 is transmitted to the output side disk 4 via the plurality of power rollers 9, 9, and the output shaft 3 fixed to the output side disk 4 rotates.
[0006]
When the rotational speeds of the input shaft 1 and the output shaft 3 are changed, and when the deceleration is first performed between the input shaft 1 and the output shaft 3, the trunnions 7, 7 are swung around the pivot shafts 6, 6. As shown in FIG. 5, the peripheral surfaces 9 a and 9 a of the power rollers 9 and 9 are formed on a portion near the center of the inner surface 2 a of the input side disk 2 and a portion near the outer periphery of the inner surface 4 a of the output side disk 4. The displacement shafts 8 and 8 are inclined so as to contact each other.
[0007]
On the contrary, when the speed is increased, the trunnions 7, 7 are swung so that the peripheral surfaces 9a, 9a of the power rollers 9, 9 are as shown in FIG. Each of the displacement shafts 8 and 8 is inclined so as to come into contact with the outer peripheral portion and the central portion of the inner side surface 4a of the output disk 4 respectively. If the inclination angle of each of the displacement shafts 8 and 8 is set intermediate between those shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, an intermediate transmission ratio can be obtained between the input shaft 1 and the output shaft 3.
[0008]
7 to 8 show a more specific toroidal type continuously variable transmission described in the microfilm of Japanese Utility Model Application No. 63-69293 (Japanese Utility Model Laid-Open No. 1-173352). The input side disk 2 and the output side disk 4 are rotatably supported around a cylindrical input shaft 11. A loading cam device 10 is provided between the end of the input shaft 11 and the input side disk 2. On the other hand, an output gear 12 is coupled to the output side disk 4 so that the output side disk 4 and the output gear 12 rotate in synchronization.
[0009]
The pivot shafts 6 and 6 provided concentrically with each other at both ends of the pair of trunnions 7 and 7 are oscillated and axially (front and back in FIG. 7, left and right in FIG. 8) on the pair of support plates 13 and 13. It is supported to be freely displaceable. And the base half part of the displacement shafts 8 and 8 is supported by the intermediate part of each said trunnion 7 and 7. FIG. These displacement shafts 8 and 8 have the base half and the tip half eccentric with respect to each other. And the base half part of these is rotatably supported by the intermediate part of each said trunnion 7 and 7, Each said power roller 9 and 9 is rotatably supported by each front half part.
[0010]
The pair of displacement shafts 8 and 8 are provided at positions opposite to the input shaft 11 by 180 degrees. In addition, the direction in which the base half and the front half of each of the displacement shafts 8 and 8 are eccentric is the same as the rotation direction of the input side and output side disks 2 and 4 (reverse left and right direction in FIG. 8). It is said. The eccentric direction is a direction substantially perpendicular to the direction in which the input shaft 11 is disposed. Accordingly, the power rollers 9 are supported so as to be slightly displaceable in the direction in which the input shaft 11 is disposed.
[0011]
Further, thrust ball bearings 14 and 14 are arranged between the outer surface of each of the power rollers 9 and 9 and the inner surface of the intermediate portion of each of the trunnions 7 and 7 in order from the outer surface side of each of the power rollers 9 and 9. And thrust needle bearings 15 and 15 are provided. Of these, the thrust ball bearings 14 and 14 support the rotation of the power rollers 9 and 9 while supporting the load in the thrust direction applied to the power rollers 9 and 9. The thrust needle roller bearings 15, 15 support the thrust loads applied to the outer rings 16, 16 constituting the thrust ball bearings 14, 14 from the power rollers 9, 9, 8 and the outer rings 16 and 16 are allowed to swing around the base half of the displacement shafts 8 and 8. Further, the trunnions 7 and 7 are displaceable in the axial direction of the pivots 6 and 6 by hydraulic actuators 17 and 17, respectively.
[0012]
In the case of the toroidal continuously variable transmission configured as described above, the rotation of the input shaft 11 is transmitted to the input side disk 2 via the loading cam device 10. Then, the rotation of the input side disk 2 is transmitted to the output side disk 4 through a pair of power rollers 9, 9, and the rotation of the output side disk 4 is taken out from the output gear 12.
[0013]
When the rotational speed ratio between the input shaft 11 and the output gear 12 is changed, the pair of trunnions 7 and 7 are moved in opposite directions by the actuators 17 and 17, respectively, for example, on the lower side of FIG. The power roller 9 is displaced to the right side of the figure, and the upper power roller 9 of the figure is displaced to the left side of the figure. As a result, the direction of the tangential force acting on the contact portion between the peripheral surfaces 9a, 9a of the power rollers 9, 9 and the inner surfaces 2a, 4a of the input side disk 2 and the output side disk 4 changes. To do. As the force changes, the trunnions 7 and 7 swing in directions opposite to each other around the pivots 6 and 6 pivotally supported by the support plates 13 and 13. As a result, as shown in FIGS. 5 to 6 described above, the contact positions between the peripheral surfaces 9a and 9a of the power rollers 9 and 9 and the inner surfaces 2a and 4a change, and the input shaft 11 and The rotational speed ratio with the output gear 12 changes.
[0014]
At the time of power transmission by the toroidal continuously variable transmission, the power rollers 9 and 9 are displaced in the axial direction of the input shaft 11 based on elastic deformation of each component. The displacement shafts 8 and 8 that support the power rollers 9 and 9 are slightly rotated around the respective base halves. As a result of this rotation, the outer surfaces of the outer rings 16, 16 of the thrust ball bearings 14, 14 and the inner surfaces of the trunnions 7, 7 are relatively displaced. Since the thrust needle bearings 15, 15 exist between the outer surface and the inner surface, the force required for the relative displacement is small.
[0015]
In the case of the toroidal-type continuously variable transmission configured and operated as described above, power transmission between the input shaft 11 and the output gear 12 is performed by the two power rollers 9 and 9. Therefore, the force per unit area transmitted between the peripheral surfaces 9a, 9a of the power rollers 9, 9 and the inner surfaces 2a, 4a of both the input side and output side discs 2, 4 is increased and can be transmitted. Power is limited. In view of such circumstances, it has been conventionally considered to increase the number of power rollers 9 and 9 in order to increase the power that can be transmitted by the toroidal-type continuously variable transmission.
[0016]
Conventionally, as a first example of a structure for increasing the number of power rollers 9 and 9 for such a purpose, three power rollers 9 and 9 are conventionally provided between a pair of the input side disk 2 and the output side disk 4. Arrangement and transmission of power by the three power rollers 9 and 9 are conventionally known as described in, for example, Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 3-74667. In the case of the structure described in this publication, as shown in FIG. 9, intermediate portions of support pieces 19, 19 that are bent at 120 degrees at three positions at equal intervals in the circumferential direction of the fixed frame 18. Is pivotally supported. The trunnions 7 and 7 are supported between the adjacent support pieces 19 and 19 so as to be swingable and displaceable in the axial direction.
[0017]
Each of the trunnions 7 and 7 can be displaced in the axial direction of the pivot 6 provided concentrically with each other by hydraulic actuators 17 and 17, respectively. The hydraulic cylinders 20 and 20 constituting the actuators 17 and 17 communicate with a discharge port of a pump 22 that is a hydraulic power source via a control valve 21. The control valve 21 includes a sleeve 23 and a spool 24 that can be displaced in the axial direction (left-right direction in FIG. 9).
[0018]
When changing the inclination angle of the power rollers 9 and 9 pivotally supported by the displacement shafts 8 and 8 on the trunnions 7 and 7 respectively, the control motor 25 causes the sleeve 23 to move in the axial direction (the horizontal direction in FIG. 9). ). As a result, the pressure oil discharged from the pump 22 is sent to the hydraulic cylinders 20 and 20 through the hydraulic piping. The drive pistons 26, 26 fitted to the hydraulic cylinders 20, 20 for displacing the trunnions 7, 7 in the axial direction of the pivot are provided on the input side disk 2 and the output side disk 4 (see FIG. 5-7)) in the same direction. The hydraulic oil pushed out from the hydraulic cylinders 20, 20 with the displacement of the drive pistons 26, 26 also passes through an oil reservoir 27 through a hydraulic pipe (not shown) including the control valve 21. Returned to
[0019]
On the other hand, the displacement of the drive piston 26 accompanying the feeding of the pressure oil is transmitted to the spool 24 via the cam 28 and the link 29, and the spool 24 is displaced in the axial direction. As a result, with the drive piston 26 displaced by a predetermined amount, the flow path of the control valve 21 is closed, and supply / discharge of the pressure oil to and from the hydraulic cylinders 20 and 20 is stopped. Therefore, the amount of displacement of the trunnions 7 and 7 in the axial direction is only in accordance with the amount of displacement of the sleeve 23 by the control motor 25.
[0020]
Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 4-69439 discloses a second example of a structure for increasing the number of power rollers 9, 9 in order to increase the power that can be transmitted by the toroidal type continuously variable transmission. A structure in which two pairs of output side disks are provided is described. In the structure of this second example, as shown in FIG. 10, the input shaft 11 is supported inside the casing 5a so as to be rotatable only. The input shaft 11 includes a front half part 11a coupled to the output shaft of the clutch and the like, and a rear half part 11b that is slightly rotatable with respect to the front half part 11a. Then, a pair of input side disks 2 and 2 are arranged at both ends in the axial direction (left and right direction in FIG. 10) of the latter half portion 11b, and the ball splines in a state where the inner side surfaces 2a and 2a face each other. 30 and 30 are supported.
[0021]
A pair of output side disks 4, 4 are attached to both ends of the sleeve 31 rotatably supported around the middle part of the latter half part 11 b, and the inner side surfaces 4 a, 4 a and the inner side of each of the input side disks 2, 2. The side surfaces 2a and 2a are supported facing each other. Further, a plurality of power rollers 9, 9 rotatably supported by a plurality of trunnions via a displacement shaft are sandwiched between the inner side surfaces 2a, 4a. An output shaft 32 is supported on the inner side of the casing 5a opposite to the front half portion 11a so as to be concentric with the rear half portion 11b of the input shaft 11 and independently of the rear half portion 11b. ing. The rotation of the output side disks 4 and 4 can be transmitted to the output shaft 32.
[0022]
In the case of the toroidal continuously variable transmission configured as described above, the pair of input side disks 2 and 2 rotate simultaneously with the rotation of the input shaft 11. This rotation is simultaneously transmitted to the pair of output side disks 4, 4 and is taken out by the output shaft 32. At this time, the transmission of the rotational force is divided into two systems parallel to each other and is performed by a total of four power rollers 9 and 9, so that large power (torque) can be transmitted.
[0023]
Further, although not shown in the drawings, for a so-called full-time 4WD vehicle, which uses a toroidal continuously variable transmission having the above-described configuration and operation, and always drives the front and rear wheels to rotate during traveling. Conventionally, an automatic transmission described in Japanese Patent No. 2682090 is known. The toroidal continuously variable transmission for a four-wheel drive vehicle described in this publication is a forward / reverse switching unit between the output portion of the driving engine and the toroidal continuously variable transmission unit as shown in FIG. Are arranged in series in the power transmission direction. The output extracted from the output gear rotating in synchronization with the pair of output side disks is distributed to the front wheel drive shaft and the rear wheel drive shaft.
[0024]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
In the case of the toroidal type continuously variable transmission for a four-wheel drive vehicle described in Japanese Patent No. 2668290, in order to absorb the speed difference between the front wheel and the rear wheel that occurs during turning, the front wheel drive shaft and the rear wheel It is necessary to provide a mechanism corresponding to a differential gear (so-called center differential) between the driving shaft and the structure, the structure is complicated, the size is increased, and the weight is inevitable.
In view of such circumstances, the present invention realizes a transmission that is useful as an automatic transmission for a full-time 4WD vehicle by using the toroidal continuously variable transmission having the above-described configuration and operation. is there.
More specifically, the present invention aims to realize a toroidal type continuously variable transmission for a four-wheel drive vehicle that can omit a center differential and can be configured to be small and light.
[0025]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
A toroidal type continuously variable transmission for a four-wheel drive vehicle according to the present invention is a toroidal type continuously variable device that continuously changes a speed ratio between a forward / reverse switching unit for switching between forward and reverse, and an input unit and an output unit. A step transmission unit, a front wheel drive shaft for transmitting the output of the toroidal type continuously variable transmission unit to the front drive wheels, provided at the output of the toroidal type continuously variable transmission unit, and the toroidal type continuously variable transmission unit And a rear wheel drive shaft for transmitting the output to the rear drive wheel.
The forward / reverse switching unit is provided in series between the output portion of the driving engine and the input portion of the toroidal-type continuously variable transmission unit in the power transmission direction.
The toroidal continuously variable transmission unit has both first and second inputs that are rotatably supported concentrically and synchronized with each other, with the inner surfaces each having a concave surface having an arcuate cross section facing each other. Side discs and concentric with the first and second input side discs, with the inner side of the concave surface having an arcuate cross section facing the inner side surface of the first input side disc, and the first and second side discs. A first output side disk that is rotatably supported independent of both input side disks, and the first output in a state in which the inner side surface, which is a concave surface having an arcuate cross section, faces the inner side surface of the second input side disk. A second output disk that is concentrically supported by the side disk and is rotatably supported independently of the first output disk and the first and second input disks, and the first input disk and the first disk. Between output disk The four or more even number of first pivots that exist at a twisted position with respect to the central axis of each of these disks, a plurality of first trunnions that swing around these first pivots, A first displacement shaft projecting from the inner surface of one trunnion, and an inner surface of the first input disk and an inner surface of the first output disk in a state of being rotatably supported around each of the first displacement shafts. A plurality of first power rollers each having a spherical convex surface sandwiched between them, and a portion between the second input side disk and the second output side disk at the central axis of each of these disks There are four or more second pivots that exist at the twisted position, a plurality of second trunnions that swing around the second pivots, and a second projecting from the inner surface of each second trunnion. Two displacement axes and each of these second displacement axes A plurality of second surfaces, each of which is sandwiched between the inner side surface of the second input side disk and the inner side surface of the second output side disk and is spherically convex. On the opposite side of the forward / reverse switching unit across the power roller, the first and second input disks and the first and second output disks and the first and second power rollers only Provided with a hydraulic loading device that presses the discs toward the forward / reverse switching unit in order to increase the contact pressure between the inner side surfaces of the discs and the peripheral surfaces of the power rollers. Is.
The loading device includes an inner surface of each of the disks according to a torque distributed to the front drive wheel via the front wheel drive shaft and a torque distributed to the rear drive wheel via the rear wheel drive shaft. And the surface pressure of the abutting portion with the peripheral surface of each of the power rollers is adjusted.
The front wheel drive shaft is rotatable by the first output disk, and the rear wheel drive shaft is rotatable by the second output disk.
[0026]
[Action]
During operation of the toroidal-type continuously variable transmission for a four-wheel drive vehicle of the present invention configured as described above, the first and second input-side discs that rotate in synchronization with each other from the first input-side disc. The front wheel drive shaft is rotationally driven by the power transmitted to the first output side disk via one power roller. Further, the rear wheel drive shaft is rotationally driven by the power transmitted from the second input disk to the second output disk via the second power rollers. In order to ensure transmission efficiency between the first and second input-side disks and the first and second output-side disks, a contact portion between the inner surface of each disk and the peripheral surface of each power roller The surface pressure of the According to the torque distributed to the front drive wheel via the front wheel drive shaft and the torque distributed to the rear drive wheel via the rear wheel drive shaft, This is done by changing the hydraulic pressure introduced into the loading device.
[0027]
When the vehicle is running straight and the rotational speed of the front wheel drive shaft and the rotational speed of the rear wheel drive shaft are matched, the tilt angles of both the first and second trunnions are matched, The transmission ratio between the first output side disk and the transmission ratio between the second input side disk and the second output side disk are matched.
On the other hand, when the vehicle is turning, when the rotational speed of the front wheel drive shaft and the rotational speed of the rear wheel drive shaft are different, the inclination angles of the first and second trunnions are different, The transmission ratio between the first input disk and the first output disk and the transmission ratio between the second input disk and the second output disk are made different from each other.
[0028]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
1 to 4 show an example of an embodiment of the present invention. The illustrated example is configured as a toroidal-type continuously variable transmission for a four-wheel drive vehicle incorporating a large-sized engine that generates a large torque for passenger cars. Three first power rollers 35, 35 are provided between the disk 34 and three second power rollers 38 are provided between the second input side disk 36 and the second output side disk 37. Six power rollers 35 and 38 are configured to transmit power.
Hereinafter, the structure of each component will be specifically described.
[0029]
A torque converter 39, which is a starting clutch, is provided at the most front stage with respect to the power transmission direction, and a front half part 11a of the input shaft 11 constituting the toroidal type continuously variable transmission unit 40 is incorporated in the output part of the torque converter 39. Yes. The front half portion 11a is rotationally driven by the torque converter 39 in accordance with the rotation of a traveling engine (not shown). The rear half portion 11b of the input shaft 11 is supported concentrically and relatively rotatably via a pair of radial needle bearings 41a and 41b at the rear end portion of the front half portion 11a.
[0030]
A forward / reverse switching unit 42 for switching between forward and backward movement is provided in series between the front half part 11a and the rear half part 11b in the power transmission direction. In order to constitute the forward / reverse switching unit 42 which is a planetary gear mechanism, a sun gear 43 is fixed to the outer peripheral surface of the rear end portion of the front half portion 11a. Further, the carrier 44 is supported by spline engagement at the front end portion of the latter half portion 11b, and the planetary gear sets 46, 46 that are rotatably supported by a plurality of planetary shafts 45, 45 provided on the carrier 44 are provided as described above. The sun gear 43 is engaged. A ring gear 47 is rotatably supported on the outer peripheral edge of the carrier 44, and the ring gear 47 and the planetary gear sets 46, 46 are engaged with each other. Each of the planetary gear sets 46 and 46 is composed of a pair of planetary gears meshed with each other. One planetary gear is meshed with the sun gear 43 and the other planetary gear is meshed with the ring gear 47. ing. Further, a forward clutch 48, which is a wet multi-plate clutch, is provided between the front half portion 11a and the carrier 44, and a reverse clutch is provided between the frame 50, which is fixed in a casing (not shown), and the ring gear 47. 49 are provided.
[0031]
The forward / reverse switching unit as described above connects the forward clutch 48 and disconnects the reverse clutch 49 during forward travel. In this state, the front half part 11a and the rear half part 11b are coupled via the forward clutch 48, the planetary shafts 45 and 45, and the carrier 44, and the rear half part 11b is the same as the front half part 11a. Rotate in the same direction at high speed. On the other hand, at the time of reverse, the reverse clutch 49 is connected, and the forward clutch 48 is disconnected. In this state, the second half part 11b rotates in the opposite direction at a lower speed than the first half part 11a. The structure and operation of the forward / reverse switching unit using the planetary gear mechanism is well known, and the structure itself is not limited to that shown in the figure, and various other structures exist besides the planetary gear mechanism. Detailed description is omitted.
[0032]
With respect to the direction of power transmission, on the rear side of the forward / reverse switching unit 42 as described above, an input part connected to the output part of the forward / reverse switching unit 42, and a front wheel drive shaft 51 and a rear wheel drive shaft 52 are connected. A toroidal-type continuously variable transmission unit 40 that continuously changes the gear ratio with the output unit is provided. The toroidal type continuously variable transmission unit 40 is provided around the latter half portion 11b. Therefore, in the vicinity of both front and rear end portions of the rear half portion 11b, the first and second input side disks 33 and 36 are opposed to the inner side surfaces 2a and 2a, which are concave surfaces each having an arcuate cross section. Thus, they are rotatably supported concentrically and synchronized with each other. Therefore, in the illustrated example, the first input side disk 33 provided on the front side (left side in FIG. 1) is spline-engaged with the base end portion of the carrier 44 and is prevented from moving to the front side. On the other hand, the second input side disk 36 provided on the rear side (right side in FIG. 1) is supported via the ball spline 30 at the rear end portion of the latter half portion 11b. The second input side disk 36 is directed toward the first input side disk 33 by a hydraulic loading device 53 so as to be freely pressed.
[0033]
In the illustrated case, the loading device 53 has a pair of hydraulic cylinders 54a and 54b and hydraulic pistons 55a and 55b in series with each other in the axial direction so as to generate a large pressing force with a small diameter, with respect to the force transmission direction. They are provided in parallel with each other. That is, when the pressing force is generated, the pressure oil is introduced into the pair of hydraulic chambers 56a and 56b. Then, the second input side disk 36 is pressed toward the first input side disk 33 through the cylinder cylinder 57 with the introduction of the hydraulic pressure into one (right side in FIG. 1) hydraulic chamber 56 a. At the same time, the second input side disk 36 is pressed directly toward the first input side disk 33 as the hydraulic pressure is introduced into the other (left side in FIG. 1) hydraulic chamber 56b. The force accompanying the introduction of the pressure oil into the hydraulic chambers 56a and 56b is applied to the second input side disk 36 in a state of being added together. Therefore, the loading device 53 generates a large pressing force with a small diameter. In addition, a preload spring 58 such as a disc spring is provided in the other hydraulic chamber 56b, and the disks 33, 34, 36 are provided even when no hydraulic pressure is introduced into the hydraulic chambers 56a, 56b. , 37 and the inner surfaces 2a, 4a of the power rollers 35, 38 and the peripheral surfaces 9a, 9a of the abutting portions, the surface pressure can be ensured to a minimum.
[0034]
A support tube 59 is provided concentrically with the latter half part 11b around the middle part of the latter half part 11b. The support cylinder 59 is supported and fixed at both ends by stays 61 and 61 having inner diameter side ends supported and fixed to support rings 60 and 60, which will be described later. Radial needle bearings 62 and 62 are provided between the outer peripheral surface of the intermediate portion of the latter half portion 11b and the inner peripheral surfaces of both end portions of the support tube 59, respectively, so that the latter half portion 11b rotates inside the support tube 59. And it is supported so as to be displaceable in the axial direction.
[0035]
On the other hand, around the support cylinder 59, the first and second output side disks 34 and 37 are supported by radial needle bearings 63 and 63, respectively, so as to be freely rotatable and axially displaceable. Yes. Further, a thrust needle bearing 64 is provided between the opposing end surfaces of the first and second output side disks 34 and 37, and a thrust load applied between the both output side disks 34 and 37 is applied. The two output side disks 34 and 37 can be rotated relative to each other while being supported.
[0036]
A first output gear 65 is fixed on the outer surface side of the first output side disk 34, and the first output gear 65 and the front wheel drive shaft 51 are coupled via a front wheel driven gear 67. The front output shaft 51 can be driven to rotate by the first output disk 34. Further, the rotation of the front wheel drive shaft 51 is not shown via the front wheel differential gear 68. Front drive wheel It can be transmitted freely.
[0037]
On the other hand, a second output gear 69 is fixed to the outer surface side of the second output side disk 37, and the second output gear 69 and the rear wheel drive shaft 52 are connected via a rear wheel driven gear 70. The rear wheel drive shaft 52 is rotatably driven by the second output side disk 37. Further, the rotation of the rear wheel drive shaft 52 is not shown through a rear wheel differential gear (not shown). Rear drive wheel It can be transmitted freely. The center axis of the front wheel drive shaft 51 and the center axis of the rear wheel drive shaft 52 are not coincident with each other. The arrangement of the drive shafts 51 and 52 can be optimally selected in consideration of space efficiency.
[0038]
Further, the three first power rollers 35, 35 are provided between the inner side surface 2 a of the first input side disk 33 and the inner side surface 4 a of the first output side disk 34, and the second input side disk 36. The three second power rollers 38 are respectively sandwiched between the inner side surface 2a and the inner side surface 4a of the second output side disk 37. These first and second power rollers 35 and 38 are rotatably supported on the inner surfaces of the first and second trunnions 71 and 72, respectively. The first and second trunnions 71 and 72 do not intersect the central axes of the disks 33, 34, 36, and 37 provided concentrically with each other at both ends. Oscillates about first and second pivots 73 (second pivots not shown) that exist at twisted positions that are perpendicular or nearly perpendicular to the direction of the central axes of 34, 36, and 37. To do. The first and second trunnions 71 and 72 are supported at both end portions of the first and second swing frames 74 and 75 by radial needle bearings 76 and 76, respectively, so as to be swingable and displaceable. .
[0039]
The intermediate portions of the first and second swing frames 74, 75 are centered on the support rings 60, 60 around support shafts 77, 77 parallel to the center axes of the disks 33, 34, 36, 37. It is supported so that it can be swung freely. Further, the first and second swing frames 74 and 75 are swung by hydraulic cylinders 78a and 78b provided between both ends of the swing frames 74 and 75 and the support rings 60 and 60, respectively. It can be moved freely. A control valve 21a for controlling the supply and discharge of pressure oil to and from each of the hydraulic cylinders 78a and 78b is supported by the support rings 60 and 60. When the swing frames 74 and 75 are swung and displaced by supply and discharge of the hydraulic oil to and from the hydraulic cylinders 78a and 78b, they are provided on the outer surfaces of the trunnions 71 and 72 supported by the swing frames 74 and 75, respectively. The cam surface 79 displaces the spool 24a of the control valve 21a via the plunger 80 attached to the control valve 21a, thereby switching the control valve 21a. The sleeve 23a which constitutes the control valve 21a together with the spool 24a is displaced to a predetermined position by the control motor 25a so that a desired gear ratio can be realized at the time of shifting. Such a control valve 21a and a control motor 25a are provided on the first cavity 83 side including the first input side disk 33 and the first output side disk 34, the second input side disk 36 and the second output side. One is provided on the second cavity 84 side including the disk 37, and two are provided in the entire toroidal type continuously variable transmission unit 40. Then, the control motor 21a on the first cavity 83 side is provided by the control motor 25a on the first cavity 83 side, the control valve 21a on the second cavity 84 side is provided by the control motor 25a on the second cavity 84 side, and a microcomputer is incorporated. Based on the command signal from the controller (not shown), the control is performed in synchronization with each other (in a straight traveling state) or independently of each other (in a turning state).
[0040]
Of the hydraulic cylinders 78a and 78b provided at the time of shifting, two pairs are provided for each of the swing frames 74 and 75 (four for each swing frame, a total of 24 toroidal-type continuously variable transmission units). The one hydraulic cylinder 78a (78b) provided on one end in the longitudinal direction of each of the swing frames 74, 75 is extended and the other hydraulic cylinder 78b (78a) is contracted, so that each of the swing frames 74, 75 is oscillated and displaced by a predetermined amount in a predetermined direction. That is, the swing frames 74 and 75 are swung to the support shafts 77 and 77 spanned between a pair of support rings 60 and 60 that are arranged in parallel to each other with a space therebetween. Supports freely. The hydraulic cylinders 78a and 78b are provided at positions that align with both ends of the swing frames 74 and 75 at a part of the support rings 60 and 60, respectively. And piston 81a, 81b fitted to each said hydraulic cylinder 78a, 78b, and each said rocking | fluctuation frame 74, 75 The rods 82a and 82b fixed to the both ends are engaged.
[0041]
With this configuration, at the time of shifting, the first and second swing frames 74 and 75 swing by a predetermined amount in a predetermined direction based on the supply and discharge of pressure oil to the hydraulic cylinders 78a and 78b. Displace. As a result, the first and second trunnions 71 and 72 supported by the swing frames 74 and 75 are displaced substantially in the axial direction of the first and second pivot shafts 73 (in practice, the respective support Arc motion about the axes 77 and 77). As in the case of the conventional structure shown in FIGS. 7 to 8, the peripheral surfaces 9a and 9a of the power rollers 35 and 38 and the inner surfaces 2a and 4a of the disks 33, 34, 36, and 37 The direction of the tangential force acting on the abutment portion changes. The first and second trunnions 71 and 72 are pivotally supported by the first and second swing frames 74 and 75 with the change in the direction of the force. As shown in FIGS. 5-6, the peripheral surfaces 9a, 9a of the first and second power rollers 35, 38 and the inner surfaces 2a, 4a Changes the rotational speed ratio between the first and second input disks 33 and 36 and the first and second output disks 34 and 37.
[0042]
In the example shown in the figure, the displacement shafts 8a and 8a for supporting the first and second power rollers 35 and 38 with respect to the first and second trunnions 71 and 72 are respectively connected to the base half and the tip. A straight line that does not decenter the half is used. Instead, the tip end portions of the displacement shafts 8a and 8a are fitted in the positions deviating from the centers of the outer rings 16a and 16a constituting the thrust ball bearings 14a and 14a. The first and second power rollers 35 and 38 are formed in a round bowl shape having no through holes, and the thrust ball bearings 14a and 14a have a contact angle (angular contact). In addition to the thrust load applied to the thrust ball bearings 14a, 14a, a radial load can be supported. Even with such a structure, the first and second power rollers 35 and 38 can be supported so as to be rotatable to predetermined positions and to be slightly displaceable along the axial direction of the disks 33, 34, 36 and 37. . In addition, the structure of the part which supports said 1st, 2nd power rollers 35 and 38 is not the summary of this invention. The structure of this portion is not limited to the illustrated example, and may be configured similarly to the conventional structure shown in FIGS.
[0043]
During operation of the toroidal type continuously variable transmission for a four-wheel drive vehicle of the present invention configured as described above, the first and second input side disks 33 that rotate in synchronization with the latter half portion 11b of the input shaft 11; 36, the front wheel drive shaft 51 is rotationally driven by the power transmitted from the first input disk 33 to the first output disk 34 via the first power rollers 35, 35. Further, the rear wheel drive shaft 52 is rotationally driven by the power transmitted from the second input disk 36 to the second output disk 37 through the second power rollers 38.
[0044]
In order to ensure the transmission efficiency between the first and second input-side disks 33 and 36 and the first and second output-side disks 34 and 37, The contact surface pressure between the side surfaces 2a and 4a and the peripheral surfaces 9a and 9a of the first and second power rollers 35 and 38 is applied to the hydraulic chambers 56a and 56b constituting the hydraulic loading device 53, respectively. It can be easily adjusted by changing the oil pressure to be introduced. That is, the loading device 53 is configured so that each of the disks 33, the torque is distributed to the front wheels via the front wheel drive shaft 51 and the torque is distributed to the rear wheels via the rear wheel drive shaft 52. The contact pressure between the inner side surfaces 2a, 4a of 34, 36, 37 and the peripheral surfaces 9a, 9a of the power rollers 35, 38 is adjusted. In the case of a transmission for a full-time 4WD vehicle, the torque distributed to the front wheels and the torque distributed to the rear wheels may differ depending on the running conditions. In the present invention, the surface pressure is adjusted by adjusting the hydraulic pressure. Since it is performed by the loading device 53, the optimum surface pressure can be applied according to the conditions.
[0045]
When the vehicle is running straight and the rotational speed of the front wheel and the rotational speed of the rear wheel are matched with each other so that the rotational speed of the front wheels and the rotational speed of the rear wheels are matched, The swing angles of the first and second swing frames 74 and 75 around the support shafts 77 and 77 based on the supply and discharge of the pressure oil to and from the respective hydraulic cylinders 78a and 78b, and the swings thereof. The inclination angles of the first and second trunnions 71 and 72 centered on the first and second pivots 73 supported by the frames 74 and 75 are made to coincide with each other. Then, the transmission ratio between the first input disk 33 and the first output disk 34 is matched with the transmission ratio between the second input disk 36 and the second output disk 37. .
[0046]
On the other hand, when the vehicle is turning, the rear wheel drive shaft 52 is compared with the front wheel drive shaft 51 so that the rear wheel rotation speed is slower than the front wheel rotation speed. When the rotation speed is decreased, the transmission ratio of the first trunnions 71 and 71 and the inclination angle of the second trunnions 72 are made different. Specifically, the speed reduction between the second input side disk 36 and the second output side disk 37 is smaller than the speed reduction ratio between the first input side disk 33 and the first output side disk 34. Increase the ratio. As a result, even if a center differential is not provided, the operation of the automobile can be stably performed without causing excessive slip between the front and rear wheels and the road surface.
[0047]
【The invention's effect】
Since the present invention is configured and operates as described above, not only can the four-wheel drive toroidal continuously variable transmission itself be reduced in size and weight, but also can eliminate the need for a center differential. This can reduce the weight of a four-wheel drive vehicle with a machine and contribute to the improvement of power performance and fuel efficiency. In addition, by devising the arrangement of the forward / reverse switching unit and the loading device, the degree of freedom of arrangement of the drive shafts can be increased, so that the automobile design can be facilitated. In addition, since a hydraulic device is used as the loading device, optimal load adjustment is performed even in a toroidal type continuously variable transmission for four-wheel drive, which makes load adjustment complicated, and efficient power transmission under various conditions, It is possible to ensure the rolling fatigue life of each constituent member.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of an essential part showing an example of an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along line AA in FIG.
FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken along the line BB in FIG.
4 is a cross-sectional view showing a substantially same part as FIG. 3 cut along a plane including a central axis of a first pivot provided at both ends of the first trunnion. FIG.
FIG. 5 is a side view showing a basic configuration of a conventionally known toroidal continuously variable transmission in a state of maximum deceleration.
FIG. 6 is a side view showing the same state at the maximum speed increase.
FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view showing an example of a conventional specific structure.
8 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line CC of FIG.
FIG. 9 is a front view of an essential part showing a first example of a conventionally known structure for increasing the power that can be transmitted in a partially cut state.
FIG. 10 is a partial sectional view showing the second example.
[Explanation of symbols]
1 Input shaft
2 Input disk
2a inner surface
3 Output shaft
4 Output disk
4a inner surface
5, 5a Casing
6 Axis
7 Trunnion
8, 8a Displacement axis
9 Power roller
9a circumference
10 Loading cam device
11 Input shaft
11a first half
11b Second half
12 Output gear
13 Support plate
14, 14a Thrust ball bearing
15 Thrust needle bearing
16, 16a Outer ring
17 Actuator
18 frames
19 Support piece
20 Hydraulic cylinder
21, 21a Control valve
22 Pump
23, 23a Sleeve
24, 24a Spool
25, 25a Control motor
26 Driving piston
27 Oil sump
28 cams
29 links
30 ball spline
31 sleeve
32 output shaft
33 First input disk
34 First output disk
35 First Power Roller
36 Second input disk
37 Second output disk
38 Second Power Roller
39 Torque converter
40 Toroidal type continuously variable transmission unit
41a, 41b radial needle bearings
42 Forward / reverse switching unit
43 Sun Gear
44 Career
45 Planetary axis
46 Planetary Gear Set
47 Ring gear
48 Forward clutch
49 Reverse clutch
50 frames
51 Front wheel drive shaft
52 Drive axle for rear wheels
53 Loading device
54a, 54b Hydraulic cylinder
55a, 55b Hydraulic piston
56a, 56b Hydraulic chamber
57 cylinder cylinder
58 Preload spring
59 Support tube
60 Support ring
61 stay
62 Radial needle bearings
63 Radial needle bearings
64 Thrust needle bearing
65 First output gear
67 Front wheel driven gear
68 Differential gear for front wheels
69 Second output gear
70 Driven gear for rear wheel
71 1st trunnion
72 Second trunnion
73 First Axis
74 First swing frame
75 Second swing frame
76 radial needle bearings
77 Support shaft
78a, 78b Hydraulic cylinder
79 Cam surface
80 plunger
81a, 81b Piston
82a, 82b Rod
83 1st cavity
84 Second cavity

Claims (2)

  1. A forward / reverse switching unit for switching between forward and reverse, a toroidal continuously variable transmission unit that continuously changes the gear ratio between the input section and the output section, and an output section of the toroidal continuously variable transmission unit A front wheel drive shaft for transmitting the output of the toroidal type continuously variable transmission unit to the front drive wheel, and a rear wheel drive for transmitting the output of the toroidal type continuously variable transmission unit to the rear drive wheel. With a shaft,
    The forward / reverse switching unit is provided in series between the output portion of the driving engine and the input portion of the toroidal-type continuously variable transmission unit with respect to the transmission direction of power,
    This toroidal-type continuously variable transmission unit includes first and second input-side disks that are rotatably supported concentrically and in synchronization with each other, with the inner surfaces each having a concave surface having an arcuate cross section facing each other. And both the first and second inputs are concentric with the first and second input disks while the inner surface, which is a concave surface having an arcuate cross section, is opposed to the inner surface of the first input disk. A first output-side disk that is rotatably supported independently of the side disk, and the first output-side disk in a state in which the inner side surface, which is a concave surface having an arcuate cross section, faces the inner side surface of the second input-side disk And a first output side disk and a first output side disk, and a first output side disk and a first output side disk that are rotatably supported independently of the first output side disk and the first and second input side disks. In the part between the disc There are four or more first pivots that are twisted with respect to the central axis of each of these disks, a plurality of first trunnions that swing around these first pivots, and each of these first trunnions Between the inner surface of the first input disk and the inner surface of the first output disk in a state of being rotatably supported around each of the first displacement axes. Twisted with respect to the central axis of each of the plurality of first power rollers sandwiched between the plurality of first power rollers each having a spherical convex surface and between the second input side disk and the second output side disk. At least four and even number of second pivots, a plurality of second trunnions oscillating around each second pivot, and a second displacement projecting from the inner surface of each second trunnion Axis and the circumference of each of these second displacement axes A plurality of second power rollers sandwiched between the inner side surface of the second input side disk and the inner side surface of the second output side disk in a state of being rotatably supported, each having a spherical convex surface. And the first and second both input side disks and the first and second output side disks and the first and second power rollers, respectively, provided only on the opposite side of the forward / reverse switching unit, In order to increase the contact pressure between the inner surface of each disk and the peripheral surface of each power roller, a hydraulic loading device that presses each disk toward the forward / reverse switching unit is provided. ,
    The loading device includes an inner surface of each of the disks according to a torque distributed to the front drive wheel via the front wheel drive shaft and a torque distributed to the rear drive wheel via the rear wheel drive shaft. And adjustment of the surface pressure of the abutting portion with the peripheral surface of each of the power rollers,
    A toroidal-type continuously variable transmission for a four-wheel drive vehicle in which the front wheel drive shaft is rotatable by the first output disk and the rear wheel drive shaft is rotatable by the second output disk. .
  2. The toroidal continuously variable transmission for a four-wheel drive vehicle according to claim 1, wherein the center axis of the front-wheel drive shaft and the center axis of the rear-wheel drive shaft are not matched.
JP34670399A 1999-12-06 1999-12-06 Toroidal continuously variable transmission for four-wheel drive vehicles Expired - Fee Related JP4204157B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

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JP34670399A JP4204157B2 (en) 1999-12-06 1999-12-06 Toroidal continuously variable transmission for four-wheel drive vehicles
DE10059781A DE10059781B4 (en) 1999-12-06 2000-12-01 Continuous toroidal transmission for a vehicle with four-wheel drive

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JP4204157B2 true JP4204157B2 (en) 2009-01-07

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WO2005008101A1 (en) * 2003-07-11 2005-01-27 Getrag Getriebe- Und Zahnradfabrik Hermann Hagenmeyer Gmbh & Cie Kg Variator disc and variator for a toroidal gearbox
DE102006003244A1 (en) * 2006-01-24 2007-07-26 Volkswagen Ag Continuously variable transmission for use in e.g. all-wheel-drive motor vehicle, has control device for controlling component transmissions in accordance with predefinition of set point value
JP5120134B2 (en) * 2008-08-01 2013-01-16 日産自動車株式会社 Friction wheel type continuously variable transmission

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JPH0137249Y2 (en) * 1985-10-24 1989-11-10
JPH0637223Y2 (en) * 1988-05-27 1994-09-28 日産自動車株式会社 Friction wheel type continuously variable transmission
JP2682090B2 (en) * 1988-12-16 1997-11-26 日産自動車株式会社 Toroidal type continuously variable transmission
JP2501911B2 (en) * 1989-08-15 1996-05-29 日産自動車株式会社 Toroidal type continuously variable transmission
JP2697261B2 (en) * 1990-07-10 1998-01-14 日産自動車株式会社 Friction wheel type continuously variable transmission
US5238460A (en) * 1991-02-28 1993-08-24 Mazda Motor Corporation Power transmission system for vehicle
JP3666879B2 (en) * 1991-12-05 2005-06-29 日本精工株式会社 Toroidal continuously variable transmission for four-wheel drive vehicles
DE19836558C2 (en) * 1997-08-12 2003-03-13 Nsk Ltd Infinitely adjustable toroidal gear system

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