JP4198338B2 - Stage equipment - Google Patents

Stage equipment Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4198338B2
JP4198338B2 JP2001208525A JP2001208525A JP4198338B2 JP 4198338 B2 JP4198338 B2 JP 4198338B2 JP 2001208525 A JP2001208525 A JP 2001208525A JP 2001208525 A JP2001208525 A JP 2001208525A JP 4198338 B2 JP4198338 B2 JP 4198338B2
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JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
stage
direction
scale
angle
stage apparatus
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Expired - Fee Related
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JP2001208525A
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JP2003022959A (en
Inventor
良幸 冨田
慧 清野
偉 高
Original Assignee
住友重機械工業株式会社
株式会社 東北テクノアーチ
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70691Handling of masks or wafers
    • G03F7/70716Stages
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70691Handling of masks or wafers
    • G03F7/70758Drive means, e.g. actuator, motor

Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a stage apparatus, and more particularly, to a stage apparatus capable of driving a stage member with high precision at least in the XY direction.
[0002]
In response to the high integration and low cost of semiconductor devices that are the foundation of information technology, there are increasing demands for high productivity, high accuracy, high speed, and the like of semiconductor exposure apparatuses that manufacture them. An XY stage apparatus that is a key component of a semiconductor exposure apparatus needs to have an accuracy of around 10 nm and a moving range of several hundred mm. In order to improve the productivity of semiconductor devices, there is a table for moving a stage on which a workpiece is mounted to a processing position at high speed. Therefore, it is desired to realize a stage apparatus that satisfies all the above requirements.
[0003]
[Prior art]
For example, various semiconductor manufacturing apparatuses used in the semiconductor manufacturing process are provided with a stage apparatus for mounting a wafer to be moved and moving the wafer. This stage apparatus has a driving apparatus that drives a stage on which a wafer is mounted on a base, and a position measuring apparatus that measures the position of the stage relative to the base.
[0004]
As a conventional driving apparatus, a so-called stack type stage represented by a system in which a stage that moves only in the X direction and a stage that moves only in the Y direction has been generally used.
[0005]
Further, the conventional position measuring device has a configuration in which a measuring device such as a rotary encoder or a linear encoder is provided for each degree of freedom. For example, when performing two-dimensional positioning, as described above, each of the stacked stages that move independently in the X direction or the Y direction is provided with a position measuring device, or a circumferential scale and 1 Some measuring devices combined with an axis stage are configured to measure and position the rotational position and the radial position independently. Also, in a measuring device that determines the position in the X and Y directions using a laser interference displacement meter, two displacement meters and a high-precision straight ruler that guarantees shape accuracy over a moving range perpendicular to the displacement detection direction, etc. In this way, the position is detected.
[0006]
Conventionally, when detecting a posture corresponding to pitching and yawing of a moving object, an autocollimator is used. This autocollimator simultaneously performs pitching and yawing with respect to movement of one axis in a linear direction. While it can be measured, a highly accurate straight ruler is required for moving objects in the X and Y directions.
[0007]
Furthermore, a level is known as a means for measuring rolling of a moving object. However, this level has a problem in response speed and measurement accuracy, and is unsuitable for a high-precision measurement instrument. Therefore, two parallel straight rulers are installed, and the rolling angle is calculated from the difference in distance to the straight ruler, or the rolling angle is detected by the autocollimator using one straight ruler as a reference mirror surface. ing.
[0008]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
However, in the stage apparatus using the driving device as described above, the center of gravity of the lower stage changes when the upper stage moves, and the mobility of the upper stage affects the mobility of the upper stage. There was a problem of being added. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to increase the rigidity of each stage. However, if the rigidity is increased, the overall size of the stage apparatus increases. In addition, in a configuration in which a plurality of different stages are stacked, the structure of the stage apparatus becomes complicated, and this also increases the size of the entire stage apparatus.
[0009]
The stage apparatus using the position measuring apparatus as described above has the following problems. That is, a measuring device such as a rotary encoder or linear encoder used in a conventional position measuring device can only perform one-dimensional positioning, and two-dimensional positioning requires combining at least two sets of the measuring devices described above. There are significant restrictions on the design of the detection device.
[0010]
Further, when positioning using a laser interference displacement meter, essentially only one-dimensional positioning can be performed with one axis, and when performing two-dimensional positioning, a highly accurate straight ruler is required. As a result, when this type of position measuring device is provided in the stage device, there is a problem in that there are restrictions on the structure and the cost increases.
[0011]
The present invention has been made in view of the above points, and an object of the present invention is to provide a stage apparatus capable of miniaturizing the apparatus and measuring the position of the stage relative to the base with high accuracy.
[0012]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
In order to solve the above-described problems, the present invention is characterized by the following measures.
[0013]
A stage apparatus according to the invention of claim 1
Base and
A stage on which the object is placed;
Mounted on either the base or the stage A pair of A magnet array;
A plurality of coil groups attached to either the base or the stage;
It is formed of an angle grid formed on or in the surface of the base, and whose angular properties change with a known function in the two-dimensional direction of the XY direction, and is the center of either the base or the stage A scale arranged in the section;
Located at the center of the base or the other stage of the stage, irradiates light on the angle grating surface of the scale, and detects a two-dimensional angle in the XY direction of reflected light reflected by the scale. A two-dimensional angle sensor,
The scale is provided between the pair of magnet rows,
Above Multiple The two-dimensional angle sensor is provided between the coil groups.
[0014]
In the above invention According to the equipment Can be reduced in weight, improved in rigidity, and reduced in manufacturing cost. Further, the weight of the apparatus can be reduced and the rigidity can be improved, so that the servo performance can be ensured up to the high frequency region also in the control surface.
[0015]
In addition, since the scale is formed from a two-dimensional angle grid representing an angular shape, the two-dimensional position detection of a moving object can be performed by simply combining an angle sensor with a single scale, as well as the pitching angle, rolling angle, and yawing. It becomes possible to detect corners. In addition, by using an angle grid, it is possible to detect a position related to a two-dimensional coordinate such as a rectangular coordinate, a cylindrical coordinate, a polar coordinate, or a coordinate along a free-form surface.
[0016]
In addition, since the two-dimensional angle sensor has a very small dead path compared to a laser interferometer or the like that has been used in the past, it is not easily affected by measurement errors due to thermal expansion or air fluctuations. Can be performed.
[0017]
The invention according to claim 2
The stage apparatus according to claim 1, wherein
Above pair While arranging the magnet row and the scale on the stage,
The plurality of coil groups and the two-dimensional angle sensor are arranged on the base.
[0019]
The invention according to claim 3
The stage apparatus according to claim 1, wherein
Above pair The magnet row is a pair of magnet rows in which a plurality of equivalent permanent magnets are arranged on a straight line so that the polarities appear alternately.
The plurality of coil groups are arranged to face each other so as to intersect each of the pair of magnet rows, and are attached to engage with the magnetic flux generated by the magnet rows, and are approximately in the arrangement direction of the facing magnet rows. A pair of coils configured to include coils having parallel axial directions;
The scale is provided between the pair of magnet rows,
The two-dimensional angle sensor is provided between the pair of coils.
[0020]
The invention according to claim 4
The stage apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 3,
At least three two-dimensional angle sensors are provided.
[0021]
According to the above invention, by combining at least three two-dimensional angle sensors with a scale composed of a two-dimensional angle grid, the two-dimensional coordinate position, pitching angle, and rolling angle of the moving object in the relative movement of the scale and the angle sensor. In addition, the yawing angle can be detected, and the distance between the scale and the angle sensor can also be detected by giving a known predetermined angle change to the angle sensor.
[0022]
The invention according to claim 5
The stage apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 4,
The error of the angle shape of the angle grid Proofreading On the basis of the result, a means for correcting the measurement result of the coordinate position and posture angle by the angle grid is provided.
[0023]
According to the above invention, when the angle grating cannot be created with high accuracy by providing the correction means for correcting the measurement result of the coordinate position and the posture angle by the angle grating based on the result of calibrating the error of the angle shape of the angle grating. The calibration data is stored in the memory, and the data is approximated by interpolation, so that the measurement data can be corrected based on the calibration result.
[0024]
Further, the invention described in claim 6
The stage apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5,
The chuck for mounting the movable body is configured to be detachable from the stage,
In addition, the scale is arranged on the chuck.
[0025]
According to the above invention, since the scale is provided on the chuck that is handled integrally with the movable body by mounting the movable body, there is no error that occurs between the chuck and the stage, and high accuracy. Position measurement can be performed.
[0026]
The invention according to claim 7
The stage apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5,
The scale is disposed on the movable body, and a transparent portion for irradiating the scale with the light is provided in a region of the stage facing the two-dimensional angle sensor.
[0027]
In the above invention, since the scale is arranged on the movable body itself, there is no error between chucking and the scale, and more accurate position measurement can be performed. Even if a scale is provided on the movable body, a stage (movable body) is provided with a transparent portion for irradiating the scale with light in a region facing the two-dimensional angle sensor of the stage. Can be measured.
[0028]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Next, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
[0029]
1 and 2 show a stage apparatus 10 which is an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 1 is an exploded perspective view of the stage apparatus 10, and FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the stage apparatus 10 in a partially cut-out assembled state. The stage apparatus 10 is an apparatus used to move a wafer to be moved to a predetermined position in, for example, a semiconductor manufacturing stepper.
[0030]
The stage device 10 is generally composed of a base 11, a stage 12, a surface encoder 24, a driving device, and the like. The base 11 serves as a base for the stage apparatus 10 and is provided with linear motor structures 20A and 25A, a Z-direction electromagnet 30, and two-dimensional angle sensors 14A to 14C, which will be described later.
[0031]
The stage 12 has a wafer 60 and a chuck 61, which are to be moved, mounted on the upper portion (see FIG. 16), and a magnet 19 for Z direction via magnets 15 and 16, a yoke 17 and a spacer 18 on the lower portion. Is disposed. The stage 12 is configured to be movable with respect to the base 11 in the direction of the arrow X in the drawing, the Y direction, and the rotation about the Z axis.
[0032]
The surface encoder 24 includes a scale 13 and three two-dimensional angle sensors 14A to 14C in this embodiment. The scale 13 is formed on or in the surface of the base 41 as shown in an enlarged manner in FIGS. 3 and 5, and the properties related to the angle are functions that are known in the two-dimensional direction of the XY direction (in this embodiment, It is composed of an angle grating 40 that changes with a set of peaks and valleys of a sine wave.
In this embodiment, three two-dimensional angle sensors 14A to 14C are arranged. However, in the following description, one two-dimensional angle sensor 14 is arranged for easy explanation. The configuration is assumed and described (see FIG. 3).
[0033]
The height shape f (X, Y) of the angle grating 40 formed on the scale 13 is given by the following equation. In the following equation, Ax and Ay are amplitudes in the X and Y directions, respectively, and λx and λy are the wavelengths.
[0034]
f (x, y) = Ax · sin (2πX / λx) + Ay · sin (2πY / λy) (1) Further, the angular shape of the angular grating 40 in the X and Y directions (measured by the two-dimensional angle sensor 14) Output (θ) (x) and ψ (y) are expressed by partial differentiation of the shape of the angle grating 40 and are given by the following equations.
[0035]
θ (x) = δf / δx = (2πA 1 / Λ 1 ) ・ Cos (2πx / λ 1 )… ▲ 2 ▼
ψ (y) = δf / δy = (2πA 2 / Λ 2 ) ・ Cos (2πx / λ 2 )… ▲ 3 ▼
As shown in FIG. 3, when the angle grating 40 is measured by the two-dimensional angle sensor 14 that can detect the angle change in the two directions X and Y, the position of the slope of the mountain is the same even if the height of the angle grating shape with respect to the mountain is the same. Since the angular output in the angular direction differs depending on the two-dimensional position, the two-dimensional position can be determined from this difference.
Thereby, the scale 13 is attached to either the base 11 or the stage 12, and the two-dimensional angle sensor 14 is attached to the other, thereby detecting the two-dimensional coordinates of the moving body (that is, the stage 12) in the relative movement between them. can do. In the present embodiment, the scale 13 is fixed at a substantially central position on the back surface of the stage 12 (surface facing the base 11).
[0036]
FIG. 6 shows a part of the angle grating 40 formed on the scale 13 used in this example, which was measured with an interference microscope. The angle grid 40 in this embodiment is a precision lathe machined with aluminum having a diameter of 55 mm and a heat of 10 mm by face turning. The height shape is represented by superposition of sinusoidal waves having a half amplitude of 0.3 μm and a period of 300 μm, and is specifically given by the following equation.
f (X, Y) = 0.3 · sin (2πX / 300) + 0.3 · sin (2πY / 300) [μm] (4)
In this embodiment, the angular amplitude of the angle grating 40 is ± 21.6 minutes.
[0037]
On the other hand, the two-dimensional angle sensor 14 is arranged on the base 11. The two-dimensional angle sensor 14 is constituted by an optical system as shown in FIG. The optical system constituting the two-dimensional angle sensor 14 includes a light source 50, reflecting prisms 52, 53, 57, 58, a beam splitter 54, a quarter wavelength plate 55, a collimator lens 56, a photodiode 59, and the like. ing.
[0038]
Then, the laser beam 65 emitted from the light source 50, passing through the grid film 51, reflected by the reflecting prisms 52 and 53, and changing its direction, has its p-polarized component passing through the beam splitter 54 and the quarter wavelength plate 55. Then, the light is reflected upward by the reflecting prism 58 and hits the scale 13 (angular grating 40) attached to the stage 12.
[0039]
The laser beam 65 reflected by the graduation 13 (angle grating 40) again passes through the quarter-wave plate 55, becomes s-polarized light, is reflected by the beam splitter 54, passes through the collimator lens 56, and is placed at the focal length position. The light is focused on the divided photodiode 59. The two-dimensional angle sensor 14 thus detects a two-dimensional angle change based on the principle of laser autocollimation.
[0040]
In the surface encoder 24 configured as described above, the shape of the angle grating 40 is a reference for position detection. Therefore, if an error is included in the shape, the position detection accuracy is also affected. When the number of laser beams that are probes of the two-dimensional angle sensor 14 is one, the output is greatly affected by the change in the grating pitch of the angle grating 40 and the shape error. The influence of this error can be eliminated by irradiating a plurality of laser beams on the same phase of the angle grating 40 so that a plurality of peaks can always be observed.
[0041]
Therefore, in the present embodiment, three two-dimensional angle sensors 14A to 14C are provided on the sensor substrate 33, and thereby, a plurality of laser beams are irradiated to the same phase of the angle grating 40, and variations in the shape of the angle grating 40 ( The measurement accuracy is improved by averaging the influence of the high frequency component of the grating pitch) and the shape error of the angle grating 40.
[0042]
Further, by combining three two-dimensional angle sensors 14A to 14C with the angle grid 40, the two-dimensional coordinate position, pitching angle, rolling angle and the like of the moving object in the relative movement of the scale 13 and the two-dimensional angle sensors 14A to 14C The yawing angle can be detected, and the distance between the scale 13 and the two-dimensional angle sensors 14A to 14C can also be detected by giving a known predetermined angle change to the two-dimensional angle sensors 14A to 14C. .
[0043]
Further, since the two-dimensional angle sensors 14A to 14C have a very small dead path as compared with a conventionally used laser interferometer or the like, they are not easily affected by measurement errors due to thermal expansion, air fluctuations, and the like. Posture measurement can be performed.
[0044]
Next, the drive device will be described.
[0045]
The driving device is configured to move the stage 12 with respect to the base 11 in the X direction, the Y direction, and the rotational movement about the Z axis. This drive device includes X-direction linear motor structures 20 A and 20 B, Y-direction linear motor structures 25 A and 25 B, a Z-direction electromagnet 30 disposed on a base 11, and an X-direction magnet 15 disposed on a stage 12. , Y direction magnet 16, Z direction magnet 19 and the like.
[0046]
The X-direction linear motor structure 20A is disposed on the base 11, and includes a pair of X-direction coils 21A-1 and 21A-2 (referred to collectively as X-direction coil 21A) and an X-direction core. 22A. The pair of X-direction coils 21A-1 and 21A-2 are juxtaposed in the direction of the arrow X in the figure, and are configured to be able to supply current independently.
[0047]
The X-direction linear motor structure 20B has the same configuration as the X-direction linear motor structure 20A. Has been The X-direction coil 21B (which is not provided with a reference numeral, but is constituted by a pair of X-direction coils) and the X-direction core 22B. The X-direction linear motor structure portion 20A and the X-direction linear motor structure portion 20B are configured to be spaced apart from each other in the direction of the arrow Y in the figure with the arrangement positions of the two-dimensional angle sensors 14A to 14C described above interposed therebetween. ing.
[0048]
On the other hand, the Y-direction linear motor structure section 25A and the Y-direction linear motor structure section 25B have the same configuration as the X-direction linear motor structure section 20A. That is, the Y-direction linear motor structure 25A is composed of a Y-direction coil 26A (which is not provided with a reference numeral, but is composed of a pair of Y-direction coils) and a Y-direction core 27A. The structure portion 25B includes a Y-direction coil 26B (which is not provided with a reference numeral, but is configured by a pair of Y-direction coils) and a Y-direction core 27B. The Y-direction linear motor structure portion 25A and the Y-direction linear motor structure portion 25B are configured to be separated from each other in the direction of the arrow X in the figure with the arrangement positions of the two-dimensional angle sensors 14A to 14C described above interposed therebetween. ing.
[0049]
The Z-direction electromagnet 30 has a function of forming a gap between the X-direction magnet 15A and each of the magnets 15 and 16 provided on the stage 12, which will be described later, by floating the stage 12 with respect to the base 11. It is what you play. The Z-direction electromagnet 30 includes a Z-direction coil 31 and a Z-direction core 32. Further, in order to stabilize the flying, they are disposed at the four corner positions of the base 11 having a rectangular shape. In addition to the magnetic means employed in the present embodiment, the means for floating the stage 12 with respect to the base 11 includes a method using compressed air, a means for supporting the base 11 with a plurality of balls, and the like. Can be considered.
[0050]
On the other hand, as described above, the stage 12 is provided with the X-direction magnet 15 and the Y-direction magnet 16. Although not shown in the figure, a total of four magnets 15 and 16 are arranged in pairs. Therefore, in a state where the stage 12 is viewed from the bottom, the magnets 15 and 16 are arranged so as to form a substantially square shape in cooperation.
[0051]
The X-direction magnet 15 is composed of a plurality of magnet arrays (an assembly of small magnets) in which a plurality of equivalent permanent magnets are linearly arranged so that the polarities appear alternately. Similarly, the Y-direction magnet 16 is also composed of a plurality of magnet arrays in which a plurality of equivalent permanent magnets are linearly arranged so that the polarities appear alternately. A yoke 17 is disposed above each magnet 15, 16, and this yoke 17 has a function of magnetically coupling a plurality of magnets constituting each magnet 15, 16.
[0052]
In the above configuration, when the stage 12 is mounted on the base 11, one of the pair of X direction magnets 15 is positioned on the X direction linear motor structure 20A, and the other X direction magnet 15 is X direction linear. It is configured to be positioned on the motor structure 20B. When the stage 12 is mounted on the base 11, one of the pair of Y direction magnets 16 is positioned on the Y direction linear motor structure 25A, and the other Y direction magnet 16 is in the Y direction linear motor structure. It is comprised so that it may be located on the part 25B.
[0053]
In a state where the base 11 is mounted on the stage 12 and the stage 12 is lifted from the base 11 by the Z-direction electromagnet 30. Leave The magnetic fields generated by the magnets 15 and 16 are configured to engage with the opposing linear motor structures 20A, 20B, 25A and 25B. Further, in the mounted state, the magnets 15 and 16 are arranged so as to be orthogonal to the winding direction of the coils 21A, 21B, 26A, and 26B provided in the linear motor structural portions 20A, 20B, 25A, and 25B. Has been.
[0054]
By configuring the drive device as described above, the X-direction linear motor structures 20A and 20B and the X-direction magnet 15 cooperate to function as a linear motor that drives the stage 12 in the direction indicated by the arrow X in the figure. Similarly, the Y-direction linear motor structures 25A and 25B and the Y-direction magnet 16 cooperate to function as a linear motor that drives the stage 12 in the arrow Y direction in the figure.
[0055]
That is, in this embodiment, two sets of linear motors are arranged in both the X and Y directions. With this configuration, a relatively large space can be secured in the central portion of the apparatus, so that the surface encoder 24 can be installed at this position. In the present embodiment, the scale 13 is disposed on the stage 12, and the two-dimensional angle sensors 14A to 14C are disposed on the base 11. This is because it is not necessary to connect wiring to the scale 13. However, it is also possible to arrange the scale 13 on the base 11 and provide the two-dimensional angle sensors 14 </ b> A to 14 </ b> C on the stage 12.
[0056]
Further, in the driving apparatus configured as described above, when only the X-direction linear motor structure portion 20A and the X-direction linear motor structure portion 20B are simultaneously driven in the same direction, the stage 12 translates in the arrow X direction in the figure. Similarly, when only the Y-direction linear motor structure 25A and the Y-direction linear motor structure 25B are simultaneously driven in the same direction, the stage 12 translates in the arrow Y direction in the figure. Further, by driving the paired linear motor structures 20A and 20B and 25A and 25B in opposite directions, the stage 12 is rotated around the arrow Z axis in the figure by θ Z Rotating movement of
[0057]
Next, the principle of moving the stage 12 by the driving device will be described with reference to FIG. In order to simplify the explanation, a linear motor (X direction magnet 15 and X direction linear motor structure 20A) that moves the stage 12 in the X direction will be described as an example.
[0058]
First, as shown in FIG. 4A, when a current is passed through the X-direction coil 21A-2 in the direction shown in the figure, the X-axis is located between the current and the X-direction magnet 15 facing the current. The X direction magnet 15 stops when the generated forces are balanced.
In this state, as shown in FIG. 4B, when a current is passed through the X-direction coil 21A-1, a rightward force is applied to the X-direction magnet 15 facing the X-direction coil 21A-1. Occurs. With this force, the X-direction magnet 15 (that is, the stage 12) starts to move, and the forces generated in the magnet by the X-direction coil 21A-1 and the X-direction coil 21A-2 are balanced as shown in FIG. The magnet moves to the desired position. Thereafter, as shown in FIG. 4D, when the current of the X-direction coil 21A-2 is turned off, the X-direction coil 21A-1 moves at a position where forces are balanced. 4A to 4D, the X-direction magnet 15 (stage 12) moves by a distance Δd corresponding to a half magnet.
[0059]
When the current applied to the X direction coils 21A-1 and 21A-2 is driven only by ON and OFF as described above, it can only move by 1/4 magnet, but in the state shown in FIG. When the ratio of the magnitudes of the currents flowing through the X-direction coils 21A-1 and 21A-2 is changed, the X-direction magnets 15 are moved to positions corresponding to the respective current magnitudes accordingly. The magnet can be moved to an arbitrary position within.
Further, by changing the direction of the current applied to the coil in accordance with the polarity of the opposing X-direction magnet 15, it can be driven freely within the range in which the X-direction magnet 15 is arranged.
[0060]
In the drive device according to the above-described embodiment, the drive resolution is the width of the plurality of magnets constituting the X-direction magnet 15, the width of the X-direction coils 21A-1, 21A-2, and the coils 21A-1, 21A. -2 is determined by the resolution of the D / A board that outputs the applied voltage to -2. For example, assuming that the magnet and coil width are 10 mm and the D / A board is 16 bits, the minimum drive amount for translational drive of this stage is 0.2 μm and 0.5 seconds for rotary drive. In addition, nanometer order drive is possible by improving the drive system.
[0061]
Further, in this embodiment, unlike a normal DC motor, it is driven like a stepping motor in the vicinity of a position where forces generated in the stage 12 are always balanced. For this reason, the open loop drive of the stage 12 can be performed by calculating the voltage applied to each coil 21A-1 and 21A-2.
In the description of the driving device described above, one linear motor (the X direction magnet 15 and the X direction linear motor structure 20A) that moves the stage 12 in the X direction has been described as an example. , 16 and the driving principle of the linear motor composed of the X-direction linear motor structure 20B and the Y-direction linear motor structures 25A, 25B are the same.
[0062]
In the drive device having the above-described configuration, it is possible to control the movement of the stage 12 in the X direction and the Y direction and the rotation around the Z axis with a one-stage structure. In addition, it is not necessary to have a guide structure in each direction, and the stage 12 as the final stage is directly driven, so that the stage device 10 can be reduced in weight, rigidity, and manufacturing cost. . Further, since the stage device 10 is lighter and can be improved in rigidity, it is possible to ensure servo performance up to a high frequency region in terms of control.
[0063]
Next, an experimental result when the inventor actually performs an experiment of driving the stage 12 in the stage apparatus 10 configured as described above will be described.
In the following experiment, the one driven without using the output of the surface encoder 24 is open-loop driven, and the one driven with the position information fed back using the output of the surface encoder 24 is closed-loop driven.
[0064]
FIG. 7 shows a state of the output of the surface encoder 24 (output of the two-dimensional angle sensor 14A) when the stage 12 is driven in an open loop in the X direction. From the figure, it can be confirmed that the output in the X direction changes periodically with an amplitude of about ± 70%. Although not shown, the same output was obtained in the Y direction.
[0065]
Here, if the point where the output of the surface encoder 24 is 0% is called a zero cross point, the interval between the zero cross points corresponds to a wavelength of 300 μm for one period of the angle grating 40 (see FIGS. 3 and 5). To do. In the surface encoder 24, a distance of 300 μm from the number of zero cross points can be obtained by interpolating the output of the sinusoidal surface encoder 24 between the distances.
[0066]
Therefore, in this embodiment, attention is paid to the number of zero cross points, and in the experiment described below, the stage 12 is positioned with the target of the zero cross point (300 μm) of the output of the surface encoder 24.
[0067]
FIG. 8 shows a change in the output of the surface encoder 24 when the stage 12 is driven by minute translation. In addition, the measurement result by the laser interferometer in the same minute translation drive is also measured for comparison, and is shown in FIG.
[0068]
From the figure, it can be confirmed that the output of the surface encoder 24 is changed by about 0.2% in accordance with the 0.2 μm translational drive of the stage 12 measured by the laser interferometer. Thereby, it can be confirmed that the same change as the output of the laser interferometer is also detected by the surface encoder 24 according to the present embodiment.
[0069]
Next, with reference to the output of the surface encoder 24, PTP (Point To) targeting the position of 300 μm for one period of the angle grating 40 provided on the scale 13 and 1.5 mm for five periods of the angle grating 40 is targeted. (Point) The results of an experiment in which single-axis positioning was performed by driving will be described below.
[0070]
FIG. 9 shows the result of observation of the amount of movement of the stage 12 when the angle grating 40 is driven in one direction (300 μm) in the X direction by a laser interferometer. From the figure, it was found that the stage 12 was driven about 300 μm in the X direction, and the positioning error at this time was 1 μm.
[0071]
FIG. 10 shows the X direction output of the surface encoder 24 at this time. Here, the horizontal axis of the figure is the data number of the data used for control. Further, T1 to T3 in the figure correspond temporally to T1 to T3 shown in FIG.
From the figure, first, the starting zero cross is searched (T1 in the figure), and then the angular grating 40 is driven for one cycle (T2 in the figure), and then settles to the zero cross again (T3 in the figure). I can confirm.
[0072]
Similarly, FIG. 11 shows the result of observation of the amount of movement when the angle grating 40 is driven in one direction in the X direction for 5 cycles (1.5 mm) from the outside with a laser interferometer. Thereby, it was found that the stage 12 was driven about 1.5 mm in the X direction, and the positioning error at this time was 6 μm.
FIG. 12 shows the X direction output of the surface encoder 24 at this time. Similarly, first, the starting zero cross is searched (T1 in the figure), then the angle grating 40 is driven for five cycles (T2 in the figure), and it is confirmed that the zero cross is settled again (T3 in the figure). it can.
[0073]
In addition, an experiment was conducted in which two-dimensional repetitive driving was performed by outputting a voltage pattern that advances in each of the XY directions and returns to the original position with a target of 300 μm by open loop driving. The driving result at this time is shown in FIG. As shown in the figure, the positioning error from the target position was about 100 μm in the X direction and about 160 μm in the Y direction, and the repeatability at each point was about ± 15 μm. Therefore, it can be seen that the open-loop drive greatly deviates from the target position.
[0074]
On the other hand, two-dimensional repetitive driving was performed for each period (300 μm) of the angle grating 40 on the basis of the output of the surface encoder 24. The driving result at this time is shown in FIG. As shown in the figure, the positioning error was 6 μm in the maximum X direction and 2 μm in the Y direction. The repeatability of the two-dimensional drive at each target point was ± 2 μm. Thus, by using the surface encoder 24 for detecting the position of the stage 12, it was possible to perform PTP driving with a target of 300 μm.
[0075]
FIG. 15 shows four routes (route 1 to route 4 in the figure) with the stage 12 as a starting point at point A (X = 0 μm, Y = 0 μm) and point B (X = 900 μm, Y = 900 μm). The results of the two-dimensional pattern driving are shown in a lump. Route 1 is alternate L-shaped drive of 300 μm, route 2 is oblique drive of 900 μm, and route 4 is oblique drive of 900 μm. Also in the drive shown in the figure, the drive is performed based on the output of the surface encoder 24.
[0076]
As shown in the figure, the repeatability of positioning by the four routes at the target position B point is in the range of ± 2.5 μm in both the X direction and the Y direction. This is substantially equal to the repeatability range described above. The positioning error at the drive target position X = 900 μm and Y = 900 μm was about 15 μm in the X direction and about 12 μm in the Y direction.
[0077]
These positioning errors are mainly due to the shape error of the angle grating 40, and it is possible to improve the accuracy by correcting it by calibrating it. More specifically, correction means for correcting the measurement result of the coordinate position and the posture angle by the angle grid 40 based on the result of calibrating the error of the angle shape of the angle grid 40 is provided, and the angle grid 40 cannot be created with high accuracy. In this case, the calibration data may be stored in a memory or the like, and the measurement data may be corrected based on the calibration result by approximating the data by interpolation.
[0078]
From the above experimental results, by incorporating the surface encoder 24 including the scale 13 and the two-dimensional angle sensors 14 </ b> A to 14 </ b> C into the stage apparatus 10, it is possible to detect the position of the stage 12 with high accuracy (detection of movement amount). The accuracy and reliability of the twelve drive controls can be improved.
[0079]
Next, a modified example of the above-described stage apparatus 10 will be described.
[0080]
FIG. 17 is a schematic configuration diagram showing a stage apparatus 10A which is a first modification of the stage apparatus 10 described above. For comparison, FIG. 16 shows a schematic configuration diagram of the stage apparatus 10 described above. In FIG. 17 and FIG. 18, the same components as those of the stage apparatus 10 are denoted by the same reference numerals, and the description thereof is omitted.
[0081]
The stage device 10 described above has a configuration in which the scale 13 is disposed on the bottom surface (the surface facing the base 11) of the stage 12 so as to face the two-dimensional angle sensor 14. Further, when the wafer 60 is used as the movable body, the chuck 61 is provided on the stage 12 and the wafer 60 is held by the chuck 61.
[0082]
On the other hand, the stage apparatus 10A according to the present modification has a configuration in which the chuck 61A for holding the wafer 60 is detachable from the stage 12A, and the scale 13 is disposed on the chuck 61A.
Specifically, a mounting portion 62 is formed on the stage 12 </ b> A, and the chuck 61 </ b> A can be inserted into and removed from the mounting portion 62. Thereby, the chuck 61A is configured to be detachable from the stage 12A. Further, the bottom surface of the chuck 61A is configured to be exposed from the bottom surface of the stage 12A when mounted on the stage 12A.
[0083]
The scale 13 is disposed on the bottom surface of the chuck 61A. Therefore, in a state where the chuck 61A is mounted on the stage 12A, the scale 13 is exposed from the bottom surface of the stage 12A and faces the two-dimensional angle sensor 14 provided on the base 11.
[0084]
Accordingly, the two-dimensional angle sensor 14 can emit the laser beam 65 toward the scale 13 and can receive the reflected light, so that the position of the stage 12A can be measured. In this modification, the scale 13 is provided on the chuck 61A that is handled integrally with the wafer 60. Therefore, even if an error occurs between the chuck 61A and the stage 12A, this affects the measurement result of the surface encoder 24. Therefore, highly accurate position measurement can be performed.
[0085]
FIG. 18 is a schematic configuration diagram showing a stage apparatus 10B which is a second modification of the stage apparatus 10 described above.
This modification is characterized in that the scale 13 is directly disposed on the back side of the wafer 60 to be moved. Further, the laser beam 65 emitted from the two-dimensional angle sensor 14 is applied to the area facing the scale 13 of the stage 12B so that the scale 13 disposed on the back side of the wafer 60 can be confirmed by the two-dimensional angle sensor 14. A transparent portion 63 is provided so as to irradiate the scale 13.
[0086]
The scale 13 may be fixed by being attached to the wafer 60 or may be formed integrally by directly processing the wafer 60. As a result, the scale 13 is integrated with the wafer 60. Moreover, the transparent part 63 is comprised, for example with the glass or transparent resin with which the stage 12B was inserted.
[0087]
In the present modification, the scale 13 is disposed on the wafer 60 itself that is a moving body, and therefore there is a possibility of an error between the chuck 61A and the scale 13 that may occur in the configuration according to the second modification described above. Occurrence can be prevented, and more accurate position measurement can be performed. Even if the scale 13 is provided on the wafer 60, the scale 13 is irradiated with the laser beam 65 in a region (set to face the moving range) facing the two-dimensional angle sensor 14 of the stage 12B. Therefore, the position measurement of the stage 12 (wafer 60) can be reliably performed.
[0088]
It should be noted that the present invention described above can be widely applied not only to semiconductor manufacturing apparatuses but also to fields requiring microfabrication in the future, such as micromachines and IT optical communication components. In other words, many of the current micromachine manufacturing technologies use semiconductor manufacturing technology, and by using the present invention, it becomes possible to manufacture a variety of micromachines that are finer.
In the field of laser processing, there is a demand for a stage that moves at an ultra-high speed with submicron accuracy. In addition, in order to process a complicated shape, a stage with a high degree of freedom is required. None of the conventional stage apparatuses satisfy these requirements, but the stage apparatus of the present invention can achieve high accuracy, high speed, and multiple degrees of freedom, and therefore can be used as a stage for laser processing. Furthermore, the present invention can be applied not only to the above-described fields, but also to the field of assembly of electronic parts, inspection devices, or office automation such as ultra-precision equipment, ultra-precision measuring devices, and mounters.
[0089]
【The invention's effect】
As described above, according to the present invention, various effects described below can be realized.
[0090]
According to the first aspect of the present invention, it is possible to reduce the weight of the apparatus, improve the rigidity, and reduce the manufacturing cost, and accordingly, it is possible to ensure the servo performance up to the high frequency region also in the control surface. .
[0091]
In addition, the two-dimensional angle sensor has a very small dead path compared to the conventionally used laser interferometers and the like, so it is not easily affected by measurement errors due to thermal expansion, air fluctuations, etc. Can be performed.
[0092]
Further, according to the inventions of claims 2 and 3, even in a single-stage drive device, the stage is used as a base. for It is possible to move in the X and Y directions and rotate around the Z axis.
[0093]
According to the fourth aspect of the present invention, the two-dimensional coordinate position, pitching angle, rolling angle and yawing angle of the moving object in the relative movement of the scale and the angle sensor can be detected. By giving a predetermined change in angle, the distance between the scale and the angle sensor can also be detected.
[0094]
According to the fifth aspect of the present invention, when the angle grid cannot be created with high accuracy, the calibration data is stored in the memory, and an approximate calculation is performed by interpolation between the data. Data correction can be performed.
[0095]
According to the sixth aspect of the present invention, an error generated between the chuck and the stage is eliminated, and highly accurate position measurement can be performed.
[0096]
According to the seventh aspect of the invention, there is no error between chucking and the scale, and more accurate position measurement can be performed.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is an exploded perspective view of a stage apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a partially cutaway perspective view of a stage apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a diagram for explaining a scale and a two-dimensional angle sensor provided in a stage apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a diagram for explaining the principle of driving a stage.
FIG. 5 is an enlarged view showing a scale provided in a stage apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a diagram for explaining an optical system of a two-dimensional angle sensor provided in a stage apparatus which is an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 7 is a diagram showing an output of a two-dimensional angle sensor when a stage apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention is driven in an open loop in the X direction.
FIG. 8 is a diagram showing an output of a two-dimensional angle sensor in comparison with an output of a laser interferometer when a stage device that is an embodiment of the present invention is micro-translationally driven.
FIG. 9 is a diagram showing a result of measuring the amount of movement of the stage with a laser interferometer in the stage apparatus which is an embodiment of the present invention when the X-axis uniaxial drive for one period of the angle grating is performed. is there.
FIG. 10 is a diagram showing the result of measuring the amount of movement of the stage with a two-dimensional angle sensor when driving in one direction in the X direction for one period of the angle grating in the stage apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention. .
FIG. 11 is a diagram showing a result of measuring the amount of movement of the stage with a laser interferometer in the stage apparatus which is an embodiment of the present invention when uniaxial driving in the X direction for five angular grating periods is performed. is there.
FIG. 12 is a diagram showing a result of measuring the amount of movement of the stage with a two-dimensional angle sensor when driving in the X direction uniaxial for five periods of the angle grating in the stage apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention. .
FIG. 13 is a diagram illustrating a driving result when two-dimensional repetitive driving is performed in which the stage is moved in a predetermined direction by open loop driving and then returned to the original state in the stage apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 14 is a diagram showing an output of a two-dimensional angle sensor when two-dimensional repetitive driving is performed for each angular period in the stage apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 15 is a diagram showing the output of a two-dimensional angle sensor when two-dimensionally driving four routes with point A as a starting position and point B as a target position in a stage apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention. .
FIG. 16 is a schematic configuration diagram of a stage apparatus which is an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 17 is a schematic configuration diagram of a stage apparatus which is a first modification of the stage apparatus which is an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 18 is a schematic configuration diagram of a stage apparatus which is a second modification of the stage apparatus which is an embodiment of the present invention.
[Explanation of symbols]
10, 10A, 10B stage device
11 base
12, 12A, 12B stage
13 scales
14A-14C Two-dimensional angle sensor
15 Magnet for X direction
16 Magnet for Y direction
17 York
18 Spacer
19 Z direction magnet
20A, 20B X direction linear motor structure
21A, 21A-1, 21A-2, 21B X direction coil
22A, 22B X direction core
25A, 25B Y-direction linear motor structure
26A, 26B Y direction coil
27A, 27B Y-direction core
30 Z-direction electromagnet
31 Z direction coil
32 Core for Z direction
40 angle grid
41 Base
50 light sources
54 Beam splitter
55 1/4 wavelength plate
56 Collimator lens
60 wafers
61, 61A chuck
62 Wearing part
63 Transparency

Claims (7)

  1. Base and
    A stage on which the object is placed;
    A pair of magnet rows attached to either the base or the stage;
    A plurality of coil groups attached to either the base or the stage;
    It is formed of an angle grid formed on or in the surface of the base, and whose angular properties change with a known function in the two-dimensional direction of the XY direction, and is the center of either the base or the stage A scale arranged in the section;
    Located at the center of the base or the other stage of the stage, irradiates light on the angle grating surface of the scale, and detects a two-dimensional angle in the XY direction of reflected light reflected by the scale. A two-dimensional angle sensor,
    The scale is provided between the pair of magnet rows,
    A stage apparatus characterized in that the two-dimensional angle sensor is provided between the plurality of coil groups.
  2. The stage apparatus according to claim 1, wherein
    While arranging the pair of magnet rows and the scale on the stage,
    A stage apparatus characterized in that the plurality of coil groups and the two-dimensional angle sensor are arranged on the base.
  3. The stage apparatus according to claim 1, wherein
    The pair of magnet arrays is a pair of magnet arrays in which a plurality of equivalent permanent magnets are arranged on a straight line so that polarities appear alternately,
    The plurality of coil groups are arranged to face each other so as to intersect each of the pair of magnet rows, and are attached to engage with the magnetic flux generated by the magnet rows, and are approximately in the arrangement direction of the facing magnet rows. A pair of coils configured to include coils having parallel axial directions;
    The scale is provided between the pair of magnet rows,
    A stage apparatus characterized in that the two-dimensional angle sensor is provided between the pair of coil groups.
  4. The stage apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 3,
    A stage apparatus comprising at least three two-dimensional angle sensors.
  5. The stage apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 4,
    A stage apparatus comprising: means for correcting a measurement result of a coordinate position and an attitude angle by the angle grid based on a result of calibrating an error of an angle shape of the angle grid.
  6. The stage apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5,
    The chuck for mounting the movable body is configured to be detachable from the stage,
    A stage apparatus characterized in that the scale is arranged on the chuck.
  7. The stage apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5,
    A stage apparatus, wherein the scale is disposed on the movable body, and a transparent portion for irradiating the scale with the light is provided in a region of the stage facing the two-dimensional angle sensor.
JP2001208525A 2001-07-09 2001-07-09 Stage equipment Expired - Fee Related JP4198338B2 (en)

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WO2005106385A1 (en) 2004-04-27 2005-11-10 Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. Detector and stage device
JP5035245B2 (en) 2006-08-31 2012-09-26 株式会社ニコン Moving body driving method and moving body driving system, pattern forming method and apparatus, exposure method and apparatus, and device manufacturing method
JP5251511B2 (en) 2006-08-31 2013-07-31 株式会社ニコン Moving body driving method and moving body driving system, pattern forming method and apparatus, exposure method and apparatus, and device manufacturing method
KR101612685B1 (en) 2006-08-31 2016-04-26 가부시키가이샤 니콘 Mobile body drive system and mobile body drive method, pattern formation apparatus and method, exposure apparatus and method, device manufacturing method, and decision method
KR101660668B1 (en) 2006-09-01 2016-09-27 가부시키가이샤 니콘 Mobile body driving method, mobile body driving system, pattern forming method and apparatus, exposure method and apparatus and device manufacturing method
JP5035247B2 (en) 2006-09-01 2012-09-26 株式会社ニコン Moving body driving method and moving body driving system, pattern forming method and apparatus, exposure method and apparatus, device manufacturing method, and calibration method
US20090075012A1 (en) * 2007-09-13 2009-03-19 Asml Netherlands B.V. Lithographic apparatus and device manufacturing method
NL2005013A (en) * 2009-07-31 2011-02-02 Asml Netherlands Bv Positioning system, lithographic apparatus and method.
JP5993649B2 (en) * 2012-07-31 2016-09-14 東京エレクトロン株式会社 Substrate abutting device to probe card, substrate inspection device provided with substrate abutting device, and substrate abutting method to probe card
CN103226295A (en) * 2013-04-27 2013-07-31 清华大学 Lithography machine silicon wafer bench micro-motion workbench

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