JP3787399B2 - Observation optical system - Google Patents

Observation optical system Download PDF

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Publication number
JP3787399B2
JP3787399B2 JP33031296A JP33031296A JP3787399B2 JP 3787399 B2 JP3787399 B2 JP 3787399B2 JP 33031296 A JP33031296 A JP 33031296A JP 33031296 A JP33031296 A JP 33031296A JP 3787399 B2 JP3787399 B2 JP 3787399B2
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JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
surface
optical system
optical element
light beam
observation optical
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Expired - Fee Related
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JP33031296A
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Japanese (ja)
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JPH10153748A (en
Inventor
和隆 猪口
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キヤノン株式会社
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Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to an observation optical system, and is particularly suitable for a head-mounted image display device called by a name such as a glasses-type display or a head-mounted display.
[0002]
[Prior art]
Conventionally, an image display device has been proposed in which display means such as a CRT and a liquid crystal display (LCD) are arranged in the vicinity of the observer's head so that images displayed on the CRT and LCD can be observed.
[0003]
For example, display devices according to U.S. Pat. No. 4,081,209, U.S. Pat. No. 4,969,724, JP-A-58-78116, JP-A-2-97516, JP-A-3-101709, and the like are disclosed.
[0004]
Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 3-101709 discloses a so-called real image type image display device that is relatively easy to see, in which an original image displayed on a display means is re-imaged as an intermediate image, and an observer observes this intermediate image with an optical system. is doing.
[0005]
On the other hand, in U.S. Pat.No. 4,081,209, U.S. Pat.No. 4,969,724, JP-A-58-78116, and JP-A-2-2751616, although it is slightly inferior in viewability, An advantageous virtual image observation type image display device that does not form an intermediate image in the middle of an optical system is disclosed.
[0006]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
In the image display device disclosed in Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 3-101709, there is a problem that the size of the device is increased because an optical lens for re-imaging is used.
[0007]
In addition, the image display devices disclosed in U.S. Pat.No. 4,081,209, U.S. Pat.No. 4,969,724, Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 58-78116, and Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 2-227516 are certainly smaller than the real image type. However, it was still not small enough.
[0008]
Among these, those disclosed in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 58-78116 are relatively small, but the thickness of the observer's eyes in the optical axis direction is still thick. Further, it is described that optical distortion, astigmatism, coma and the like occur in an observed image.
[0009]
An object of the present invention is to provide an observation optical system that is a real image type but is extremely thin in the front-rear direction, and has a small size and a wide viewing angle.
[0010]
Furthermore, it is possible to provide an observation optical system that can constitute an image display device having a good weight balance by disposing the display means and the relay optical system above the support portion of the image display device and disposing the optical element below the support portion. Objective.
[0011]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
The observation optical system according to the first aspect of the present invention guides the light beam from the original image displayed on the display means to the exit pupil predetermined for the optical system via the optical system, and the position of the exit pupil. In the observation optical system in which the observer's pupil is substantially positioned to allow the observer to visually recognize the magnified virtual image of the original image, the observation optical system is a first surface that acts as a refractive surface and a first surface that acts as a reflective surface. An optical element having at least three optical action surfaces of a second surface, a total reflection surface and a third surface acting as a refracting surface, and a condensing lens disposed between the display means and the optical element, The light beam from the original image is incident on the optical element from the first surface via the condenser lens, passes through the reflection on the second surface and the total reflection on the third surface. The optical element is emitted from the third surface, and the original image is placed in the optical element. When the intermediate image is formed as a real image and a light beam that exits from the center of the display surface of the display unit and passes through the center of the exit pupil is used as a reference light beam, the optical element reflects the reference light beam twice. This surface is such that at least a part of the reflected portion of the light beam from the first original image on this surface overlaps with the reflected portion of the light beam from the second original image, and the reference light beam It is characterized by a curved surface decentered with respect to.
The invention of claim 2 is characterized in that, in the invention of claim 1, the condensing lens has a curved surface arranged eccentrically with respect to the reference beam.
According to a third aspect of the present invention, in the second aspect of the present invention, the curved surface arranged eccentrically with respect to the reference beam in the condenser lens is a transmission surface.
According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, in the first, second, or third aspect of the invention, the condensing lens condenses the light flux from the original image and makes it incident on the optical element.
The invention of claim 5 is the invention of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the intermediate image is formed on a light beam reflected between optical surfaces constituting the optical element, and the intermediate image is The formed light beam crosses the intermediate image after being reflected again between the optical surfaces constituting the optical element.
According to a sixth aspect of the present invention, in the first aspect of the present invention, the light beam from the original image passes through the first surface and enters the optical element, and then the second surface. Reflected by the third surface, totally reflected by the third surface and directed to the second surface, reflected again by the second surface and directed to the third surface, 3 is transmitted through the surface 3, exits the optical element, is guided to the exit pupil, and α is the inclination of the reference ray with respect to the surface normal at the incident point when the reference ray is refracted by the third surface. When the angle, β is the inclination angle of the reference ray with respect to the surface normal at the incident point when the reference ray is reflected for the second time on the second surface,
The following conditional expression:
30 ° ≦ 2β + α ≦ 90 ° −10 ° ≦ α ≦ 30 ° is satisfied.
According to a seventh aspect of the present invention, in the first aspect of the present invention, the light beam from the original image passes through the first surface and enters the optical element, and then the second surface. Reflected by the third surface, totally reflected by the third surface and directed to the second surface, reflected again by the second surface and directed to the third surface, The second surface at the incident point when the reference light beam is reflected on the second surface for the first time by being transmitted through the surface 3 and exiting the optical element and guided to the exit pupil. As a curvature radius of the vertical cross section of the second surface, and ra as a radius of curvature of the vertical cross section of the second surface at the incident point when the reference ray is reflected for the second time on the second surface, the following conditional expression:
0 <| ra / rc | <1.5
It is characterized by satisfying.
An image display device according to an eighth aspect of the present invention is an image display device comprising: the observation optical system according to any one of the first to seventh aspects; and a support unit for mounting the observation optical system on an observer's head, The observation optical system is mounted on the observer's head so that the relay optical system is above the support and the optical element of the observation optical system is below the support.
An image display apparatus according to a ninth aspect of the invention is characterized in that the observation optical systems according to the first to seventh aspects are arranged one by one in correspondence with the left and right eyes of the observer.
[0012]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
FIG. 1 is a basic configuration diagram of Embodiment 1 of the present invention. The figure is a vertical sectional view. In the figure, reference numeral 1 denotes a display means for displaying an original image, which is composed of, for example, a known liquid crystal display element (LCD) or CRT. Reference numeral 2 denotes an optical element, which has three optical action surfaces, a first surface A, a second surface B, and a third surface C. Of these, the first surface A is a refractive surface. The second surface B has a reflective film on the surface and acts as a reflective surface. The third surface C acts as a total reflection surface and a refractive surface. Reference numeral 3 denotes a condenser lens (relay optical system). Reference numeral 4 denotes an exit pupil of the observation optical system. Reference numeral 9 denotes a wall of a housing that houses the observation optical system, and is provided with a substantially rectangular viewing window w through which a display light beam from the image is emitted. w 0 is the center of the viewing window w. The observer locates the pupil at the position of the exit pupil 4 and observes the virtual image of the original image through the viewing window w. The optical element 2, the condensing lens 3, the viewing window w, and the like constitute an element of the observation optical system.
[0013]
The operation of this embodiment will be described. A light beam from an image displayed on the display means 1 is first refracted by the condensing lens 3 to be condensed and then directed toward the first surface A of the optical element 3, and this surface is refracted to be inside the optical element 2. Enter and head to the second side B. The light beam is reflected by the second surface B and travels toward the third surface C, and is totally reflected by the third surface C and travels again to the second surface B. The light beam is reflected again by the second surface B and travels again toward the third surface C. This time, the light beam is refracted and transmitted through the third surface C, passes through the viewing window w, and travels toward the exit pupil 4. The light flux from each point on the display surface of the display means 1 gathers at the exit pupil 4. Each light beam enters the observer's pupil at the position of the exit pupil 4. At this time, since the emitted light beam forms a virtual image of the original image in the distance, the observer can observe this virtual image by placing the pupil at the position of the exit pupil 4.
[0014]
At this time, when the light beam from the display means 1 goes from the first reflection by the second surface B of the optical element 2 to the third surface C, an intermediate image is once formed, and the light beam is the third light beam. When the light is totally reflected by the surface C and travels toward the second surface B, the intermediate imaging surface 8 is traversed.
[0015]
In the present embodiment, at least three of the first surface A that acts as a refractive surface, the second surface B that acts as a surface that reflects the light beam twice, the total reflection surface, and the third surface C that acts as a refractive surface. By providing an optical element having an optical action surface in the observation optical system, a light beam from each point on the original image is incident from the first surface A 1 and is reflected from the first reflection on the second surface B 2. By forming a real image so as to cross the light flux group toward the third surface C, it is possible to make the power of the second surface B stronger than before while satisfying the condition of total reflection on the third surface C 1. Therefore, the observation optical system can be thinned.
[0016]
In addition, the present embodiment has a condensing lens (relay optical system) in addition to the optical element, and the light beam from the original image is condensed by the condensing lens so as to be incident on the optical element. The effective diameter of the incident surface of the optical element is reduced.
[0017]
In addition, this embodiment limits the overall length by making at least a part of the first reflection part and the second reflection part in the second surface B in the optical element in particular, that is, the parts overlap each other . Furthermore, a light observation optical system is provided.
[0018]
Hereinafter, the present embodiment will be described in more detail based on the configuration in the vertical sectional direction. The observation optical system of the present invention does not have an optical axis as in a normal optical system. Therefore, in the observation optical system of the present invention, the “reference beam” is set to clarify the configuration. The reference light beam referred to in the present invention is a light beam that exits from the center of the display surface of the display unit 1 and passes through the center of the exit pupil 4. In the case of this embodiment, this reference ray also passes through the center w 0 of the viewing window w.
[0019]
FIG. 2 is an explanatory diagram of the relationship between the reference light beam and each surface of the observation optical system of the present invention. When the reference ray is reflected, totally reflected, or refracted by the optical element 2, the incident points of the respective surfaces are a, b, c, d as shown in the figure, and the reference ray is refracted on the third surface C. Let α be the inclination angle of the refraction reference ray with respect to the surface normal dd 1 at the incident point d. Further, the inclination angle of the reflected reference ray with respect to the surface normal at the incident point a when the reference ray is reflected for the second time on the second surface B is β. Further, the inclination angle of the reflected reference light beam with respect to the surface normal at the incident point c when the reference light beam is reflected for the first time on the second surface B is γ.
[0020]
In the present embodiment, α and β are the following conditional expressions:
30 ° ≦ 2β + α ≦ 90 ° (Condition 1)
It is set to satisfy. The lower limit value of (Condition 1) relates to the condition of total reflection on the third surface C. If the lower limit is exceeded, it is very difficult to cause total reflection on the third surface C. On the other hand, if the upper limit is exceeded, the light flux with a lower field angle of view with respect to the reference light beam tends to be insufficient, and the performance deteriorates.
[0021]
Furthermore, at this time, α is −10 ° ≦ α ≦ 30 ° (Condition 2)
Is preferably set. Exceeding the lower limit of (Condition 2) is not preferable because the thickness in the direction perpendicular to the third surface C of the optical element 2 increases and the weight increases. If the upper limit is exceeded, it is difficult to totally reflect the third surface C.
[0022]
Also, the radius of curvature of the vertical section (in the paper) at the incident point c when the reference ray is reflected on the second surface B for the first time is r c , and the reference ray is reflected on the second surface B for the second time. when the radius of curvature of the vertical cross-section (in the plane) at an incident point a when a r a, these
0 <| r a / r c | <1.5 (conditional expression 3)
It is desirable to set so as to satisfy If the condition of (Condition 3) is exceeded, the length in the direction parallel to the third surface C of the optical element 2 will increase, leading to an increase in the overall weight, which is not preferable. In particular, if the lower limit of (conditional expression 3) is exceeded, it will be difficult to ensure a sufficient pupil diameter while keeping the optical element 2 compact. If the upper limit of (Condition 3) is exceeded, it will be difficult to ensure a wide angle of view while keeping the optical element 2 compact.
[0023]
In the present embodiment, since the third surface C 2 and the second surface B 2 of the optical element 2 are decentered with respect to the reference beam as described above, the optical aberration is corrected in order to correct the decentration aberration caused by them. It is desirable that the first surface A of the element 2 and the condenser lens 3 are arranged eccentrically.
[0024]
FIG. 3 is a schematic layout diagram of an image display apparatus using the observation optical system of the present invention. In the figure, reference numeral 31 denotes a support part for mounting the observation optical system of the present invention on the observer's head, and is composed of a support member for supporting, for example, a belt and an optical system holding part. Reference numeral 32 denotes a holding unit (housing) that holds the optical system 2, 34 denotes a circuit unit that drives the display unit of the display unit 1, and 33 denotes a holding unit that holds the condenser lens 3, the display unit 1, and the circuit unit 34. is there. As shown in FIG. 3, when the observation optical system of the present invention is mounted on the observer's head via the support portion 31, the holding portion 32 of the optical element 2 of the observation optical system is gathered below the support portion 31. By disposing the optical lens 3 and the holding unit 33 such as a display unit on the upper side, it is possible to configure an image display device with a good weight balance. In other words, the observation optical system has a condensing lens (relay optical system) 3 in addition to the optical element 2, and the weight balance is achieved by arranging the condensing lens 3 and the optical element 2 above and below the support portion. A good observation optical system.
[0025]
The configuration data of three numerical examples according to the present invention will be shown below.
[0026]
In the configuration data, R is the radius of curvature of the surface, D is the surface spacing, N is the refractive index of the medium, ν is the Abbe number of the medium, θ is the inclination of the optical axis of the surface with respect to the optical axis of the front surface, and YD is The amount of movement of the surface in the direction perpendicular to the optical axis, ZD, indicates the amount of movement of the surface in the direction of the optical axis.
[0027]
The surface indicated as ASP is an aspherical surface expressed by the following formula, and the coefficient not described is 0.
[0028]
As:
[0029]
[Expression 1]
Incidentally, in order to show the thickness of each numerical example, the thickness of the prism measured parallel to the normal dd 1 the thickness of the prism measured parallel to the normal dd 1 in a point of FIG. 2 Da, at a point c The value is shown as Dc.
[Numerical Example 1]
4 is a vertical sectional view of Numerical Example 1. FIG. The configuration data is shown below.
[0030]
Vertical field of view ± 23.4 ° α: -5.40 °, β: 25.46 °
2β + α = 45.52 ゜
r a 86.011mm
r c 173.836mm
│r a / r c | = 0.495
Da = 11.77mm, Dc = 21.28mm
[Numerical Example 2]
FIG. 5 is a vertical sectional view of Numerical Example 2. The configuration data is shown below.
[0031]
Vertical field angle of view ± 23.4 ° α: 20.00 °, β: 20.84 °
2β + α = 61.68 °
r a = 86.619mm
r c = 166.355mm
| R a / r c | = 0.521
Da = 13.68mm, Dc = 19.84mm
[Numerical Example 3]
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of Numerical Example 3 in the vertical direction. The configuration data is shown below.
[0032]
Vertical field of view ± 23.4 ° α: 27.07 °, β: 22.15 °
2β + α = 71.37 ゜
r a = 90.584mm
r c = 68.158mm
| R a / r c | = 1.329
Da = 10.56mm, Dc = 15.02mm
As described above, in each numerical example of the present invention, the first surface A that acts as a refractive surface in the observation optical system that guides the light beam from the original image to the exit pupil where the eyeball of the observer is positioned through the optical element. An observation optical system is provided with an optical element having at least three optical action surfaces: a second surface B that acts as a surface that reflects the light beam twice, a third surface C that acts as a total reflection surface and a refracting surface. As a result, the intermediate beam is formed so that the light flux from each point on the original image enters from the first surface A and crosses the light flux group from the first reflection on the second surface B toward the third surface C. By forming the image plane, the observation optical system is thin and lightweight with a wide field angle of view of about ± 20 ° in the vertical direction.
[0033]
Further, the observation optical system has a condensing lens (relay optical system) in addition to the optical element, and an image with a good weight balance is provided by arranging the condensing lens and the optical element above and below the support portion. A display device can be configured.
[0034]
Furthermore, if an image display device is configured by arranging any one observation optical system in each of the numerical examples described above corresponding to the left and right eyes of the observer, the image display is light and easy to use. If the original image displayed on the left and right display means is the left and right parallax images, a lightweight stereoscopic image display device can be obtained.
[0035]
【The invention's effect】
With the above configuration, the present invention achieves an observation optical system that is a real image type, is extremely thin in the front-rear direction, and has a small size and a wide viewing angle.
[0036]
Furthermore, an observation optical system capable of constructing an image display device having a good weight balance by arranging the display means and the relay optical system above the support portion of the image display device and arranging the optical element below the support portion is achieved. .
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a basic configuration diagram of Embodiment 1 of an observation optical system of the present invention. FIG. 2 is an explanatory diagram of the relationship between a reference light beam and each surface of the observation optical system of the present invention. FIG. 4 is a vertical sectional view of Numerical Example 1 of the present invention. FIG. 5 is a vertical sectional view of Numerical Example 2 of the present invention. Vertical sectional view of Example 3 [Explanation of symbols]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Display means 2 ... Optical element 3 ... Condensing lens (relay optical system)
4 ... Exit pupil (the observer's pupil is located)
A ... first surface B ... second surface C ... third surface 8 ... intermediate imaging surface 9 ... wall of the housing w ... view window w 0 .. The center of the sight window
31 ... Supporting part
32 ・ ・ ・ Holding part
33 ・ ・ ・ Holding part
34 ・ ・ ・ Circuit part

Claims (9)

  1. The light beam from the original image displayed on the display means is guided to the exit pupil predetermined for the optical system via the optical system, and the observer's pupil is substantially positioned at the position of the exit pupil. In an observation optical system that allows an observer to view an enlarged virtual image of the original image,
    The observation optical system has an optical element having at least three optical action surfaces: a first surface acting as a refracting surface, a second surface acting as a reflecting surface, a total reflection surface, and a third surface acting as a refracting surface. When it has placed a condensing lens between the display means and the optical element,
    The light beam from the original image is incident on the optical element from the first surface via the condenser lens, passes through the reflection on the second surface and the total reflection on the third surface. The optical element is emitted from the third surface , and an intermediate image of the original image is formed as a real image in the optical element .
    When a light beam that exits from the center of the display surface of the display means and passes through the center of the exit pupil is used as a reference light beam, the optical element has a surface on which the reference light beam is reflected twice . at least partially overlaps the reflecting part of the light beam from the reflective portion and the second of the original image of the light beam from the first of the original image in this plane, is in and curved surface decentered with respect to the reference ray An observation optical system characterized by that.
  2. The observation optical system according to claim 1, wherein the condensing lens has a curved surface arranged eccentrically with respect to the reference light beam.
  3. The observation optical system according to claim 2, wherein the curved surface that is decentered with respect to the reference beam by the condenser lens is a transmission surface.
  4. The observation optical system according to claim 1, wherein the condensing lens collects a light beam from the original image and makes it incident on the optical element.
  5. The intermediate image is formed on a light beam reflected between optical surfaces constituting the optical element, and the light beam forming the intermediate image is reflected again between optical surfaces constituting the optical element. The observation optical system according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the observation optical system traverses an image.
  6. The light flux from the original image is transmitted through the first surface and incident on the optical element, and then directed reflected by said second surface to the third surface, and total reflected by the third surface Te directed to said second side, and again reflected by the second surface directed to said third surface, is guided in the third the exit pupil is transmitted through the surface and exit the optical element ,
    α is the inclination angle of the reference ray with respect to the surface normal at the incident point when the reference ray is refracted by the third surface , and β is the second reflection of the reference ray on the second surface . When the inclination angle of the reference ray with respect to the surface normal at the incident point,
    The following conditional expression:
    Any one of the observation optical system of claims 1 to 5, characterized by satisfying 30 ° ≦ 2β + α ≦ 90 ° -10 ° ≦ alpha ≦ 30゜Wo.
  7. The light flux from the original image is transmitted through the first surface and incident on the optical element, and then directed reflected by said second surface to the third surface, and total reflected by the third surface Te directed to said second side, and again reflected by the second surface directed to said third surface, is guided in the third the exit pupil is transmitted through the surface and exit the optical element ,
    rc is the radius of curvature of the vertical cross section of the second surface at the point of incidence when the reference beam is reflected for the first time on the second surface , and ra is the second time the reference beam is reflected on the second surface . As the radius of curvature of the vertical cross section of the second surface at the incident point at the time of reflection, the following conditional expression:
    0 <| ra / rc | <1.5
    The observation optical system according to any one of claims 1 to 6 , wherein:
  8. 8. An image display device comprising: the observation optical system according to claim 1 ; and a support unit for mounting the observation optical system on an observer's head, wherein the relay optical system of the observation optical system supports the support. An image display device is mounted on the observer's head so that the optical element of the observation optical system is below the support and below the support.
  9. 8. An image display device, wherein the observation optical systems according to claim 1 are arranged one by one corresponding to the left and right eyes of the observer.
JP33031296A 1996-11-25 1996-11-25 Observation optical system Expired - Fee Related JP3787399B2 (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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JP3787399B2 true JP3787399B2 (en) 2006-06-21

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